Slow Earthquakes(慢地震)研究综述Slow Earthquakes 慢地震 - Slow earthquakes are often associated with tectonic tremor, non-impulsive signals that can easily be buried in seismic noise and go undetected.  Shallow slow earthquakes have been documented along shallow plate interfaces near trenches.  Recent findings on slow earthquakes reveal similarities and differences between slow and regular earthquakes.  Observations at the seafloor are necessary, particularly for shallow slow earthquakes occurring in offshore areas; however, few observations of such activity have been made.  Among serpentinite-related minerals, weak and unstable frictional behavior of brucite under hydrated mantle wedge conditions may play a role in slow earthquakes at the subduction plate interface in the mantle wedge.  The seafloor seismic network (S-net) deployed recently along the Japan Trench has revealed new seismic activity including shallow slow earthquakes.  Repeated slow earthquakes downdip of the seismogenic zones may trigger megathrust earthquakes by transferring stress to the seismogenic zones.  Through our discussion we highlight how the integration of creep cavitation, and its Generalised Thermodynamic paradigm, would be consequential for a range of important solid Earth topics that involve viscosity in Earth materials like, for example, slow earthquakes.  During fast and slow earthquakes deformation localizes along narrow and quasi-planar fault surfaces.  The recognition of slow earthquakes in geodetic and seismological data has transformed the understanding of how plate motions are accommodated at major plate boundaries.  Tremors can originate from rapid bursts of slow earthquakes that are triggered as the slow-slip rupture spreads over small-scale asperities.  Lateral spatial variations of weak portions at the plate boundary in subduction zones have been estimated primarily by the distribution of slow earthquakes mainly occurring around seismogenic zones.  During the past two decades, seismology has been revolutionized by the discovery of slow earthquakes and the recognition that their continuous seismic tremor can be used to monitor otherwise inaccessible faults (Obara, 2002; Rouet-Leduc et al.  However, temporal variations in the recurrence intervals of SST during megathrust earthquake cycles remain poorly understood because of the limited duration of geodetic and seismological monitoring of slow earthquakes.  More than 15 years of seismic observations on slow earthquakes are available for the Nankai and Cascadia regions, due to the high density of seismic stations and constant improvements.  The former temperature range is consistent with previous thermal modelling studies for the occurrence of slow earthquakes, but the latter temperature range is by approximately 150 °C higher than the former.  Slow slip events are observed in geodetic data, and are occasionally associated with seismic signatures such as slow earthquakes (low-frequency earthquakes, tectonic tremors).  Slow earthquakes including tremor and slow-slip events are recent additions to the conventional earthquake family and have a close link to megathrust earthquakes.  Therefore, to better estimate the interannual-scale PSF anomalies due to crustal deformation related to slow earthquakes including afterslips, long-term slow slip events, or plate convergence, the OIAs should be removed from the PSF anomalies.  These data have also enabled a wide range of transformative, cross-disciplinary research that far exceeded the original expectations and design goals of the network, including studies of slow earthquakes, landslides, the Earth’s “hum”, glacial earthquakes, sea-state, climate change, and induced seismicity.  Slow earthquakes are mainly distributed in regions surrounding seismogenic zones along the plate boundaries of subduction zones.  In addition, signatures of slow earthquakes such as deep nonvolcanic tremors (NVTs; Ide, 2012; Gallego et al.  Borehole strain monitoring has high sensitivity and is therefore widely used to study slow earthquakes, volcanic activity, earthquake precursors, and other nature phenomena.  Long-term slow slip events (SSEs), the largest events among slow earthquakes, occur repeatedly along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan.  used new observations from the S-net ocean-bottom seismic network to map slow earthquakes—disturbances that do not cause ground shaking—along the Japan Trench (see the Perspective by Houston).  Recently, slow earthquakes (slow EQ) have received much attention relative to understanding the mechanisms underlying large earthquakes and to detecting their precursors.  We speculate that the Neves area fulfils most of the required conditions to have hosted slow earthquakes during Alpine continental collision, that is, coupled frictional and viscous deformation under high‐fluid pressure conditions ~450°C.  The occurrence of these slow earthquakes is discontinuous along the trench and attributed to the effect of high pore pressures at the plate boundary.  used new observations from the S-net ocean-bottom seismic network to map slow earthquakes—disturbances that do not cause ground shaking—along the Japan Trench (see the Perspective by Houston).  The new data can possibly not only greatly improve our knowledge regarding various aspects of solid earth science including subsurface structure, regular earthquakes, and slow earthquakes but also show unknown phenomena of the earth system beneath the offshore region along the Japan trench.  In this letter, we introduce a minimal mechanical friction model that contains both slow and regular earthquakes and demonstrate that the different power laws emerge naturally within the model because the propagation speed of slow earthquakes decays as a power law in time, whereas the propagation speed of regular earthquakes remains fairly constant.  Recent seismic and geodetic observations in subduction zones have revealed that slow earthquakes have preceded some large earthquakes.  Under deformation rates comparable to slow earthquakes, calcite transformed locally to aragonite matching the distribution of maximum principal stresses and pressure (mean stress) from mechanical models.  The shallow accretionary prism of the Nankai Trough is a location where both large interplate earthquakes and slow earthquakes occur. 
慢地震通常与构造震颤、非脉冲信号有关，这些信号很容易被埋在地震噪声中而未被发现。  沿沟槽附近的浅板块界面记录了浅层慢地震。  最近关于慢地震的发现揭示了慢地震和常规地震之间的相似之处和不同之处。  海底观测是必要的，特别是对于发生在近海地区的浅层慢地震；然而，很少有人观察到这种活动。  在蛇纹岩相关矿物中，弱且不稳定 水镁石在水合地幔楔条件下的摩擦行为可能在俯冲板块界面处的慢地震中发挥作用 地幔楔。  最近沿日本海沟部署的海底地震网络（S-net）揭示了新的地震活动，包括浅层慢地震。  <p>发震带下倾的重复慢地震可能通过将应力转移到发震带而引发大逆冲地震。  通过我们的讨论，我们强调了蠕变空化的整合及其广义热力学范式将如何影响一系列重要的固体地球主题，这些主题涉及地球材料的粘度，例如慢地震。  在快速和慢速地震期间，变形沿着狭窄和准平面的断层表面进行。  在大地测量和地震学数据中对慢地震的认识改变了对板块运动如何适应主要板块边界的理解。  震颤可能源于慢速地震的快速爆发，当慢速滑动破裂在小规模的凹凸体上蔓延时触发。  俯冲带板块边界薄弱部分的横向空间变化主要通过主要发生在发震带周围的慢地震分布来估计。  在过去的 20 年中，地震学因慢地震的发现而发生了革命性的变化，并且认识到它们的连续地震震颤可用于监测其他无法进入的断层（Obara，2002；Rouet-Leduc 等人。  然而，由于慢地震的大地测量和地震监测持续时间有限，在大冲断地震周期中 SST 复发间隔的时间变化仍然知之甚少。  <div>由于地震台站的高密度和不断的改进，南开和卡斯卡迪亚地区有超过 15 年的慢地震地震观测资料。  前者的温度范围与先前对慢地震发生的热模拟研究一致，但后者的温度范围比前者高约150°C。  在大地测量数据中观察到慢速滑动事件，并且偶尔与慢速地震（低频地震、构造震颤）等地震特征相关联。  包括震颤和慢滑事件在内的慢地震是传统地震系列的最新成员，与大逆冲地震密切相关。  因此，为了更好地估计由与慢地震相关的地壳变形引起的年际尺度PSF异常，包括后滑、长期慢滑动事件或板块辐合，应从PSF异常中去除OIA。   这些数据还促成了广泛的变革性、跨学科研究，这些研究远远超出了网络最初的预期和设计目标，包括对慢地震、山体滑坡、地球嗡嗡声的研究。 、冰川地震、海况、气候变化和诱发地震活动。  慢震主要分布在俯冲带板块边界沿线的发震带周围地区。  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  Shallow slow earthquakes have been documented along shallow plate interfaces near trenches.  Observations at the seafloor are necessary, particularly for shallow slow earthquakes occurring in offshore areas; however, few observations of such activity have been made.  The seafloor seismic network (S-net) deployed recently along the Japan Trench has revealed new seismic activity including shallow slow earthquakes. 
沿沟槽附近的浅板块界面记录了浅层慢地震。  海底观测是必要的，特别是对于发生在近海地区的浅层慢地震；然而，很少有人观察到这种活动。  最近沿日本海沟部署的海底地震网络（S-net）揭示了新的地震活动，包括浅层慢地震。  used new observations from the S-net ocean-bottom seismic network to map slow earthquakes—disturbances that do not cause ground shaking—along the Japan Trench (see the Perspective by Houston).  used new observations from the S-net ocean-bottom seismic network to map slow earthquakes—disturbances that do not cause ground shaking—along the Japan Trench (see the Perspective by Houston).