Cao Dai (Vietnamese: Đạo Cao Đài, Chữ Hán: 道高臺) is a monotheistic hybrid religion that retains many elements of Vietnamese folk religion, including ancestor worship, as well as "Confucian ethical precepts, Taoist occult practices, Buddhist theories of karma and rebirth, and the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy." It was officially established in 1926 in the city of Tay Ninh in southern Vietnam. The full name of the religion is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ (Great Faith for Third Universal Salvation). Devotees engage in practices such as prayer, ancestor worship, non-violence and vegetarianism for the purpose of union with God and freedom from samsara. Estimates of the number of chaodites in Vietnam vary. Government statistics estimate that there are 4.4 million Chaodaists affiliated with the Cao Dai Tay Ninh Holy See, with other branches increasing the number to up to 6 million. However, the estimates are different. The United Nations confirmed there were about 2.5 million Cao Dai followers in Vietnam as of January 2015. Tens of thousands more followers, mostly Vietnamese, live in North America, Cambodia, Europe and Australia as part of the Cao Dai exile.

Scholarly Articles


Proponents claim that in 1921, the French provincial governor of Cochinchina, Ngo Van Thieu, first worshiped Cao Pi and received the message. He received divine eye visions and is now the symbol of Cao Pi and the focal point of worship at all Cao Pi's altars. Proponents claim that on Christmas Eve 1925, God recognized himself as the first group of Cao Pi Dai mediums such as Phạm Công Tắc, Cao Quỳnh Cư and Cao Hoài Sang. These three figures would play an important role in the growth of the religion as the three founding mediums of the Hiệp Thiên Đài, the "palace that unites heaven and earth." Phạm Công Tắc was the chief medium or Hộ Pháp (Dharma defender), Cao Quỳnh Cư was Thượng Phẩm (his divine assistant) and Cao​ Hoài Sang was Thượng Sanh (his worldly assistant). On October 7, 1926, Lê Văn Trung (a former elected official of Cao Pi's Colonial Council and a member of the Government-General of Indochina) and a major group of 27 Chaodists, Cao Pi's first disciples, signed the "Cao Pi Religious Founding Manifesto" and submitted it to the French Governor-General of Cochinchina. Cao Pi's faith brought together numerous sects that were once underground to form the new state religion. . Formally called the Great Way of the Third Salvation (Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ), it became popular in its first decades, amassing over a million members and by 1940 had converted between one-fifth and one-fourth of Cochina's population. Ngo Van Chieu never intended to make Cao Cai a mass organization, but left the movement and eventually founded an independent esoteric branch known as Chieu Minh, headquartered in Vinh Long, in 1932. This branch still exists, accepting only a limited number of dedicated adepts. In the 1930s, the leader criticized the French colonial system, but also emphasized dialogue with the French. This position was controversial and contrasted with the dozens of Cao Dai "dissident" liturgies that followed a more Taoist model. During the First and Second Indochina Wars, Cao Cai members (along with several other Vietnamese sects such as Hoa Hao) actively participated in political and military struggles against both the French colonial forces and South Vietnamese Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. By 1975, the communist army was a factor in the repression after the fall of Saigon in 1975, when the incoming communist government banned the practice of Cao Dai religion. In 1997, Cao Daiism was legalized again, allowing unlimited practice.

Religious mission

The full name of Cao Dai (or Cao Dai) is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ. Literally translated, it means “the third universal religious amnesty” (Đại Đạo – “great faith”, Tam Kỳ – “third period”, Phổ – “announce”, Độ – “save”). According to Cao Pi's doctrine, this third period will be an intense religious activity that will bring God and mankind together in ways never imagined before. Cao Pi also states that the Third Amnesty will establish a great new faith in the salvation of living beings before the destruction of the universe. The main purpose of the Third Amnesty is the unity of all religions and the unity of mankind into a universal family for universal peace. In the teachings of Caodaism, God the Father has revealed the truth many times through the mouths of many prophets throughout human history, but these messages have always been either ignored or forgotten due to mankind's sensitivity to worldly desires. Believers believe that the time has come for God to speak directly to mankind. In the 19th century, Spiritism was established in Europe. Madame Blavatsky, Alain Kardec, Victor Hugo and others defended the possibility of a new religion. In Vietnam, the ancient traditions of Asian divination and mediumship began to mix with the new traditions of European spiritism. To underscore this purpose of unification, the sacred covenant of the Third Amnesty (Third Alliance) is represented within every Cao Cai Temple. This heaven-earth covenant was written and presented to mankind by such venerable saints as Victor Hugo, Sun Yat-sen and Tran Chin Nguyen Binh Kiem. Their mission is said to lead humanity on the path of the Third Amnesty. The terms are written in French as "Dieu et Humanité Amour et Justice". In Chinese, it means "Benevolent Fairness in Heaven and Earth". Translated into English, it is "God and mankind for love and justice."

= God =

"Cao Đài" refers to God the Father (Supreme Being, Creator, Ultimate Reality of the Universe, also known as Ngọc Hoàng). CaoĐài TiênÔngĐại BồTátMa HaTát, as the full title of God, indicates his combination of three major religions: Confucianism, Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism. Cao Cai Literally means "high tower/palace", the place where God rules over the universe. These words represent Confucianism. Tiên êng It is the highest rank of Taoism. Đại Bồ Tát Ma Ha Tát Literally means Great Bodhisattva (Mahasattva) in Buddhism. They not only represent the synthesis of the three major religions, but also the humility of God who presents himself as the lowest order of divinity. God has many different names depending on one's worldview and cosmology. Cao Dai believes that all religions and beliefs are one. Because everyone on this planet is recognized as a human being. The difference in God's name is because God has many different incarnations to guide us through our evolutionary history (Cao Đài Tiên Ông Đại Bồ Tá Ma Ha Tát, Chaos, Taoism, Ông Trời, Thượng Đế, Đấng Sáng Tạo, Allah, Tathagata, Athenism, Brah) Ma , Yahweh, ٱللَّٰه, Great Spirit, God of the niche, Waheguru, ... check out more God names).

= Cosmology =

Chaodists embrace the traditional Chinese idea of ​​the duality of âm (yin) and dương (yang) that constitute the harmonious balance of the universe. Before the creation of the universe, there was an infinite, nameless, formless, immutable source of eternity, 'Dao'. The negative and positive principles of the universe are the constituents of eternal nature. There are two main gods. Cao Đài (“Supreme Lord”) and Diêu Trì Kim Mẫu or Đức Phật Mẫu (“Holy Mother”). They represent the yang and yin forces respectively. Cao Cao is considered the center of the universe, the common father of all beings. He gives part of himself in the form of consciousness to any creature, even rocks. Đức Phật Mẫu is worshiped as the Mother of the Universe and is responsible for giving visible form, consciousness and emotions to all life. Ultimately, she must obey the orders of Duke Cao Cao, who is revered as the supreme being of both heaven and earth. All other divine beings must follow the dictates of these two Creators in the process of cosmic evolution. They each have a specific role assigned by their father and mother. Any being that opposes them is considered demonic in nature. These demons are led by a most powerful being named Kim Quang Sứ (Satan). When it comes to space, loyal Chaodites believe that there are Heaven and Hell, the primary destinations for souls after death. Heaven is made up of 36 planes and many heavenly realms on each plane. The Realm of the Saints, The Realm of Our Lady, The Realm of Perfect Being, The Realm of the Divine Court, The Paradise of Extreme Pleasure, etc. Hell, on the other hand, has ten important realms to carry out punishment according to the sins of the soul. In order to go to Heaven, a soul must cultivate its virtues or devote itself to a spiritual purpose. Without the latter merits, they cannot escape the cycle of birth and death, but can gradually improve their virtues and merits to reach better places in the universe, including the 72 planets (Earth is the 68th), the 3,000 worlds, the four great cosmic regions, and the 36 celestial planes. True liberation is achieved only when the soul finally rejoins God the Heavenly Father.

= Three-fold revelation =

Cao Cai, the father of the universe, is believed to have interacted with humans since ancient times and revealed his will. According to Cao Pi's doctrine, history is divided into his three periods of revelation (tamkỳ). In the first two epochs, there are the teachings of Dipankara Buddha, Sages, Phuc Hai/Fuxi, Gautama Buddha, Lao Tzu, Confucius, and Jesus, who received the will of the supreme power and established their respective religions to serve and/or educate mankind. But the weakness of the messengers and commoners has misled the will of the supreme power into a corrupted form. Chaodists also believe that earlier revelations were culture-bound, applicable only to certain races, and primarily targeted at certain ages. The third and final form of revelation is revealed through the teachings of the Cao Cai Faith.

= Twelve-fold hierarchy =

Chaodites believe that there are different ranks of divine spirits. Thần (“Holy Spirit”), Thánh (“Saint”), Tiên (“Immortal”) and Phật (“Buddha”). Each of these classes can be further divided into three classes: Tien (Heaven), Nyan (Human), and Dua (Earth), forming 12 classes that mirror the 12 earthly classes of the Chaodist Church. Below these ranks are matter, plants, animals and human spirits. All spirits have the potential to evolve to reach higher ranks based on their current deeds. The disembodied spirits serve many roles, including benefactors of humanity, messengers of truth, and guides. Quan Âm is considered the model goddess of the Buddha, Lý Bạch (Li Bai) the goddess of the immortals, and Quan Vũ (Guan Yu) the model of the saints. The temple of Cao Dai enshrines the three main prophets, as depicted on the plaque at the entrance of Tay Ninh Temple. Victor Hugo (to please the French). For he gave many teachings and also many important prayer texts. He himself practiced spiritism in Jersey from 1852 to 1855, and prophesied that he would be the prophet of a new religion that combined European and Asian mysticism. Sun Yat-sen (for Chinese) and Vietnamese Nostradamus, Chan Ching (for Vietnamese).

Fundamental rules and values

The doctrines of the Cao Pi faith not only harmonize all religious views, but also tend to accommodate all stages of spiritual evolution. The basic principle of Cao Dai religion is "All religions are one". Cao Pi is described from five different perspectives. From a moral perspective, Cao Pi cult reminds people of their obligations to themselves, their families, society (the wider family), and humanity (the universal family). From a philosophical point of view, Cao Pi Buddhism preaches the renunciation of honor, wealth and luxury, in other words liberation from slavery to materialism in the attainment of complete spiritual tranquility of the soul. From the point of view of worship, Cao Pi Buddhism prescribes the worship of gods, the worship of divine beings, and the worship of ancestors. From a spiritual point of view, Cao Pi, in harmony with other religions, affirms the existence of spirits and souls, their survival beyond the physical body, and their evolution through continuous reincarnation, according to the laws of karma. From a novice's point of view, Caodaism reveals the teachings to impart to worthy followers and enable them to reach blissful ecstasy through a process of spiritual evolution.

Worship rituals

Believers sincerely worship God the Father, God the Mother and divine beings. They also worship history's great religious prophets and pay homage to their ancestors. Rituals are held four times a day, at 6:00 am, noon, 6:00 pm and midnight in front of the altar of the temple or house. Monthly ceremonies are held at midnight on the 1st and 15th of the lunar calendar. Also, once a year, special commemorations are held for God the Father, God the Mother, the founders of the five major world religions, and the founder of the Cao Dai religion. Rituals vary from place to place and depend on who you pray to. at the papal palace in rome Prayers include burning incense, opening ceremonies, praying to Ngoc Hoang (God the Father), praying to Buddha Dipankara (Buddhism), praying to Tai Tuong Lao Kuan or Tai Shang Lao Jun (Taoism), praying to Confucius (Confucianism), one of the Three Jewels (flowers, wine, tea), and five vows. at the Shrine of Our Lady Prayers include burning incense, opening prayers, prayers explaining the role of Our Lady, prayers of gratitude to Our Lady, one of the three treasures (flowers, sake, and tea), and five vows. Ceremonial regulations such as behavior, dress, music, etc. were laid out in detail by God the Father. These include initiation ceremonies, weddings and funerals. Special attention was given to death, and it was revealed to the religion how the soul travels to heaven and how on earth its fellow believers can pray for the soul to help it on its way.


Cao Dai Holy See, Cao Dai temples and religious buildings are rich in symbols, all of which are directed by either God the Father or divine beings. No redundant symbols, no meaningless symbols. They each tell a different story that reveals beliefs, values, cosmic secrets, prophecies, and more. Together they describe Tao's journey through human and cosmic history, and the way forward.

= The Divine Eye =

Both spiritually and pictorially, the eye serves to remind Cao Pi's followers that God is constantly witnessing everything, everywhere. The Roman Papacy has a total of 50 Divine Eyes in 5 different shapes. Each has a different meaning associated with various spiritual aspects. Those on Earth show the Supreme Being above the North Pole of Ursa Minor. This statue on the papal facade has 35 rays representing the world's three major religions and five major religious tenets. At the local Cao Dai Temple, 16 beams are emitted from the Divine Eye. The nine radiate upwards, representing the nine levels of heaven, and the sevens radiate downwards, representing the seven emotions that the devotee must control.

= The religious banner and emblem =

In keeping with its religious mission, the three colors of Cao Cai's flag represent the three major non-Hindu Asian religions of the world. Yellow represents Buddhism, blue represents Taoism, and red represents Confucianism. Beneath the God's Eye are also religious emblems representing the essence of the three religions. Buddhism's mercy bowl for compassion and penance, Taoism's feather beater for purification. Shunju Jitsuroku describes the virtues and love of Confucianism.

Holy scriptures

Chaodist scriptures are varied. Those belonging to the Tay Ninh Papacy include the Heavenly Path and the World Path ("Prayers of the Heavenly Path and the Earthly Path"), Phap Chan Toluen ("The Constitution of the Cao Dai religion"), Tan Ruat ("Canon"), and the Living Holy Path ("The Divine Path to Eternal Life"). Other denominations have additional scriptures.

= The Canonical Codes =

This scripture sets the rules and boundaries for various aspects of religion, from believers to popes, from education to marriage. The scriptures have 10 sections with the following contents: Hierarchy of Religious Officials Initiation and Hierarchy of Believers Establishment of a parish 5 bans four precepts education sanctions promulgation of laws and regulations worldly rules meditation house

= The Religious Constitution =

The Pha Ph Chan Tuyen (Cao Dai Religious Constitution) was delivered to the religion as a series of divine messages. They are the guiding documents of religious organizations, prescribing the authority, responsibilities, limits, and religious vestments of each class within a religion.

Organisational structure

The organizational structure of the Chaodist Church is similar to that of a nation. There are similarities between the hierarchy of Chaodist clergy and the hierarchy of the Catholic Church. Besides the pope, the chaodist hierarchy includes cardinals, bishops, priests, and further degrees. Chaodaism emphasizes the equality of men and women in society. But in the spiritual realm, an ordained woman cannot hold the highest office of legislative cardinal and pope. The church claims that this was by order of the Supreme Lord, who declared that Dương (yang) represented male and Âm (yin) represented female, so that yin could not mentally dominate yang otherwise confusion would arise. Religion is governed by two forces, the spiritual and the earthly. Spiritual Forces (Bát Quái Đài): This is the Council of Heaven, the spirit and soul of the new religion. The Council directs all activity in the universe. The Council is the invisible part, composed of divine beings and led by Druk Khao Dai (God the Father). Divine beings represent different religions of the world, such as: Founder of 5 Religions Buddha (Buddhism), Laozi (Taoism), Confucius (Confucianism), Jesus Christ (Christianity), Jiang Ziya (Geniism) Founder and teacher of Cao Dai religion People representing Buddhist, Taoist and Confucian doctrines: Kannon (Buddhism), Li Bai (Taoist), Guan Yu (Confucianism) Earthly Powers: To avoid dictatorship, God divided the earthly powers into two bodies: the Executive (Cửu Trùng Đài), headed by the Pope, and the Legislative (Hiệp Thiên Đài), headed by Hộ Pháp (Guardian of Law and Justice). The former is responsible for the administration of the religion and its proselytizing activities, while the latter oversees laws, jurisdiction, and communication with God or divine beings. There are also charitable organizations under the oversight of the legislature and lay committees made up of experts drawn from among worthy believers.

= The Executive Body (Cửu Trùng Đài) =

The Cửu Trung Ðài is the executive body of the Cao Dai religion, responsible for the administration and proselytizing of the religion. The chief of Cửu Trung Ðài is Giáo-Tông (the pope). The Pope (Giáo-Tông) represents the god who watches over the protection of religions in the world. Regardless of age, he serves as the eldest brother and guide of God's children. Spiritual power decided that it was. The Pope (Pope) has the same authority as God to teach virtues to all his disciples. He takes care of each one of them, guides each one, and takes care that each one does not violate the Divine Law (Thiên Điều). God obliges all His disciples to strictly follow the stipulations of the New Code (Tân Luật). ... The Pope (Giáo-Tông), having all powers on behalf of God, must strive to transform a life of suffering into an existence marked by happiness. This is the noble mission of the Pope (Giáo-Tông). There are nine ranks in that hierarchy. For male dignitaries in the executive branch, each hierarchy is subdivided into three divisions corresponding to the three major religions, from the rank of censor cardinal to the rank of student-priest. Buddhist branch These dignitaries are dressed in yellow. Taoist branch These dignitaries are dressed in azure. Confucian branch These dignitaries wear red clothes. High-ranking officials of the same rank, whether Confucian, Taoist, or Buddhist, have the same attributes. The Holy See has three governing councils: mass council It is composed of student priests, deputy prelates, and representatives of the faithful, at a ratio of one representative for every 500 members. The People's Council makes plans for the future. Sendo Council It consists of priests, bishops, archbishops, and deputy archbishops. The Sendo Council reviews plans made by the People's Council. Supreme Council It consists of cardinals, legislative cardinals and the pope. All plans drawn up by the People's Council and endorsed by the Divine Council are submitted to the High Council for approval. In addition, there is a central governing body chaired by three cardinals. Each bishop, assisted by the three principal archbishops, oversees three religious ministries: Chief Archbishop of a Buddhist Branch Responsible for finance, supply and public works. Chief Archbishop of the Taoist Branch Care for education, health and agriculture. Chief Archbishop of Confucianism We value interiors, rituals and justice. The administrative network that operates throughout Vietnam consists of: Religious area (Trấn Đạo) It is made up of several provinces and is headed by a bishop called the Regional Religious Head / Kham Trấn Đạo. Religious Province (Châu Đạo) It consists of several districts/delegations and is headed by a priest called the Provincial Religious Head/Khâm Châu Đạo. Religious area (Họ Đạo) It consists of several villages and is headed by a student priest called the Religious Head of the Delegation (Đầu Tộc Đạo / Đầu Họ Đạo / Đầu Phận Đạo). Religious Village (Hương Đạo) It is headed by a deputy official called the village religious chief (Đầu Hương Đạo). He is assisted by one (or more) Phó Trị Sự (Deputy Director General of Religious Villages) representing the executive branch and one (or more) Thông Sự representing the legislative branch. Religious villages consist of religious villages (Ấp Đạo).

= Palace Uniting Heaven and Earth (Hiệp Thiên Đài) =

This body has the duty to communicate with divine beings, observe religious laws, and listen to the appeals of the unfortunate. It is headed by Ho Phap (Defender of the Law, Guardian of Law and Justice) and assisted by Thuong Phum (Director of the Religious Affairs Bureau) and Thung Sang (Secretary of Secular Affairs). Hộ-Pháp (Guardian of the Law) (Chairman of the Legislative Branch) Revealing the mysteries of the unseen, he is the keeper of the rules and laws of new religions. He is the one who judges dignitaries and masters, honors the zealous for their merits, and punishes the wrongdoers. Dharma defenders hold the power of the legislative body both exoteric and esoteric. He watches over the positive progress of his disciples on the divine path and directs all evolved souls to Baat Kai Dai for union with angels, saints, immortals and Buddhas. Thượng-Phẩm (Religious Affairs Director) Representative of Ho-Phap in the Formation of Noble Souls on the Sacerdotal Council. He relies on Hoffap for all his missions. In a nutshell, Thượng-Phẩm helps Cửu Trung Đài live in a happy atmosphere. He reveals the voices of Heaven to the righteous souls and guides them into the divine stages of the Great Spirit, closing the door of regression behind them. He believes that the priestly law protects all officials and practitioners. He prevents all perversions of divine rules and helps all novices to achieve their goals. He is also president of the Defense Hall of Fame and protector of all his disciples. Thượng-Phẩm is the 'leader of spiritual powers'. Thượng–Sanh (Secular Affairs Director) He administers all the laws and regulations relating to the worldly life of all adepts and brings them out of the sea of ​​suffering. He can file formal complaints with the Inquisition against all those who prevent believers from following the path of God. He is the president of the Hall of Fame. Under each of these departments are four "zodiac dignitaries" with four key responsibilities: conservation, restoration, reform and legislation. In addition, Bảo Huyền Linh Quân (Theosophy), Bảo Tinh Quân (Astronomy), Bảo Cô Quân (Orphanage), Bảo Văn pháp quân (Culture), Bảo Học Quân (Education), ảo Y Quân (Health), Bảo Vật Quân (Science and industry, Bảo Sĩ Quân (literature), Bảo Sanh Quân (social work), Bảo Nông Quân (agriculture), Bảo Công Quân (public works), Bảo Thương Quân (economic) omics).

Community structure

Local areas with more than 500 followers are empowered to establish parishes (Họ Đạo/Tộc Đạo) with tantos (temples, churches, holy houses) led by high-ranking officials. A parish/parish cannot be established without the permission and authority of the Giao-Tong/Pope. Twice a month, on the 1st and 15th days of the lunar calendar, devotees must gather at the local thant (temple, holy house) to attend ceremonies and hear teachings. Exceptions are allowed for good reason.

The Holy See

The Chaodist Holy See is located in Tay Ninh Province, 90 kilometers (56 miles) northwest of Saigon. In the center of this town stands a shrine to the Great God. This papacy, like religion, is a blend of world influences. The Cao Dai Holy See is not only a center of pilgrimage, but also one of Vietnam's major tourist attractions.


“The period from 1934 to 1975 not only witnessed the robust development of the Cao Dai religion, but also saw its breakup into various independent denominations, sometimes as many as 30.” As of July 2014, “central and local authorities have given legal recognition to 11 Cao Dai denominations.” These denominations are generally divided along geographical boundaries. The largest sect is based in Tay Ninh Province, where the religion was founded in 1926 and is home to the chaodist authority. The Chaodist Executive Council of Tay Ninh Province received official government approval in 1997. Independent Chaodist groups argue that government intervention has undermined the independence of the Tay Ning Group, and that the Tay Ning Group no longer adheres to the principles and traditions of Cao Dai. Religious training takes place in individual temples rather than in centralized seminaries. Chaodaist denominations that broke away from the Tay Ninh Holy See include Kaw Ko, Ben Tre, Ming Chun Li, Ming Chun Dao, Tien Tien, and Hoi Tan Truing Zhao Chun Viet. Ngo Van Chieu refused to be appointed as the first pope of the Cao Dai sect and left the original church organization to found Chieu Minh.

Further reading

Blagov, Sergei (2012). Cao Dai Religion: Vietnamese Traditionalism and Its Leap to Modernity. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1590331508 Gusart, Vincent. Palmer, David A. (2011). Religious Issues in Contemporary China. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 022600533X Jeremy, James (2010). Divination and Politics in Southern Vietnam: The Roots of Cao Dai. Social Compass 57(3), 357–371. DOIs: 10.1177/ Werner, Jane (1981). Peasant Politics and Religious Sectarianism: Vietnamese Cao Dai Peasants and Priests. New Haven: Southeast Asian Studies, Yale University. ISBN 978-0-938692-07-2

External links

Official website of the Tay Ninh Holy See cao dai Cao Dai de l'Europe Chaodist French Resources Cao Dai Library, Sydney (multilingual) Cao Dai Library (English) Cao Dai ebooks in PDF, Kindle and Nook formats Chaodist Overseas Missionary Hội Văn Hóa Cao Đài – Chaodist Cultural Association, Australia

Science News


Definition & Meaning


Related Topics

101 Names of God A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Abenaki mythology Abkhaz neopaganism Abrahamic religions Academic study of new religious movements Acintya Adi Dharm Adon Adventism Adyghe Xabze Aetherius Society African-initiated church African diaspora religions Afrocentrism Agni Yoga Agnosticism Ahmadiyya Ahn Sahng-hong Ahom religion Ahura Mazda Ainu people Akan religion Alawites Albanian folk beliefs Aleister Crowley Alevism Ali-Illahism Alice Bailey Aliran Kepercayaan Allah Allan Kardec Altaic languages Ama-gi Amish Amun Anabaptism Ananda Marga Ancient Celtic religion Ancient Church of the East Ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Greek religion Ancient Iranian religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis Ancient Semitic religion Anglicanism Anglo-Saxon paganism Animism Anishinaabe traditional beliefs Anthropology of religion Anthroposophical Society Anthroposophy Anti-Mormonism Anti-cult movement Antireligion Antoinism Anton LaVey Apostasy Armenian mythology Armstrongism Ash'ari Assianism Assyrian Church of the East Aten Atenism Atheism Atum Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology Austroasiatic languages Austronesian languages Ayyavazhi Aztec religion Babylonian religion Baháʼu'lláh Baháʼí Faith Balinese Hinduism Baltic mythology Baltic neopaganism Baluba mythology Bantu mythology Baptists Basque mythology Bathala Bathouism Benzhuism Bhagavan Bible Student movement Bimoism Black Hebrew Israelites Blackfoot mythology Boddhisattva Bon Brahma Brahma Kumaris Brahma Sampradaya Brahman Brahmoism Branch Davidians British Israelism Buddha Buddhism Buddhist modernism Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor Burkhanism Burmese folk religion Bushongo mythology Báb Bábism Bảo Thương Quân CESNUR Call to prayer Calvinism Canaanite religion Candomblé Candomblé Bantu Candomblé Jejé Candomblé Ketu Cao Dai diaspora Cao Hoài Sang Cao Quỳnh Cư Cao Đài Cao Đài Tiên Ông Đại Bồ Tát Ma-ha-tát Catholic Apostolic Church Catholic Church Caucasian neopaganism Celtic neopaganism Chabad Chabad messianism Chan Buddhism Chaos (cosmogony) Charismatic Christianity Charismatic movement Charles Fillmore (Unity Church) Charles Taze Russell Cheondoism Cherokee spiritual beliefs Chilote mythology Chinese folk religion Chinese names for the God of Abrahamic religions Chinese ritual mastery traditions Chinese salvationist religions Chinmaya Mission Chinmayananda Saraswati Choctaw mythology Christadelphians Christian Science Christian countercult movement Christian denomination Christianity Christmas Eve Chukwu Church of Divine Science Church of God (Seventh-Day) Church of Satan Church of Scientology Church of the Guanche People Chögyam Trungpa Chữ Hán Clergy Cognitive science of religion Comfa Communism in Vietnam Communist Comparative religion Confucianism Confucius Congregational church Conservative Judaism Conspiracy theories Contemporary Sant Mat movements Continental Germanic mythology Continental Reformed church Convince Cook Islands mythology Cosmos Creativity (religion) Creator deity Creek mythology Criticism of religion Cult Cybele Cybersectarianism Dacian mythology Dahomean religion David Berg David Carrasco David Koresh Dayak people Deism Deity Deus Deva (Hinduism) Dievturība Digambara Dinka religion Dipankara Buddha Disability and religion Discordianism Divination Doctrine Dogma Dogon religion Donyi-Polo Doomsday cult Dravidian folk religion Druid Druidry (modern) Druze Dualism in cosmology East Asian religions Eastern Catholic Churches Eastern Lightning Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern religions Eckankar Efik mythology Ein Sof El (deity) El Shaddai Elagabalus (deity) Elijah Muhammad Ellen G. White Elohim Elyon Emanuel Swedenborg Entheogen Esoteric Christianity Espiritismo Estonian neopaganism Ethnic religion Etruscan religion Europe Evangelicalism Evenks Evolutionary origin of religions Evolutionary psychology of religion Eye of Providence Faith Fall of Saigon Falun Gong Finnish mythology Finnish neopaganism Fire worship First Indochina War Folk religion Fourth Way Frank Reynolds (academic) Frankish mythology Freedom of religion French Cochinchina Friends of Man Fu Xi Fuegians Fundamentalism Fung Loy Kok Institute of Taoism Gallo-Roman religion Ganapatya Gautama Buddha Georgian mythology Germanic paganism Gitche Manitou Gnosticism God God in Islam God of the gaps God the Father Goddess Goddess movement Godianism Great Spirit Greco-Buddhism Greco-Roman mysteries Growth of religion Guan Yu Guanches Guanyin Guarani mythology Haida mythology Haitian Vodou Hak Ja Han Haneullim Haredi Judaism Hasidic Judaism Hawaiian religion Haymanot Heathenry (new religious movement) Heaven's Gate (religious group) Helena Blavatsky Helena Roerich Hellenism (religion) Henotheism Heraka Herbert W. Armstrong Heresy Hermeticism Hetanism Hierarchy of the Catholic Church Hindu denominations Hindu reform movements Hinduism Hiranyagarbha Historical Vedic religion History of religion Hittite mythology and religion Ho-Chunk mythology Holiness movement Homosexuality and religion Hopi mythology Humanistic Judaism Hungarian Native Faith Hungarian mythology Hurrian religion Hussites Hutterites Huwa Hyang Hypsistos Hòa Hảo INFORM ISBN (identifier) I Am that I Am Ibadi Islam Ifá Iglesia ni Cristo Ik Onkar Ik people Illyrian religion Importance of religion by country In-group favoritism Inca mythology Independent Catholicism Index of religion-related articles Indian religions Indigenous Philippine folk religions Indigenous religion Indigenous religious beliefs of the Tagalog people Indus Valley Civilisation International Peace Mission movement International Society for Krishna Consciousness Inuit religion Invitation to Life Iranian religions Irish mythology Iroquois mythology Irreligion Ishvara Islam Islamic modernism Islamic schools and branches Isma'ilism Jacob Neusner Jah Jahbulon Jainism Jamaican Maroon religion Japanese new religions Jaroslav Pelikan Jediism Jehovah Jehovah's Witnesses Jehovah 1 Jesus Jesus Christ Jeung San Do Jewish Renewal Jewish religious movements Jiang Ziya Jivaroan peoples Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi Josemaría Escrivá Joseph Franklin Rutherford Joseph Smith Joseph W. Tkach Journal of Contemporary Religion Joy of Satan Ministries Judaism Judaizers Kaharingan Kalash people Kamba people Kami Kapalika Kapitayan Karaite Judaism Karma in Buddhism Kashmir Shaivism Kaumaram Kejawèn Kelsang Gyatso Khalsa Kharijites Khuda Kingdom of Jesus Christ (church) Kirat Mundhum Kongo religion Kopimism Korean shamanism Krishna Krishnaism Kuksu (religion) Kumina Kwakwakaʼwakw mythology L. Ron Hubbard LaVeyan Satanism Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement Laity Lakota mythology Lao Tze Lao Tzu Laozi Latin Church Latter Day Saint movement Latvian mythology Lenape mythology Li Bai Li Hongzhi Lingayatism List of Christian denominations List of Neopagan movements List of founders of religious traditions List of largest peaceful gatherings List of new religious movements List of people who have been considered deities List of religions and spiritual traditions List of religious organizations List of religious populations List of religious studies scholars Lists of deities Lithuanian mythology Liturgy Longhouse Religion Lotuko mythology Louis Farrakhan Louisiana Voodoo Lozi mythology Lu Sheng-yen Lugbara mythology Luo teaching Lutheranism Lê Văn Trung Maasai mythology Madam Blavatsky Maha Bodhi Society Mahanubhava Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Mahayana Mahayana Buddhism Mahdavia Mahāsattva Malaysian folk religion Manchu shamanism Mandaeism Manichaeism Manitou Mapuche religion Marapu Mari Native Religion Marshall Applewhite Mary Baker Eddy Maturidi Mawu Maya religion Mazdak Mbuti mythology Meditation Mediumship Meher Baba Meivazhi Melanesian mythology Menachem Mendel Schneerson Mennonites Merriam-Webster Mesoamerican religion Messianic Judaism Methodism Miao folk religion Miao people Micronesian mythology Midewiwin Milah Abraham Minority religion Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Missionary Mithraism Miwok mythology Mo (religion) Modekngei Modern Orthodox Judaism Modern Paganism Modern paganism Momolianism Monasticism Mongolian shamanism Monk Monotheism Moorish Science Temple of America Moravian Church Mordvin Native Religion Mormonism Muisca mythology Mulungu Mun (religion) Mysteries of Isis Mysticism Māori religion Nakayama Miki Names of God Names of God in Christianity Names of God in Islam Names of God in Judaism Nasadiya Sukta Nath Nation of Islam National church Native American Church Native American religion Nature worship Nauruan indigenous religion Navajo Neo-Theosophy Neo-charismatic movement Neoshamanism Nestorianism Neuroscience of religion New Acropolis New Age New Apostolic Church New Confucianism New Kadampa Tradition New Thought New religious movement New religious movements and cults in popular culture New religious movements in the Pacific Northwest Ngai Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm Nguyễn Thành Phương Ngô Văn Chiêu Ngô Đình Diệm Ngọc Hoàng Nichiren Buddhism Nikkyō Niwano Nimbarka Sampradaya Nirmala Srivastava Noahidism Noble Drew Ali Non-denominational Muslim Nondenominational Christianity Nontheism Nontrinitarianism Nonviolence Nova Religio Nun Nuo folk religion Nuu-chah-nulth mythology Nuwaubian Nation Nyame Nzambi a Mpungu Obeah Objectivism Odinani Ohlone mythology Old Norse religion Olmec religion Olodumare Olofi Om Oneness Pentecostalism Oomoto Open-source religion Opposition to new religious movements Opus Dei Ordination Oriental Orthodoxy Orphism (religion) Orthodox Judaism Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Osanobua Outline of religion Paleo-Balkan mythology Paleolithic religion Palo (religion) Panentheism Pantheism Papuan mythology Parmalim Parvardigar Pawnee mythology Pemena Pentecostalism Peoples Temple Persecution of Ahmadis Persecution of Baháʼís Persecution of Falun Gong Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses Persecution of Rastafari Personal development Philosophy of religion Phineas Parkhurst Quimby Phạm Công Tắc Pilgrims of Arès Place of worship Plymouth Brethren Polynesian mythology Polytheism Polytheistic reconstructionism Pomo religion Pope Positive deconstruction Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar Prayer Prehistoric religion Prem Rawat Presbyterianism Priest Prophecy Proselytism Prosperity theology Protestantism Proto-Indo-Iranian religion Proto-Protestantism Prussian mythology Psychology of religion Punic religion Pure Land Buddhism Purusha Purépecha religion Pushtimarg Qiang folk religion Quakers Queen Mother of the West Quimbanda Quranism Radha Soami Rajneesh Rajneesh movement Rama Ramakrishna Ramakrishna Mission Ramanandi Sampradaya Rapa Nui mythology Rastafari Ravidassia religion Raël Raëlism Rebirth (Buddhism) Reconstructionist Judaism Reform Judaism Reincarnation Relationship between religion and science Religiocentrism Religion Religion and agriculture Religion and business Religion and happiness Religion and mythology Religion and video games Religion in Afghanistan Religion in Africa Religion in Albania Religion in Algeria Religion in Andorra Religion in Angola Religion in Antigua and Barbuda Religion in Argentina Religion in Armenia Religion in Asia Religion in Australia Religion in Austria Religion in Azerbaijan Religion in Bahrain Religion in Bangladesh Religion in Barbados Religion in Belarus Religion in Belgium Religion in Belize Religion in Benin Religion in Bhutan Religion in Bolivia Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina Religion in Botswana Religion in Brazil Religion in Brunei Religion in Bulgaria Religion in Burkina Faso Religion in Burundi Religion in Cambodia Religion in Cameroon Religion in Canada Religion in Cape Verde Religion in Chad Religion in Chile Religion in China Religion in Colombia Religion in Costa Rica Religion in Croatia Religion in Cuba Religion in Cyprus Religion in Denmark Religion in Djibouti Religion in Dominica Religion in East Timor Religion in Ecuador Religion in Egypt Religion in El Salvador Religion in England Religion in Equatorial Guinea Religion in Eritrea Religion in Estonia Religion in Eswatini Religion in Ethiopia Religion in Europe Religion in Fiji Religion in Finland Religion in France Religion in Gabon Religion in Georgia (country) Religion in Germany Religion in Ghana Religion in Greece Religion in Grenada Religion in Guatemala Religion in Guinea Religion in Guinea-Bissau Religion in Guyana Religion in Haiti Religion in Honduras Religion in Hong Kong Religion in Hungary Religion in Iceland Religion in India Religion in Indonesia Religion in Iran Religion in Iraq Religion in Israel Religion in Italy Religion in Ivory Coast Religion in Jamaica Religion in Japan Religion in Jordan Religion in Kazakhstan Religion in Kenya Religion in Kiribati Religion in Korea Religion in Kosovo Religion in Kuwait Religion in Kyrgyzstan Religion in Laos Religion in Latvia Religion in Lebanon Religion in Lesotho Religion in Liberia Religion in Libya Religion in Liechtenstein Religion in Lithuania Religion in Luxembourg Religion in Macau Religion in Madagascar Religion in Malawi Religion in Malaysia Religion in Mali Religion in Malta Religion in Mauritania Religion in Mauritius Religion in Mexico Religion in Moldova Religion in Monaco Religion in Mongolia Religion in Montenegro Religion in Morocco Religion in Mozambique Religion in Myanmar Religion in Namibia Religion in Nauru Religion in Nepal Religion in New Zealand Religion in Nicaragua Religion in Niger Religion in Nigeria Religion in North America Religion in North Korea Religion in North Macedonia Religion in Northern Ireland Religion in Norway Religion in Oceania Religion in Oman Religion in Pakistan Religion in Palau Religion in Panama Religion in Papua New Guinea Religion in Paraguay Religion in Peru Religion in Poland Religion in Portugal Religion in Qatar Religion in Romania Religion in Russia Religion in Rwanda Religion in Saint Kitts and Nevis Religion in Saint Lucia Religion in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Religion in Samoa Religion in San Marino Religion in Saudi Arabia Religion in Scotland Religion in Senegal Religion in Serbia Religion in Seychelles Religion in Sierra Leone Religion in Singapore Religion in Slovakia Religion in Slovenia Religion in Solomon Islands Religion in Somalia Religion in South Africa Religion in South America Religion in South Korea Religion in South Sudan Religion in Spain Religion in Sri Lanka Religion in Sudan Religion in Suriname Religion in Sweden Religion in Switzerland Religion in Syria Religion in São Tomé and Príncipe Religion in Taiwan Religion in Tajikistan Religion in Tanzania Religion in Thailand Religion in Togo Religion in Tonga Religion in Trinidad and Tobago Religion in Tunisia Religion in Turkey Religion in Turkmenistan Religion in Tuvalu Religion in Uganda Religion in Ukraine Religion in Uruguay Religion in Uzbekistan Religion in Vanuatu Religion in Venezuela Religion in Vietnam Religion in Wales Religion in Yemen Religion in Zambia Religion in Zimbabwe Religion in ancient Rome Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Religion in the Bahamas Religion in the Central African Republic Religion in the Comoros Religion in the Czech Republic Religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Religion in the Dominican Republic Religion in the Federated States of Micronesia Religion in the Gambia Religion in the Maldives Religion in the Marshall Islands Religion in the Netherlands Religion in the Philippines Religion in the Republic of Ireland Religion in the Republic of the Congo Religion in the State of Palestine Religion in the United Arab Emirates Religion in the United Kingdom Religion in the United States Religious Science Religious Zionism Religious assimilation Religious behaviour Religious belief Religious conversion Religious denomination Religious disaffiliation Religious discrimination against Neopagans Religious education Religious experience Religious fanaticism Religious persecution Religious pluralism Religious studies Religious symbol Religious syncretism Religious terrorism Religious views on truth Religious violence Religious war Restoration Movement Risshō Kōsei Kai Ritual Ritual purification Roman Catholicism Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism Roman imperial cult Romuva (religion) Roshani movement Rudolf Steiner Ryukyuan religion Sacred grove Sacred mountains Sacred space Sacred tree Sacred waters Sacrifice Sahaja Yoga Sahasranama Salafi movement Salvation Samaritanism San religion Sanamahism Sanghyang Adi Buddha Sant Mat Santa Muerte Santería Sarna sthal Sarnaism Satanism Sathya Sai Baba Sathya Sai Baba movement Saura (Hinduism) Saṃsāra Schism Schools of Buddhism Schwarzenau Brethren Schwenkfelders Scientology Scythian religion Sect Sects of Sikhism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularism Secularization Self religion Selk'nam mythology Seneca mythology Separation of church and state Serer religion Seventh-day Adventist Church Shaiva Siddhanta Shaivism Shakers Shaktism Shamanism in Siberia Shambhala Buddhism Shangdi Shen (Chinese religion) Shia Islam Shinto Shinto sects and schools Shiv Dayal Singh Shiva Shoko Asahara Shri Ram Chandra Mission Shugendō Sikhism Slave Ship (Pohl novel) Slavic Native Faith Slavic paganism Smarta tradition Sociological classifications of religious movements Sociology of religion Soka Gakkai Sol Invictus Somali mythology Song dynasty Soteriology Southern Vietnam Spiritism Spiritual Christianity Spiritual evolution Spiritualism Spirituality Spring and Autumn Annals Sri Aurobindo Sri Chinmoy Sri Vaishnavism State religion Subud Sufism Sukyo Mahikari Sumerian religion Sun Myung Moon Sun Yat Sen Sunda Wiwitan Sunni Islam Supernatural Svayam Bhagavan Swaminarayan Sampradaya Syncretism Sámi shamanism Table of messengers of Abrahamic religions Tai folk religion Tai peoples Taishang Laojun Tambor de Mina Taoism Taoist Tathāgata Temple of Set Tengrism Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto Tenrikyo Tensegrity (Castaneda) Tetragrammaton The Buddha The Family International The Los Angeles Times The New Church (Swedenborgian) The Process Church of The Final Judgment The Satanic Temple The Way International Theism Theistic Satanism Thelema Theocracy Theology Theories about religions Theosophical Society Theosophy Theravada Thracian religion Three teachings Tian Tianzhu (Chinese name of God) Tibetan Buddhism Tibeto-Burman languages Timeline of religion Toleration Tolstoyan movement Tongan religion Traditional African religions Traditional Berber religion Traditionalist theology (Islam) Transcendental Meditation Transcendental Meditation movement Transtheism Trimurti Trinidad Orisha True Buddha School Trình Minh Thế Tsimshian mythology Tumbuka mythology Tungusic creation myth Turkic mythology Twelve Tribes communities Twelver Tây Ninh U.S. Department of State UFO religion Uatsdin Udmurt Vos Umbanda Umvelinqangi Unarius Academy of Science Unification Church Unitarian Universalism Unitarian Universalist Association Unitarianism Unity Church Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Universal White Brotherhood Universalism University of Chicago Press University of Hawaii Press Unkulunkulu Uralic neopaganism Urartu Urhobo people Ute mythology Vainakh religion Vaishnavism Vajrayana Vattisen Yaly Vedda Vegetarianism Vegetarianism and religion Veneration of ancestors Veneration of the dead Victor Hugo Vietnam Vietnam War Vietnamese Thiền Vietnamese folk religion Vietnamese language Vipassana movement Vishnu Vĩnh Long Waaqeffanna Waheguru Wahhabism Wakan Tanka Waldensians Warkari Water and religion Wealth and religion Weixinism Wendy Doniger Western religions When Prophecy Fails Wicca Winti Women and religion Word of Faith World Mission Society Church of God World Religions and Spirituality Project Worldview Worship Wyandot religion Xiantiandao Yahweh Yahwism Yao folk religion Yarsanism Yazidism Yiguandao Yoruba religion Zaidiyyah Zalmoxianism Zapotec civilization Zen Zoroastrianism Zulu traditional religion Zuni mythology Ông Trời Đạo Mẫu Śrauta Śvētāmbara Ọlọrun Cao Dai diaspora List of converts to Christianity Vietnamese folk religion Religion in Vietnam Ba Cụt Phạm Công Tắc Bảo Đại Ma Dai Hòa Hảo