The earliest mention of Habesha is in a 2nd or 3rd century Sabae engraving as Ḥbśt or Ḥbštm, detailing the defeat of the nəgus ("King") GDRT of ḤBŠT. The term seems to refer to a group of people rather than a particular ethnic group. Another Sabae inscription describes an alliance between Shamir Juhamid of Himyar and King DBH of ḤBŠT in the first quarter of the 3rd century AD. However, the South Arabian expert Eduard Glaser notes that the Egyptian hieroglyph ḫbstjw, used by Queen Pharaoh Hatshepsut in 1450 B.C. , claimed to be the first use of the term. somehow connected. Francis Breyer also believes that the Egyptian name for the devil is the root of the Semitic language. The first attestation of Late Latin Avicensis dates from the 5th century AD. The 6th-century writer Stephanus of Byzantium later used the term "Αβασηγοί" (i.e. Abashenoi) to refer to "an Arabian people living with the Wamramites next to the Sabaans". The region of Abasenoi produces myrrh, incense, and cotton, and cultivates a plant that yields a purple dye (probably war, i.e. Fleminga grahamiana). It was on the route from Zabid on the coastal plain to Ha'far, the capital of the Hamyarite tribe. Abashenoy was identified by Hermann von Wissmann as a region of Mount Jabal Habaish in Ibb Governorate, probably etymologically related to the Semitic Hebsh origin). Other place names in Yemen include Habsh roots, such as Jabal Habash, whose inhabitants are still called al-Ahbsh (pl. of Habash). Abasenoy's location in Yemen may be explained by the surviving Aksumite population, possibly from the 520s conquest by King Caleb. King Ezana's claims against Saren (Saba) and Duraidan (Himyar) at a time when such rule seemed unlikely may point to the presence of the Aksumites or a coastal foothold. In traditional scholarship, the Habashat were thought to be a tribe that migrated from what is now Yemen to Ethiopia and Eritrea. However, in Sabai inscriptions, Habsht is the only word used to refer to the Aksum kingdom and its inhabitants, especially in the 3rd century AD when the Habsht (Akum) were frequently at war with the Sabanese and Himrais. Modern Western European languages, including English, seem to have borrowed the term from the post-classical Abbissini of the mid-16th century. (English Abyssin was attested in 1576, Abyssinia and Abyssinia in the 1620s.)
= Usage =
Historically, the term "Havesha" has been used to describe the Semitic-speaking Orthodox Christians of the northern Ethiopian plateau, while the Cushitic-speaking peoples, such as the Oromo and Agau, and the Semitic-speaking Muslims/Jews of Ethiopia considered the periphery. According to Gérard Prunier, today the very limited use of the term by some Tiglayans refers exclusively to Tigrigna speakers, although oral tradition and linguistic evidence of Tiglayan dates back to ancient times. It is noteworthy that attesting to the constant association with the Amharic people from Some Gurage societies, such as the Sod-speaking Orthodox Christian community, identify themselves as Habesha and have a strong national identity with Ethiopia due to their old ties to northern Habesha. have opposed the name Habesha. Muslim Tigrinya-speaking people are usually called Jeberti. In the early 20th century, the elite of the Solomonic dynasty converted various ethnic groups to orthodox Tewahed Christianity and forced the Amharic language to spread a common Habesha ethnic identity, leading to the broader "Havesha ” was adopted. As a supranational ethnic identifier that includes all Eritreans and Ethiopians. For those who use the term, it serves as a valid counterpoint to more exclusive identities such as "Amhara" and "Tiglayan." However, this usage is not without controversy. On the other hand, someone who grew up in Ethiopia or Eritrea may object to obscuring national peculiarities. : 186-1 Period Aggressive.
Abyssinian civilization has its roots in pre-Aksumian cultures. The earliest emerging kingdom was the Kingdom of Dumut in the 8th century BC. One of the most powerful civilizations of the ancient world, the Kingdom of Aksum, was based there from around 150 BC to the mid-12th century AD. Spreading far beyond the city of Aksum, it formed one of the earliest cultures of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Architectural remains include intricately carved stone monuments, vast palaces and ancient chapels still in use. The burgeoning Islam first made its way into the Abyssinian Highlands as the Axumi Empire began to decline. During the time of the first Hijra, the companions of the Prophet Muhammad were accepted into the Kingdom of Aksumite. Established around 896 AD, the Showa Sultanate was one of the oldest local Islamic states. The former Shewa province in central Ethiopia was the center. This government was taken over by the Ifat Sultanate around 1285. Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeira in northern Somalia and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.
= Antiquity =
Throughout history, peoples of the Horn of Africa have interacted through migration, trade, war and intermarriage. Most people in the region spoke Afro-Asiatic, with Cushitic and Semitic predominance. As early as the 3rd millennium BC, pre-Aksumite people began trading along the Red Sea. They traded mainly with Egypt. Earlier trade expeditions were conducted on foot along the Nile Valley. The main purpose of the ancient Egyptians' Red Sea trade was to obtain myrrh. This was a commodity that was plentiful in the region of Horn, which the ancient Egyptians called the Land of Punt. Most of the incense is still produced in Somalia. The Aksum kingdom may have been founded around 300 BC. Little is known about the period from the mid-1st millennium BC to the beginning of Axum's rise around the 1st century AD. An early 1st millennium BC kingdom, possibly the successor kingdom of Domut, centered on nearby Yeha. The Kingdom of Aksum was located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital in northern Ethiopia. Axum was the capital until the 7th century. The kingdom was located near the Blue Nile basin and the Afar Depression. The former is rich in gold and the latter in salt, both substances having very important uses for the Aksumians. Axum had access to the Eritrean port of Aduriz on the Red Sea coast. This kingdom traded with Egypt, India, Arabia, and the Byzantine Empire. Axum's 'fertile' and 'water-rich' sites produced sufficient food for its inhabitants. Wild animals included elephants and rhinos, and Axum directed the ivory trade from the capital. It also controlled the Red Sea trade route to the Gulf of Aden. Its success depends on resourceful technology, coin production, steady migration of Greco-Roman merchants, and ships landing at Aduriz. In exchange for Axum's goods, merchants bid various kinds of cloth, gems, metals, and steel as weapons. At its height, Aksum ruled territories in southern Egypt, stretching from the Gulf of Aden in the east to the Omo River in the south to the Kingdom of Meroe in Nubia in the west. The Himyarit kingdoms of South Arabia and parts of western Saudi Arabia were also under Aksum's influence. Their descendants include the present-day ethnic groups known as the Amharas, Tiglayans, and Gurages.
= Medieval and Early Modern period =
After the fall of Aksum due to fierce competition by Muslims and a decline in maritime trade due to climate change, the kingdom's power base moved south, moving its capital to Kubar (near Agew). They moved south because the Kingdom of Aksum welcomed and protected the companions of the Ethiopian Prophet Muhammad, who had come as refugees to escape the persecution of the Meccan lords and had won the friendship and respect of the Prophet Muhammad. Despite this. Their friendship soured when the South Arabs invaded the Dark Islands through the port of Aduris, destroying the economic backbone of the prosperous Aksumite kingdom. Fearing what happened recently, Axum moved his capital to a location near Ageu. In the mid-16th century, armies of the Adar Sultanate, led by the Harar leader Ahmed Gragun, invaded Habesha lands in the so-called "Habasha Conquest". Following Gulaglan's invasion, the southern part of the empire was taken by Ethiopia, and Habesha was scattered just as the Gulagha were cut off from the rest of Abyssinia. In the late 16th century, the nomadic Oromo people invaded the Habesha Plain and occupied vast territories during the Oromo migration. Abyssinian generals often competed with each other for control of the kingdom. After defeating the Agaw lords of Rasta (then a non-Jewish region of Abyssinia), the Amharians appeared to gain the upper hand in 1270 with the accession of Yekno Amrak of ancient Bete Amhara. A center of Abyssinian royal pomp and ceremonies since the 16th century, the Gondaria dynasty finally lost its influence after the murder of Iyas I, also known as Iyas the Great, with the rise of influential local lords. The dwindling prestige of the dynasty led to a semi-anarchy ("age of monarchs") in Zemeneh Mesafint, in which rival warlords vie for power and the Jeju Oromo Enderase (Amharic: እንደራሴ, "regent"). ) took power. Control. The emperor was considered to be a symbolic being. The Tigrayans briefly ruled as John IV in 1872, until a young man named Kassa Haile Giorgis, also known as Emperor Thewodros, defeated all his rivals and put an end to Zemene Mesafint to the throne in 1855. only returned to the throne. With his death in 1889, the power base returned to the dominant Amharic-speaking elite. His successor, Emperor Menelik II from Amhara, seized power. In 1935, the League of Nations reported that after Menelik's forces invaded non-Abyssinian lands such as Somalis, Harari, Oromo, Sidama, and Shankera, the inhabitants were enslaved and heavily taxed by the Gebal system, which led to depopulation. bottom. Some scholars believe that the Amhara were an elite that ruled Ethiopia for centuries, as represented by the lineage of Emperor Solomons ending with Haile Selassie I. Marcos Lemma and other scholars dispute the accuracy of such accounts, arguing that other ethnic groups have always been active in Ethiopia. country politics. This confusion is largely due to all Amharic speakers being incorrectly labeled as "Amharic" and the fact that many people from other ethnic groups have adopted Amharic names. There is a possibility that Another claim is that most Ethiopians trace their ancestry to multiple ethnic groups, including the last self-proclaimed emperor Haile Selassie I and Empress Itge Menen Asfau of Ambaser.
The Habesha developed an agricultural society, most of which still continues today, including camel, donkey and sheep farming. They use oxen to plow. Orthodoxy is an integral part of culture. The church building is built on a hill. Major annual celebrations are held around the church, where people from villages around the world come together to sing, play games and observe the church's unique Mass. It also includes a procession in and around the church grounds. Coffee is a very important ceremonial drink. The "coffee ceremony" is common to Ethiopians and Eritreans. The beans are roasted on the spot, ground and brewed and served thick in small, handleless china cups. This amount of coffee can be finished in one sip if you drink it chilled. But traditionally, it is drunk very slowly with conversation. The beans are roasted and brought to the table until they smoke, and the smoke blesses the diners. The traditional food served at these meals consists of injera, a spongy flat bread served with wat, a spicy meat sauce. Houses in rural areas are mostly built with the most available resources of rock and earth, with the structure provided by wooden pillars. The house easily blends into the natural environment. The nearest water source is often more than a kilometer from your home. Additionally, people have to search for fuel for the fire throughout the surrounding area. The Habesha have a rich tradition of music and dance using drums and strings tuned to the pentatonic scale. Arts and crafts and secular music are mostly performed by artisans, who are viewed with suspicion. Sacred music is played and icons are painted only for monastic-trained men.
= Northern Highlander Language and literature =
Abyssinians speak a language belonging to the Ethiopian-Semitic branch of the Afro-Asian tribe. Among these languages is the classical Gez language. The Kingdom of Domut wrote the Proto-Gez in South Arabic inscriptions already in the 9th century BC. It was later replaced by an independent script in the 5th century BC. 2 Ge'ez literature is thought to have begun with the adoption of Christianity in Ethiopia and Eritrea and with the Aksum civilization in the 4th century BC during the reign of Ezana. . Ge'ez is now extinct and is used only for liturgical purposes in the Eritrean Orthodox Church of Tewahed and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church of Tewahed. Ge'ez is the ancestor of Tigur and Tigrinya. Some historians have in the past classified the Semitic languages of Ethiopia as Abyssinian. They are spoken mainly by the Amharic, Tiglayan, Tigre, Gurage, Argoban and Harari peoples. In ancient times, the Aksumite Empire was inhabited by people who spoke the Gez language. The ancient Semitic-speaking Gafat lived in East Damot (East Werega) and West Shewa. The Galilean tribe of Aymaral (Sod) lived southwest of Shewa. The Zay lived in East Shewa. Harari's ancestors, the Harula tribe, lived in Somalia. And other ancient Argoba and Harari lived in Shewa, Ifat and Adar.
= Customs =
Throughout history, various European travelers such as Geronimo Lobo, James Bruce and Mansfield Perkins have visited Abyssinia. Documents of their experiences contain observations and descriptions of Abyssinian customs and manners. Cuisine Habesha cuisine is characterized by a vegetable dish and often a very spicy meat dish, usually in the form of a thick stew called wat (also wat or wat) and served injera, about 50 centimeters (20 inch) on a large sourdough flatbread. It has a large diameter and is made from fermented teff flour. Ethiopians and Eritreans eat exclusively with their right hand, using injera pieces to pinch main dishes and side dishes. Fit-fit, or momi-momi, is a common breakfast dish. It is made by stir-frying shredded injera or kitcha with spices and wat. Another popular breakfast dish is Fatilla. This delicacy is a large pancake made from wheat flour and fried, often with an egg layer, and eaten with honey. Chechebusa (or kita philfil) is similar to berbele and nitel kibbeh, or spice-covered pancakes, and can be eaten with a spoon. Porridge, genfo is also a common breakfast dish. It is usually served in a large bowl with a hole cut in the middle of the jenfo and filled with the spiced nitel kibbeh. Watts begin by boiling or sautéing a large amount of chopped red onions in a pan. Once the onions are soft, add the nitelkebbe (vegetable oil for vegan dishes). After this, bell veil is added to make spicy keiwat or keye tsebi. Turmeric is used in place of bebele for milder arichawat, or both are omitted when making vegetable stew or atkirtwat. Beef (Amharic: ሥጋ, səga), chicken (Amharic: ዶሮ, doro) or Tigrinya: ደርሆ, derho), fish (Amharic: ዓሣ, asa), goat or lamb (Amharic: በግ, beg or Tigrinya: meat such as በጊ), beggi) is also added. Legumes such as split peas (Amharic: ክክ, kək or tigrinha: ኪኪ, kikki) or lentils (Amharic: ምስር, məsər or Birsin). Vegetables such as potatoes (Amharic: ድንች, Dənəch), carrots and chard (Amharic: ቆስጣ) are also used instead in vegan dishes. Another habesha-specific dish is kitfo (often spelled ketfo). It consists of mitomita (Amharic: ሚጥሚጣ mīṭmīṭā, a very spicy chili powder similar to berbere) and raw (or rare) minced beef marinated in nitel kibbeh. Gored Gored is very similar to kitfo, but uses diced beef instead of minced meat. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church prescribes several fasting periods, including Wednesdays, Fridays and the entire Lenten season. Therefore, Habesha cuisine includes many vegan options. Dress Habesha Kemis is the traditional dress of Habesha women. Ankle-length dresses are usually worn by Ethiopian and Eritrean women at formal events. It is made of chiffon material and usually comes in shades of white, gray and beige. Many women wear a shawl called Netera over their formal attire. Netera or Nesera is a handmade cloth used by many Ethiopian women to cover their head and shoulders when wearing chiffon clothing, especially when attending church. Gabi is made of 4 pieces, while fabric is made of 2 pieces. Kuta is the male version. The Ethiopian or Eritrean suit is the traditional formal wear of Habesha men. It consists of long sleeves, a knee-length shirt, and matching pants. Most shirts are made with a mandarin collar, banded collar, or navel collar. Suits are made of thin silk or rayon fabric called chiffon. Wrap a netera shawl or kuta around the suit.
= Christianity =
The Habesha Empire centered on Aksum and Adwa was part of the world where Christianity grew. Christianity arrived in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea around the 4th century. In fact, the Aksumians converted to Christianity hundreds of years earlier than most of Europe. Many of their churches were hewn from cliffs or hewn from a single block of stone, as in parts of Turkey and Greece where Christianity was early. The church is a central feature of the community and the daily life of each family. Each community has a church with a patron saint. Ethiopia appears frequently in the Bible. A well-known example of this is the story of the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts (8:27). "Then the angel of the Lord said to Philip, 'Go and go south from Jerusalem to the road that goes down to Gaza. A eunuch and high official of Queen Candace (Candice) of Ethiopia, who was in charge of all her treasures.” This passage is from the book of Isaiah that the Ethiopians were reading, and Philip interprets it for the Ethiopians to understand. Continue by explaining how you helped the After the Ethiopian explained the scriptures, he asked Philip to be baptized, and Philip complied. Queen Gersamot Hendeke VII (much like Candake) was Queen of Ethiopia from 42 to 52 AD. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was founded by Syrian monks in the 4th century. Historically, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church of Tewahed and the Eritrean Orthodox Church of Tewahed have strong ties with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, who appointed the Archbishop of the Eritrean Orthodox Church of Tewahed. They separated from the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria in the 1950s, but have recently reestablished ties with the Eritrean Orthodox Church of Tewahed. Many unique beliefs and practices distinguish Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity from other Christian groups. For example, the Ark of the Covenant is very important. All Ethiopian churches have replicas of the Ark, and Ethiopian churches have a larger Bible canon than others. Church services are conducted in Ge'ez, the ancient language of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ge'ez is no longer a living language and its use is now restricted to liturgical contexts, occupying a similar place in church life in Eritrea and Ethiopia as Latin in the Roman Catholic Church. Other Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox customs include fasting, prescribed prayers, and devotion to saints and angels. Children are never left alone until their baptism and purification rites have taken place. Boys are baptized at 40 days of age, while girls are baptized at 80 days of age. Unlocked priests and deacons usually act as the main healers, fortune tellers. Spiritual possession is common and primarily affects women. Women are also regular mediums. Debtors are itinerant lay priests who have been trained by the church as scribes, choirs, and often as folk healers, sometimes playing a role comparable to that of a deacon or an exorcist. Folklore and legend also attribute the role of the sorcerer to the debtor. A minority of Abyssinian Christians adhere to various forms of Pentecostalism or rebaptism, collectively known as Penthe.
== Similarities to Judaism and Islam ==
The Ethiopian church emphasizes Old Testament teachings more than the Roman Catholic or Protestant churches, and its adherents adhere to certain practices found in Orthodox and Conservative Judaism. Ethiopian Christians, like some other Eastern Christians, traditionally follow dietary rules similar to Jewish kashrut, especially in regards to how animals are slaughtered. Pork is similarly prohibited, but unlike kashrut, Ethiopian cuisine mixes meat with dairy products. As such, it is closer to Islamic dietary laws (see Halal). Women are prohibited from entering churches during menstruation. Also, according to 1 Corinthians 11, you are expected to cover your hair with a large scarf (or shash) while in church. As in Orthodox synagogues, in Ethiopian churches men and women are seated separately, with men on the left and women on the right. Right (facing the altar). However, women's head coverings and the official separation of men and women within church buildings are common to many Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Catholic Christians, and are not unique to Judaism. is not. Ethiopian Orthodox worshipers remove their shoes when entering a church, in accordance with Exodus 3:5 (Moses was commanded to remove his shoes when standing in the Holy Land looking at a burning bush). Furthermore, although both the Sabbath (Saturday) and the Lord's Day (Sunday) are kept as holy days, more emphasis is placed on Holy Sunday because of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
= Islam =
The history of Islam in Ethiopia and Eritrea dates back to 615. During this year, a group of Muslims fled persecution in Mecca and were advised by Muhammad to emigrate to Abyssinia, where he presumed a devout Christian king (Al-Najasi) ruled. Muhammad's followers crossed the Red Sea, took refuge in the kingdom of Aksum, and probably settled at Negash, in what is now the Tigray region. Furthermore, according to Islamic tradition, one of Muhammad's chief associates, Bilal, was of Abyssinian origin, as were many of Muhammad's non-Arab companions. In fact, the Abyssinians were the single largest non-Arab ethnic group associated with Muhammad. Among them was Umm Ayman, who called Muhammad his "mother", the woman he cared for in his childhood. Abyssinia was thus the first homeland for the Islamic world's faith to disperse outside of Arabia. According to the last census (2007), one-third (34%) of Ethiopia's population is Muslim. Most Ethiopian and Eritrean Muslims, like the majority of the Muslim world, are Sunni Muslims, so the beliefs and practices of Ethiopian and Eritrean Muslims are basically the same, embodied in the Koran and Sunnah. I'm here. Ethiopia also has a Sufi sect. According to Ethiopia's 1994 census (and similar figures from the 1984 census), approximately one-third of the population is a follower of Islam, and members of the Muslim community are found throughout the country. Ethiopian Islam is the predominant religion in Somali, Afar, Belta, the Oromia region east of the Great Rift Valley, and Jimma. Islam in Eritrea is the main religion of all ethnic groups except Tiglayan, Biren and Kunama. The most important Islamic religious practices, such as the daily ritual prayer (shalat) and fasting (Arabic: صوم ṣawm), are ጾም, ṣom in Ethiopia (also used by local Christians) during Ramadan. It is observed by both settled and nomadic peoples, both in urban centers and in rural areas during the holy month of . Every year many Ethiopian Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
= Judaism =
Ethiopian Judaism is believed to date back to very ancient times. However, what exactly its early history was remains unclear. The current dominant Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahed Church claims its origins to a visit by the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon in the 10th century BC. This visitation is recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures (1 Kings 10:1), where Sheba was a kingdom stretching from Ethiopia to the south of Yemen. Yemen is very close to Ethiopia across the Red Sea, and modern Ethiopia is documented to have been strongly influenced by the ancient Kingdom of Sabia. Further details of the Queen's visit, including the alleged theft of the Ark and the conceiving of a child who established in Ethiopia the lineage of "Solomon" given by Solomon in the Christian Ethiopian tradition, are detailed in the Queen's visit. . Chronicle of the early history of Ethiopia. The oldest surviving manuscript of this book dates to the 13th century. Jewish Ethiopians are mentioned in both the Torah Old Testament and the Christian New Testament. It is clear that the history of Jewish presence in Ethiopia goes back at least 2,500 years. The pre-settlement theory basically states that from about the 8th century BC to about the 5th century BC there was an influx of Jewish settlers from both Egypt and Sudan in the north and South Arabia in the east. Ethiopia also suggests the antiquity of Judaism in Ethiopia. “The strange situation remains that many Abyssinian words associated with religion, such as hell, idols, Easter, ablution, and alms, are of Hebrew origin. The word must have been derived directly from Jewish sources.” The Beta-Israeli tradition claims that the Jews of Ethiopia descended from Moses' own bloodline, and among their children and relatives Some are said to have separated from the other children of Israel after the death of Moses. Exodus and went south, or alternatively, or with this, they moved south from Judea through the lands along the Arabian coast when the kingdom of Israel split into two kingdoms in the 10th century. It is believed to be descended from the fleeing Dan tribe. BC century. (caused by the oppressive demands of King Solomon's successor Rehoboam), or at the time of the fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel in the 8th century BC. Indeed, according to the Bible, there has been trade along the Red Sea since the time of King Solomon to Yemen and even to India, so there must have been Jewish settlements at various points along the trade route. deaf. There is clear archaeological evidence of Jewish settlements and their cultural influence at least 2,500 years ago, both along the Arabian coast and eastern Yemen, and along the coasts of southern Egypt and Sudan. increase. region. Modern Ethiopian Jews are followers of Haimanot, a sect close to Karaite Judaism. Some Ethiopian Jews, especially those living in Israel, follow mainstream Judaism, largely because the Israeli government lists "proper conversion" as a prerequisite to being recognized as a Jew.
Naming conventions for Ethiopia and Eritrea
^ Original RIE 185 and 189 are not transcribed. These vocalizations are by Rainer Vogt and Francis Breyer.
This article incorporates text from this source that is in the public domain. country research. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Pankhurst, Dr. Richard. "History of Northern Ethiopia - and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea". Civic Web's virtual library. Archived from the original on 2005-03-23. Retrieved March 25, 2005. This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook. CIA.
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