Vamale (Pamale) is the Kanak language of northern New Caledonia. The Humweke dialect spoken in Tieta merged with the Haveke dialect and has almost disappeared. Today, Vamare is spoken in Tiendani (called 'Usa Vamare'), Wee Hava, Teganpike and Tiuande. The language was spoken in the Pamale Valley and its tributaries, the Vawe and Ousa rivers, until the Colonial War of 1917 expelled the speakers.

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Vamale has 5 phoneme vowel articulations and 35 consonant phonemes.

= Vowels =

Vamale distinguishes between five vowel phonemes, /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/, but twang and duration are phonemes as well. Compare /tã/ ``oven'' and /ta/ ``go up'', /ˈfa.ti/ ``speech'' and /ˈfaː.ti/ ``stick, glue''. Depending on the length of the vowel and the consonant at the end of the syllable, /e/ and /o/ are more open vowels. Plosives and short syllables provoke open vowels (e.g. [tɔːt] 'grass' [sɛn] 'poison) '), open syllables and nasally closed long syllables feature closed vowels.

= Consonants =

As is typical of northern New Caledonian languages, Vamare has an abundance of consonants. A distinction reproducible since Protoocean is between nasals, seminasal (voiced plosives before nasalization, i.e. /ᵐb/, /ⁿɟ/, etc.), and orals.

= Stress =

In Vamare, bisyllable words have penultimate stress, as is common in marine environments. Three-syllable, morphologically simple nonderivative nouns place stress on the first syllable. These are rare, but the number of loanwords is now increasing. Long words are morphologically complex, with emphasis placed on the penultimate stress unit (often the root syllable), but not always. Several morphological factors complicate the situation, but the usual phonological aspects predict most stress positions. Closed syllables are stressed more than open syllables, fortis beginnings are usually above tenui beginnings, and long syllables are stressed above all. This gives us a hierarchy of factors. Long syllable > opening syllable > closing syllable > penultimate syllable Some monosyllabic morphemes do not count for stress patterns. One common example is the extra-prosodic suffix -ke 'TR'. This suffix is ​​phonologically insignificant, so the third syllable "ask something" in /fʷan.ˈɟi.mʷ becomes the penultimate phonological word. -ke may be related to the pronoun ka, which indicates subject and owner. Possessive suffixes and object-index suffixes shift stress, but simple syllables such as [ˈᵐbwãn.ɟɛp] ``bark clappers (a type of hand drum)'', [ᵐbwãn.ˈɟɛp.go] ``hand drum, drum'' not how to count. -2G.POSS' suggests all conditions are equal and moves to the penultimate syllable. However, bwanjep-gavwe [ˌᵐbwãn.ˈɟɛʷe] 'hand drum-2PL.POSS' does not. There is stress on the penultimate syllable of the phonological word [ga], which suggests a different analysis of the root syllable than the suffixed form. The owned and object index suffixes count as one unit in the stress allocation. A two-syllable possessive suffix such as -gavwe '2SG.POSS (your)' has the same effect as -go '2SG.POSS, your (singular)'. The speech act participant index (not the suffix, but the procritic) is also non-metric. /ˈɣ “Look” le=ˈɣa.le-le/ '3PL=see-3PL.OBJ', 'They see them' /le=ɣa.le-ˈkaː.vʷe/ “They are watching you”, also pronounced /le=ɣa.ˈle.ka.vʷe/ Other syllables cause stress. The nounifier xa- 'AGT.NMLZ' (from xayu 'male') always attracts stress (probably because of its etymology, hun- 'manner.NMLZ' and ape- 'place.NMLZ' (ape- from 'trace' ) is not) ). Semantically bleached function word object placeholders like /a.ˈman/ 'thing;' are reparsed as one leg within the compound. [ˈtɕaj.n̥ãn] “to know”, [tɕaj.ˈn̥ãn.ã.mãn] “to know something” [tɕã] "smash", [e.tɕãm.ˈbi.jã.mãn] "hammer" The complex word ape-caihnan-aman-le, ``NMLZ-know-thing-3PL.POSS'' ``their knowledge'' is pronounced [ˌɕaj.n̥ãn.ã.ˈmãn.le] and is can be explained as Analyze (ape-)caihnan-aman '(fact.of-)know-thing' as a compound and -le 'their' as a suffix, thus analyzing the primary stress on the penultimate syllable To do. For Hmwaveke, stress is basically described as penultimate, and with a few exceptions, forms that deviate from this are analyzed by Campbell as some phonological words. Campbell analyzes that long syllables in multisyllabic words result from stress (essentially suggesting that length is a feature of all stress syllables). For Vamale, long syllables are emphasized, but the relationship is reversed, arguing that length attracts stress. In Nêlêmwa, the accent is usually on the first syllable of the lexical root kâ-ˈyuva. (Lying like this)”. This correlation between morphological organization and stress patterns is influenced by binding morphemes such as e-'RECP', -ke'TR', and modal prefixes such as mi-'lying'. To some extent it is also reflected in Vamale in that it does not. Location of principal stress.


Like many maritime languages, Vamare has no adjectives and instead uses state verbs to express meanings similar to most states. In addition to the rich small classes of function words, Vamale's largest classes are nouns and verbal, including pronouns.

= Nouns =

Nouns can be classified along several axes. Heterogeneity determines whether a noun must exhibit a possessive form, and immediacy indicates whether possession is marked via a suffix on the noun stem or, for example, by "possessed" . Possessive classifier.

= Classifiers =

Vamale has few classifiers, but is primarily concerned with the properties of food and drink. Drinks he distinguishes in two words. udoo - "cold drink" and fatoo - "hot drink". Foods are classified as: u - "juicy foods", xhua - "protein-rich foods", ya - "starchy foods", representing chewy foods such as roots (fwaa-) and sugarcane (xhuta) There are also some unusual words. -).

= Aspect =

It's just a coincidence that Vamare marks Tempus, but you can see that he uses aspect markers a lot. Aspects in Kanak are often expressed in morphemes that combine aspect, modal and temporal meanings. Overall, Vamare's aspect closely resembles that of its northern sisters Neremuwa, Kaak and Bwatu. However, their differences may shed some light on the development of flanking systems in this region and provide evidence for the distinction between old and new forms. This may tell you which meaning was originally expressed, and where the meaning came from if a new meaning was borrowed. Baluns are interesting because they can be used alone, but they are also used with many other aspect markers and their meaning changes each time. - Linguistics: Aspectual markers (Brill, like Kosher, call them "morphemes") are the only elements that can be inserted between the person marker and the verb, but the nominal cannot be separated from the predicate of This raises the question whether they are best seen as particles, affixes, or affixes. This view asserts particle status based on syntactic arguments. - Positional: Most markers occur between the person marker and the predicate (nominal or verbal), but the iterative mwa is the postposition of the predicate. - Combinability: Combinability is possible, but in some cases preferred over single forms (especially for ja and balan). It can also be non-complex. They only occur in canonical order (that is, between person markers and predicates), making such elements more attractive for syntactic analysis. - Functionality: The meaning of an aspect marker depends on its position and verb behavior (the latter can be modified by context and dedicated morphemes). Whether the bwa ``IPFV'' precedes or follows the person marker has subtle implications, as does the order of marker combinations. However, this flexibility is not common to all markers.

= Alignment =

In New Caledonia, northern languages ​​tend to be active and southern languages ​​tend to be anti-sinful. At the boundary between the two, Vamale is the split-transitive and tripartite in verb indexing, the nominative-accusative in subject markup of noun phrases, and the ergative pattern in nominized verbs. Vamale verbs, like Proto-Marine, can be classified as either "active", where the subject index precedes the verb, or "static", where the subject index is suffixed to the stem. Nominal predicates follow active patterns, and all transitive verbs are active. Class membership is determined lexically according to semantic trends, but some derivation can occur (always static to active or active to active). It's a split-transitive system, where objects are indexed as suffixes as well as static subjects, but further complicated by the fact that they don't use the same form. Although the form appears to be derived from the previous independent form, it still exists, but can only co-occur with subject indices (not object indices). These indicate the placement of the nominative and accusative cases regardless of the verb class. However, the subject-object indexing of verbs is a tripartite structure for split-transitive verbs, whereas the nominalization of verbs exhibits a more active arrangement. That is, receptives and intransitive subjects are indexed similarly, but transitive subjects are separate. In Vamale, like many other marine languages, entire verb phrases, including subordinate verbs and objects, can be nominized by removing the subject index before the verb and adding an article instead. A nominalizer is often added as well. le=saxhuti i=[funtake hanuka=yo] 3PL=Narration ART.SG=NMLZ-Slow Video SUBJ=1SG "They tell my Trump story." Free pronouns are prefixed with ka as the subject. Another ka is the linker, which indicates special ownership. Against the chief (daahma ka-m "chief LNK-2SG.POSS") or between medicine and disease (udee ka-n nyaabu "medicine LNK-NSPEC mosquito"). If the possessor is anaphoric information (“their chief”), or if the relation is general information (“mosquito repellent”), this is the possessive form (using the entire noun phrase), not the free pronoun. ) to the linker instead of . Note that there is also an animacy distinction. Certain animacy entities are always indexed by ownership. This is the main morphosyntactic difference of linkers from prepositions that indicate subjects that cannot be affixed. Nominized intransitive verbs and nominized transitive verbs whose subject is not expressed in free form share the same indexing form. Due to the homophonic relationship between linker ka and subject marker ka, a nominalized transitive construction featuring both subject NP and subject NP favors the subject marker and omits the linker. Ignoring this setting is not ungrammatical per se, but is labeled "confusing" because it can end up with syntax like: V ka O ka A.

External links

ELAR archive deposit containing recordings and other resources (dictionary, grammar) CREM archive vault containing Vamale poems and songs

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Definition & Meaning




  • a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols (language the text of a popular song or musical-comedy number the cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication the mental faculty or power of vocal communication a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline


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Ulithian language Ulumandaʼ language Uma language Umaʼ Lasan language Umiray Dumaget language Uneapa language Unua language Unubahe language Ura language (Vanuatu) Urak Lawoi' language Uruangnirin language Uruava language Utaha language V'ënen Taut language Vaghua language Valpei language Vangunu language Vao language Varisi language Vehes language Vera'a language Vitu language Vivti language Volow language Vowel length Vurës language Waamwang language Wab language Wabo language Wae Rana language Wagawaga language (New Guinea) Wahau Kenyah language Waimoa language Wakasihu language Wakde language Wallisian language Wamesa language Wampar language Wampur language Wanukaka language Waray language Warembori language Waropen language Waru language Watubela language Watut language Wawonii language Wejewa language Welaun language Wemale language West Ambae language West Ambrym language West Arawe language West Damar language West Uvean language Western Bukidnon Manobo Western Fijian language Western Oceanic languages Western Subanon language Wetarese language Whitesands language Wogeo language Woi language Woleaian language Wolio language Wotu language Wotu–Wolio languages Wusi language Wuvulu-Aua language Xârâcùù Xârâcùù language Xârâgurè language Yabem language Yakaikeke language Yakamul language Yakan language Yalahatan language Yamalele language Yamap language Yamdena language Yami language Yamna language Yapen languages (Austronesian) Yapese language Yaur language Yeresiam language Yeretuar language Yogad language Yoke language Yuanga language Zabana language Zazao language Zire language Äiwoo language ʼAuhelawa language ꞋAreꞌare language New Caledonian languages Indonesian language Tagalog language Hawaiian language Austronesian languages Malay language Waray language Balinese language Cebuano language