By 1536, King Henry VIII of England had broken with the papacy, confiscated the property of the Catholic Church in England and Wales, and declared the Church of England to be an established church with himself supreme. The Hegemony Act of 1534 affirmed the king's supremacy over the church and required the nobility to take an oath acknowledging Henry's supremacy. Henry's daughter Mary I sought to restore the Church of England's allegiance to the Pope and abolished the Supreme Act in 1555. Elizabeth I ascended the throne in 1558, and Parliament passed the Supreme Act of 1558, restoring the original law. To appease critics, the "Supreme Oath", which nobility was required to take, gave the monarch the title of supreme governor rather than chief executive of the church. This wording avoids accusations that the monarchy is claiming divinity or usurping Christ, whom the Bible designates as head of the church. "Defenders of the Faith" (Fiday defenders) have been part of England (and since Scotland and the Scottish Union). (England, Great Britain) A monarchical title since Henry VIII. The title was given by Pope Leo X in 1521 in recognition of Henry's role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. The Pope revoked the title, but it was later re-awarded by Parliament during the reign of Edward VI.
= Thirty-Nine Articles =
The position of the monarch's role is recognized in the preamble to Article 39 of 1562. It states: By God's command, defender of the Faith and rightful title of Supreme Governor of the Church, within these My territories, most agreeing with this Kingship and with our own religious zeal, maintain and maintain the Church. I agree with you. In true religious unity, and in bonds of peace, we will do our best to carry out our duties... We therefore recognize the presence of many of our bishops who, after mature deliberation, will be conveniently convened. I took the advice and thought it fit to do this. The following declaration...declaration that we are the Supreme Governors of the Church of England... Article 37 makes this claim to royal supremacy more explicit. Her Majesty has supreme power in this Kingdom of England and the other Dominions of the Queen, and the supreme government of all the lands of this Kingdom belongs to Her Majesty for all reasons, whether ecclesiastical or civil. and should not and should not belong. Subject to foreign jurisdictions. ...[We] do not give our princes the word of God or the sacramental services, but only the privileges of them. That is what we see in the Bible as always given to all godly monarchs by God Himself. That is to say, they should rule over all the estates and degrees entrusted to them by God, whether ecclesiastical or temporal, and hold back with the sword of the people the stubborn and evildoers. The Bishop of Rome has no jurisdiction over this area of England.
Church of Scotland
The British monarch has sworn to uphold the Constitution of the Church of Scotland (the Presbyterian Church), but has no leadership position within it. Nevertheless, the monarch has appointed a High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland as a personal representative and has a ceremonial role. Queen Elizabeth II has taken on that role personally, as she did when she convened the General Assembly in 1977 and 2002 (Silver and Golden Years).
Definition & Meaning
- final or last in your life or progress greatest in status or authority or power highest in excellence or achievement greatest or maximal in degree; extreme
- the head of a state government a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel
- one of the groups of Christians who have their own beliefs and forms of worship a place for public (especially Christian a service conducted in a house of worship the body of people who attend or belong to a particular local church
- perform a special church rite or service for
- a division of the United Kingdom