Introduction

Leptospermum scoparium, manuka myrtle commonly called manuka (Maori pronunciation: [maːnʉka]), New Zealand tea tree, broom tea tree, or simply tea tree, is a genus of flowering plants in the Myrtaceae family native to New Zealand. Chatham Islands) and southeastern Australia. Manuka honey is produced from the nectar.

Scholarly Articles

Effect of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) on nitrogen and Escherichia coli reductions in soils: a field experiment

...Plants with antimicrobial properties such as mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) demonstrated in controlled conditions the ability to inhibit nitrification and growth of pathogens in soils.....

Nectary photosynthesis contributes to the production of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) floral nectar.

...Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) floral nectaries are green, and in addition to sugars, their nectar contains dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the precursor of the antimicrobial agent in the honey.....

Effect of manuka honey on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase activity.

...Manuka honey (MkH), derived from New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), is considered a therapeutic agent owing to its antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities.....

Chemical Elements and the Quality of Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey

...We aimed to determine relationships between the antimicrobial properties of New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and elemental concentrations in the honey, plants, and soils.....

Dimeric Acylphloroglucinol Derivatives with New Skeletons from Leptospermum scoparium

...Leptosparones A–F (1–6), six new dimeric acylphloroglucinol derivatives with unprecedented skeletons, were isolated from Leptospermum scoparium.....

Phytoremediation of microbial contamination in soil by New Zealand native plants

...Two laboratory screening experiments demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of Leptospermum scoparium, including the local variety swamp mānuka, Kunzea ericoides, Pseudowintera colorata, and Metrosideros robusta against three human pathogens and two indicator organisms.....

Formulation of a Semisolid Emulsion Containing Leptospermum scoparium Essential Oil and Evaluation of In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Efficacy.

...Manuka oil, an essential oil derived from the Leptospermum scoparium, has been traditionally used for wound care and as a topical antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory.....

A whole genome assembly of Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae) for mānuka research

...ABSTRACT We assembled the genome of Leptospermum scoparium ‘Crimson Glory’ using a combination of Illumina paired-end sequencing, high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and high density genetic mapping.....

Changes to the composition of scale insect species (Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) on New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium; Myrtaceae) in the last seventy years

...ABSTRACT The perception of Leptospermum scoparium (mānuka) in New Zealand has changed from a weed to a valued shrub over the last half century due to the economic benefits of mānuka honey.....

How an Indigenous community responded to the incursion and spread of myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii) that threatens culturally significant plant species – a case study from New Zealand

...It has been detected on a range of Myrtaceaea species including ramarama (Lophomyrtus bullata), pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), Monkey apple (Syzygium smithii), mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium), and Eucalyptus spp.....

Sub-inhibitory concentration of essential oils induces antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

...Fourteen Staphylococcus aureus wild strains were stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of five essential oils: Leptospermum scoparium (manuka), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Satureja montana (winter savoury) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme).....

Early response of late-successional species to nurse shrub manipulations in degraded high country, New Zealand

...Growth and survival were monitored over three growing seasons in five canopy treatments: open grassland, mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium, Myrtaceae) shrubland with intact canopy, mixed-species shrubland with intact canopy, artificial gaps in mānuka shrubland; and the grassland edge of the mixed-species shrubland.....

Response of a Pioneering Species (Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) to Heterogeneity in a Low-Fertility Soil

...We sought to determine the characteristics of root foraging by a pioneering species, Leptospermum scoparium, using pot trials and rhizobox experiments with patches of biosolids.....

A high density linkage map and quantitative trait loci for tree growth for New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium)

...ABSTRACT A high-density linkage map was constructed for mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and a segregating population developed using accessions from the East Cape region of New Zealand.....

Description

Manuka is a prolific shrub-type tree and is often one of the first species to regenerate on cleared land. It is a shrub that usually grows 2 to 5 m (7 to 16 ft) tall, but can also grow to be a medium-sized tree up to 15 m (49 ft) tall. It is an evergreen tree with dense branching and small leaves 7–20 mm (0.28–0.79 in) long and 2–6 mm (0.079–0.24 in) wide with short spine tips. The flowers are white, sometimes pink, 8–15 mm (0.31–0.59 in) in diameter, rarely up to 25 mm (0.98 in), and have five petals. Wood is hard and hard. Manuka is often confused with the closely related Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). The easiest way to tell the difference between the two species in the field is to feel the leaves. Kanuka leaves are soft while manuka leaves are spiny. Alternatively, manuka seed capsules are large (5-7 mm or 0.20-0.28 inches in diameter) and often remain on the plant year-round, whereas kanuka seed capsules are much smaller (2.2-4.6 mm or 0.18 inches) in diameter) and is absent for most of the year. The Latin specific epithet scoparium means "broom-like" and refers to superficially similar but only distantly related Northern Hemisphere genera such as Genista and Cytisus.

History and habitat

Evidence suggests that L. scoparium arose in Australia before the onset of the Miocene arid zone and migrated during the past 20 million years as a result of a long-distance dispersal event from eastern Australia to New Zealand. increase. Cyclones and other wind activity are most likely responsible for transporting seeds over long distances. Proponents of this claim believe that Leptospermum possesses fire-adaptive traits such as serotin and storage lignotubers, and therefore under conditions where forest fires occur frequently (i.e. Australia, not temperate New Zealand). provides evidence that it did. Upon arrival in New Zealand, L. scoparium is thought to have settled in limited areas suitable for education until the arrival of the Polynesians. Polynesian fires and deforestation provided nutrient-poor soils to which the Polynesians were pre-adapted. its hometown. It is now more common in New Zealand than Australia. It is found throughout New Zealand, but is particularly common on the dry east coasts of the North and South Islands, Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales in Australia.

= Pests and diseases =

Adults and larvae of the New Zealand manuka beetle (Pyronota festiva) feed on L. scoparium.

= Pollinators =

A variety of pollinators are known to visit L. scoparium, examples include Melangyna novaezelandiae, Hylaeus and bees.

= Continued evolution =

Leptospermum scoparium is undergoing evolutionary differentiation as a result of its separation from its members of the Leptospermum genus. A new study shows that Leptospermum scoparium populations located in relatively fire-free areas of New Zealand's South Island are deficient in lignotubers, whereas Australian and Tasmanian populations exhibit stronger manifestations of serotin. It is shown that the linotuber remains with. Australian Leptospermum scoparium populations are chemically distinct from New Zealand populations and have been shown to have significantly higher levels of synteols and monoterpins. Chemotype differences also exist between different populations within New Zealand, with L. scoparium classified into three subspecies: a pinene-rich subspecies, a triketone-rich subspecies, and a sesquiterpene-rich subspecies. Some suggest that Recently, however, new research suggests that, at least in terms of nectar chemistry, the variability among plants far exceeds that seen among geographically isolated Manuka sites.

Names

Manuka, tea tree, and kahikatoa are common names for this species. "Jellybush" is also used in Australia to describe a similar honey of Leptospermum polygarifolium. The tea tree originated when Captain Cook used its leaves to make a "tea" beverage. The name Manuka comes from the Maori language spoken in New Zealand. It is derived from the Proto-Polynesian *nukanuka or *nuka and refers to Decaspermum fructicosum with similar small white flowers. It is the doublet of the aforementioned kānuka (which refers not only to Kunzea ericoides but also to K. robsta).

Cultivation

Numerous cultivars have been developed for horticulture, of which the following cultivars have received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award for Garden Achievement. (Nanum Group) 'Kiwi' "Nicolcy Nanum" "Red Damask" 'Silver Sheen' Many more varieties are available in New Zealand, but this plant is often better grown overseas. This is because, in its homeland, it comes under attack by honeydew-secreting scale insects, which develop a sooty mold on it, which eventually debilitates the plant. For this reason, attempts have been made to cross showy New Zealand varieties with mold-tolerant Australian leptospermum varieties, with limited commercial success.

Uses

Wood was often used for tool handles. Manuka sawdust has a delicious flavor when used to smoke meat and fish. In Australia and New Zealand, it is grown for manuka honey, which bees collect nectar from flowers, and for the pharmaceutical industry. Also used for carving. Essential oils with many medicinal properties are produced by steam distillation of the leaves. Manuka, as most New Zealanders call it, was used by the Maori in pre-European times and is still used today. A decoction of the leaves was drunk to treat urinary ailments and as an antipyretic (antipyretic). I boiled the leaves in water and inhaled the steam to cure a coryza. A decoction was made from the leaves and bark, and the warm liquid was applied to stiff muscles and aching joints. An emollient white gum called Pai Manuka was given to nursing babies and was also used to treat burns and burns. Chewing the bark is said to have a relaxing effect and improve sleep quality.

Parakeets and parasites

The parrot (Cyanoramphus) uses manuka and kanuka leaves and bark to get rid of parasites. Besides ingesting the material, they chew it, mix it with emergence gland oil and apply it to their wings.

See also

The Australian Capital Territory manuka is indirectly named after a tree in New Zealand, though pronounced differently. The tea tree (Camellia sinensis) is also grown commercially in New Zealand.

External links

New Zealand Plant Protection Network - Leptospermum scoparium var. Review of Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae) from New Zealand

Abstract Leptospermum Scoparium

Scholarly Articles

Developing polyploid genotypes of Leptospermum scoparium

...ABSTRACT Leptospermum scoparium (‘Mānuka’) is native to New Zealand and South Eastern Australia.....

Leptospermum Scoparium J

Scholarly Articles

Exploring forestry options with Maori landowners: an economic assessment of radiata pine, rimu, and manuka

...); and (3) intensive production-scale forestry of the indigenous scrub species manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.....

Seasonal litterfall composition and carbon and nitrogen returns in New Zealand shrubland

...The objective of our work was to assess seasonal litterfall rates, composition, and C and nitrogen (N) inputs in mixed mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.....

Value-added potential of New Zealand mānuka and kānuka products: A review

...This paper brings to light the current status of products from mānuka, (Leptospermum scoparium J.....

Floral nectar of wild mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) varies more among plants than among sites

...ABSTRACT Understanding of the genetic and environmental controls of floral nectar production by mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.....

Leptospermum Scoparium Honey

Scholarly Articles

Cataloguing the small RNA content of honey using next generation sequencing

...To explore the composition and variability of honey RNA molecules, this is the first study to catalogue the small RNA content of Australian polyfloral table honey and New Zealand Leptospermum scoparium honey using next generation sequencing.....

In vivo – Wound healing studies of Leptospermum scoparium honey loaded chitosan bioactive wound dressing

...The research aimed to develop a bioactive wound dressing using chitosan and Leptospermum scoparium honey, which is commonly known as Manuka Honey.....

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