...O polemico e agitador cineasta baiano, nome mais expressivo do Cinema Novo, consagrado e aclamado em inumeras obras teoricas, teve sua obra descortinada por varios estudos e criticas dos mais diversos campos da pesquisa academica, seja no âmbito nacional quanto internacional.....
...No âmbito deste artigo, busca-se pensar tal questionamento da objetividade narrativa no campo cinematografico, considerando a critica realizada, no Brasil, a partir dos anos 70, a “voz do saber” e ao uso da terceira pessoa, predominante no discurso do Cinema Novo.....
...Em ano de lembranca e luta dos 50 anos do AI-5 buscamos nesta pesquisa discutir o filme Terra em Transe , como obra central do periodo do Cinema Novo, que cumpriu e cumpre um papel revelador do periodo militar, caracterizado pelo estado de excecao e, principalmente, seguindo o pensamento de Giorgio Agamben, pela permanencia do estado de excecao em meio ao estado democratico de direito.....
= Background =
Brazilian cinema of the 1950s is characterized by chanchadas (musicals, often comedic and "cheesy"), big-budget epics that imitate Hollywood styles, and "sometimes cerebral" by Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegus. It was dominated by "serious" movies. And often ridiculously pretentious. ” This traditional cinema was supported by foreign producers, distributors and exhibitors. At the end of the decade, young Brazilian filmmakers deemed it made "in bad taste ... with vile commercialism ... a form of cultural prostitution" dependent on the patronage of "illiterate and poor Brazil". I protested against the movie. Cinema Novo has become more and more political. In the 1960s, Brazil produced some of South America's most political films. Brazil therefore naturally became the home of the Cinema Novo (New Cinema) movement. Cinema Novo rose to prominence at the same time that progressive Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitschek and then João Goulart took office and began to influence Brazilian popular culture. But it wasn't until 1959 or 1960 that 'Cinema Novo' emerged as the movement's label. According to Randall Johnson and Robert Stam, Cinema Novo officially began in 1960, when its first phase began. In 1961, the Popular Center of Culture, a subsidiary of the National Student Union, released a film called Cinco Vezés Favela. Five episodes that Johnson and Stam claim to be among the "first" works of the Cinema Novo movement. The Popular Culture Center (PCC) "establishes cultural and political links with the Brazilian public by staging plays, producing films and records, and participating in literacy programs in factories and working-class neighborhoods." I aimed to Johnson and Stam claim that "many of the original Cinema Novo members" were also active members of PCC who participated in the production of Cinco Vezes Favela.
= Influences =
Brazilian filmmakers modeled their cinema novo on genres known for their subversiveness, such as Italian neorealism and French new wave. Johnson and Stam further stated that Cinema Novo had commonalities with "Soviet cinema of the Twenties" and had "a tendency to theorize its own cinematic practices" as did Italian Neorealism and French New Wave. claimed to be. Italian neorealist films, often shot on location with non-professional actors, portrayed working-class people during the tough economic times after World War II. French new wave was heavily influenced by Italian neorealism, as new wave directors rejected classic cinema and embraced iconoclasm. Some of Cinema Novo's supporters "despised [French] New Wave politics" and viewed New Wave's tendency to stylistically imitate Hollywood as elitist. However, Cinema Novo's filmmakers were primarily attracted to the use of French new wave author theory that allowed directors to make films on a low budget and cultivate a personal fan base.
Cinema Novo filmmaker Alex Vianny explains that the movement has an element of participatory culture. According to Vianny, Cinema Novo was initially as "fluid and undefined" as its predecessor, the French New Wave, but it required filmmakers a passion for cinema, A desire to explain “social and human issues” through the film, and a willingness to make films were required. Writer theory also had a great influence on Cinema Novo. Although the three stages were different, Cinema Novo encouraged directors to emphasize personal politics and stylistic preferences. Cinema Novo director Joaquín Pedro de Andrade explained to Vianny in a 1966 interview: In our films, the propositions, positions and ideas are very diverse, sometimes contradictory or at least multiple. Above all, they are becoming more and more free and unmasked. There is complete freedom of expression. ... At first glance, this seems to indicate a contradiction within the Cinema Novo movement. But in practice, I think it shows greater consistency. So I think it shows a more just, true, direct correspondence between the filmmaker and the world he inhabits, with its bewilderment, doubts and convictions. Class struggle also influences Cinema Novo, the overarching theme of which is the "hunger aesthetic" developed by Premiere Cinema Novo filmmaker Glauber Rocha in the first stage. Rocha wanted to show how the living standards of rich and poor South Americans differ. In his 1965 essay The Aesthetics of Hunger, Rocha writes, "Hunger in South America is not merely a disturbing symptom, but the very nature of our society.... [Cinema Novo's] originality is [South American] hunger." [,] And our greatest woe is that this hunger is felt but not intellectually understood. In this regard, Wheeler Winston-Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster argue that "[Rocha's] film's Marxist implications cannot be overlooked."
Themes and style
Most film historians divide Cinema Novo into three distinct phases of theme, style and subject matter. Stamm and Johnson state that "the first stage is from 1960 to 1964", the second stage is from "1964 to 1968", and the third stage is from "1963 to 1972" (although the final stage is It also claims to end "approximately") "end of 1971"). There is little dispute among film critics about this period. Filmmaker Carlos Diguez argues that the lack of funding has reduced the technical precision of Cinema Novo films, but has given directors, writers and producers unprecedented creative freedom. there is “Cinema Novo is not a school, so there is no established style,” says Diegues. “In Cinema Novo, the form of expression is necessarily personal and original, there is no formal dogma.” This freedom of the director, and the changing social and political climate in Brazil, allowed Cinema Novo to become a short-lived We experienced changes in form and content.
= First phase (1960–1964) =
The first stage film represents the original motivations and goals of Cinema Novo. The films of the first season dealt with social ills affecting the working class, such as hunger, violence, religious alienation, and economic exploitation, with a serious tone and rural setting. They also referred to the "fatalism and asceticism" that hampered the efforts of the working class to solve these problems. "There is a kind of political optimism that these films have in common," write Johnson and Stam, "a kind of belief that simply showing these problems is the first step toward a solution." Unlike traditional Brazilian films, which depict beautiful professional actors in a tropical paradise, Phase Cinema Novo is, first of all, a ``brazilian life where the social contradictions of Brazil are most dramatically manifested. explored dark nooks, shantytowns and sertains, etc." These topics are "visually characterized by a documentary quality often achieved through the use of hand-held cameras," which "brilliantly emphasize the rigor of the landscape." It was shot in black and white using simple, desolate landscapes and was underpinned by an 'aesthetic. ”. Diegus argues that the first stage of Cinema Novo was not focused on editing or shot-framing, but rather on disseminating the philosophy of the proletariat. "Brazilian filmmakers (mainly Rio, Bahia and São Paulo) took their cameras and set out on the streets, in the countryside and on the coast in search of Brazilian citizens, farmers, workers, fishermen and slum-dwellers." Film historians note that Glauber Rocha, "one of the most famous and prolific filmmakers to emerge in Brazil in the late 1950s", was the most powerful defender of Cinema Novo's first phase. I agree. Dixon and Foster argue that Rocha helped start the movement because he wanted to make a film that would educate the public about social equality, art, and intellectualism, something Brazilian cinema at the time could not do. . Rocha summed up these goals by claiming that his films use "hunger aesthetics" to address class and racial anxiety. In 1964 Rocha wrote and directed Deus e o Diavo na terra do sol to "suggest that violence alone can help those who are severely oppressed". ("Black God, White Devil"). On stage, Cinema Novo was praised by critics around the world.
= Second phase (1964–1968) =
In 1964, popular Democratic president João Goulart was sacked in a military coup, and Brazil became a military dictatorship under the new president Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco. As a result, Brazilians lost faith in the ideals of Cinema Novo. While the movement promised to protect the rights of its citizens, it failed to protect democracy. Cinema Novo director Joaquín Pedro de Andrade, in an appeal to critics, accused a fellow director who claimed he had lost contact with the Brazilians, saying: "For cinema to become a real political instrument. We have to communicate with the public first," he said. Thus, the second stage, Cinema Novo, aimed both at deflecting criticism and at addressing the 'distress' and 'bewilderment' felt by Brazilians after Goulart's expulsion. He did this by making a film that "analyzed the failures of populism, developmentism and left-wing intellectuals" to defend Brazil's democracy. Around this time, filmmakers also started trying to make Cinema Novo even more profitable. Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw say that the second-stage directors "recognized the irony of making a so-called 'popular' film that could only be viewed by college students and art-house enthusiasts." As a result, some directors have started to move away from the film industry. It's the so-called "hunger aesthetic" of filmmaking styles and themes designed to appeal to the movie-going public. As a result, the first Cinema Novo films shot in color and featuring middle-class protagonists were released during this period. Garota de Ipanema (The Girl from Ipanema, 1968) directed by Leon Hirschmann.
= Third phase and Cinema Marginal (1968–1972) =
Hans Proppe and Susan Tah characterize the third phase of Cinema Novo as "a mixed bag of social and political themes set against a backdrop of characters, images and backdrops resembling the richness and pomp of the Brazilian jungle". ing. The third period, Cinema Novo, is also called the "Cannibalist Tropicalist Period" or simply the "Tropicalist" Period. Tropicalism was a movement focused on kitsch, bad taste, and flashy colors. Film historians refer to cannibalism both literally and figuratively. Both types of cannibalism can be seen in the Como-era gostoso au meu francis ("My little Frenchman was very tasty", 1971), in which the protagonist is a literal cannibal. At the same time being abducted and eaten by a species, "Indians (i.e., Brazil) should metaphorically cannibalize their foreign enemies and appropriate their power without being controlled by them." represented the violence necessary to bring about social change and bring it to the screen: "From Cinema Novo, the aesthetics of violence is revolutionary before it is primitive." It is the first moment the colonists realize that.” “As Brazil modernizes in the global economy, the third Cinema Novo will also become more sophisticated and professional. I made a movie like Brazil's rich cultural textures have been pushed to the limit and exploited for their own aesthetic purposes rather than for their suitability as political tropes. ”Brazilian consumers and filmmakers began to feel that Cinema Novo was inconsistent with the ideals of the first stage. This realization led to the birth of Cinema Marginal, also known as Udigurdi Cinema or Novo Cinema Novo. The film uses the 'dirty screen' and 'garbage' aesthetics to return cinema novo to its original focus on marginalized figures and social issues, while at the same time appropriating elements of the film. Did. But the third stage, Cinema Novo, also had its supporters. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquín Pedro de Andrade, who worked in the first season and produced Macnaima, one of the third season's premiere films, has been accused of being a sales move. Nonetheless, I am happy that Cinema Novo has become a more accessible production for the Brazilian public. So. De Andrade, citing Leon Hirschmann's Garota de Ipanema, notes that Hirschmann "utilizes general stereotypes to establish contact with the masses, while at the same time ... the very He praised that he unraveled the fixed concept.
End of Cinema Novo
Burns St. Patrick Hollyman, son of the famous American photographer Thomas Hollyman, said, "By 1970, many Cinema Novo films had won numerous awards at international film festivals." . In 1970 Rocha published a manifesto on the progress of Cinema Novo, in which Cinema Novo was "critically accepted as part of world cinema" and "precisely addressed the artistic and ideological concerns of cinema". I am happy that it has become a nationalist film that reflects." Brazilian people” (Hollyman). But Rocha also warned filmmakers and consumers that being too complacent with Cinema Novo's results would return Brazil to its pre-Cinema Novo status. The movement is bigger than any of us. But young people should know that they cannot be irresponsible about the present and the future, because today's anarchy can become tomorrow's slavery. Eventually imperialism will start exploiting the newly made films. If Brazilian cinema is the palm tree of tropicalism, it is important that those who survived the drought are vigilant to prevent Brazilian cinema from stunting. Rocha's concerns were spot on. In 1977, filmmaker Carlos Diéguez said, "Cinema Novo can only be spoken of in nostalgic or metaphorical terms, because Cinema Novo as a group no longer exists and, above all, is diluted by Brazilian cinema," he said. Towards the end of Cinema Novo, the Brazilian government created the film company Embrafilme to encourage the production of Brazilian films. However, Embrafilm mainly produced films that ignored the ideology of Cinema Novo. Aristides Gazetas claims that Third Cinema is now continuing the tradition of Cinema Novo.
= Embrafilme =
In 1969, the Brazilian government established Embrafilme, a company aimed at producing and distributing Brazilian films. Embrafilme produced films in a variety of genres, including fantasy and big-budget blockbusters. At the time, Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diguez said in support of Embrafilm that it was "the only country with the economic and political power to stand up to the devastating greed of Brazilian multinational corporations." company,” he said. Diegs added that although Cinema Novo "is not identified with Embrafilm", "[Embrafilm's] existence ... is actually a project of Cinema Novo. When it was dismantled by President Collor de Melo, the consequences were "immediate and severe" for the Brazilian film industry. Lacking investors, many Brazilian directors co-produced English-language films. This led to British films dominating the Brazilian market, with 74 films produced in 1989 and 9 in 1993. Brazilian President Itamar Franco ended the crisis by implementing the Brazilian Film Relief Awards, which funded 90 projects from 1993 to 1994. As the title of the film prophetically unveiled by veteran Cinema Novo director Carlos Diéguez, the award is a new addition to a younger generation of new filmmakers (and a few veterans) who were convinced that better days would come. Open Doors (Meljores Diaz) Villao/Better Days Will Come, 1989).
= Third Cinema =
According to Aristides Gazetas, Cinema Novo is the first example of an influential genre called Third Cinema. Like Cinema Novo, Third Cinema embraces Italian Neorealism and French New He waves. Gazetas argues that Cinema Novo can be characterized as an early third cinema because Glauber Rocha "adopted the methods of third cinema to make the social and political realities of his country known through cinema". are doing. After disappearing with Cinema Novo, third cinema was revived in 1986, when British film companies sought to create a genre "focused on British and American film practices" and "sentiment emanating from Britain". In 1965, Glauber Rocha argued that "cinema novo was a ubiquitous new people phenomenon, not a Brazilian prerogative". . Appropriately, third cinema has influenced film culture around the world. In Italy, Giro Pontecorvo directed the Oscar-nominated Battle of Algiers (1965), in which an indigenous African Muslim is portrayed as a brave terrorist fighting French colonialists in Algeria. Cuban filmmaker Tomas Gutierrez Alea, co-founder of the groundbreaking Cubano del Art e Industria Cinematographicos Institute, describes third cinema as “a historical past for Cubans. used to reconfigure. According to Stuart Hall, third cinema also influenced blacks in the Caribbean by giving them dual identities. One is about uniting across the diaspora, and the other emphasizes what happened to blacks as a result of white domination and colonization.
= First phase =
Aruanda (1960) Cape Arial (1960) Five Times Favela (1962) Baravento (1962) Unscrupulous (1962) Ganga Zumba (1963) Barren Life (1963) Black God, White Devil (1964) The Guns (1964)
= Second phase =
Deceased (1965) The Challenge (1966) Enchanted Earth (1967) Brave Warrior (1968) Hunger for Love (1968) Red Light Thief (1968)
= Third phase =
McNaima (1969) Antonio das Mortes (1969) Gods and the Undead (1970) The Heirs (1970) My Little French Was Delicious (1971) Pindrama (1971) St. Bernard (1972) Iracema: Uma Transa Amazon (1974)
List of key directors
Mario Carneiro Joaquin Pedro de Andrade Carlos Diegus Nelson Pereira dos Santos Louis Guerra Leon Hirschman Gustavo Dahl Arnald Jabor David Neves glauber rocha Paulo Cesar Saraceni Alex Vianny Olney Sao Paulo Robert Pires
Nuevo Cine Mexicano list of brazilian movies Walter Salles - acclaimed director of the 1998 Oscar-nominated Brazilian film Central do Brasil and the 2004 Oscar-winning The Motorcycle Diaries
Dennison, Stephanie, Lisa Shaw (2004), Popular Brazilian Film, 1930-2001, New York: Manchester. Dixon, Wheeler Winston, Gwendolyn Audrey Foster (2008), A History of Film, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers. Gazetas, Aristides (2008), An Introduction to World Cinema, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. Hollyman, Burns St. Patrick (1983), Glauber Rocha, The Cinema Novo, New York & London: Garland. Johnson, Randall, Robert Stamm (1995), Brazilian Film, New York: Columbia. King, John (2000), Magical Reels: A History of South American Cinema, New York and London: Verso. Proppe, Hans, and Susan Tarr (1976), The Pitfalls of Cultural Nationalism in Cinema Novo, Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 10, 45-48. Rego, Casilda (2011), "The Decline and Rise of Brazilian Cinema", at Rego in Calcida. Carolina, Rocha, New Trends in Argentinian and Brazilian Cinema, Chicago: Intelligence. Rodriguez-Hernandez, Rafael (2009), Southern Film Wonders, Westport, CT: Prager. Stamm, Robert, Randall Johnson (November 1979), Beyond Cinema Novo, Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 21, 13-18. Alex Vianny (Winter 1970), "Brazilian Cinema Old and New", Drama Review, 14 (2), 141-144. Xavier, Ismail (2000), "Cinema Novo", Balderston, Daniel. Gonzalez, Mike. Lopez, Ana M., Encyclopedia of Contemporary South American and Caribbean Culture, London: Routledge.
Definition & Meaning
- a medium that disseminates moving pictures a theater where films are shown