## Nanofluids Flow(纳米流体流动)研究综述

Nanofluids Flow 纳米流体流动 - We studied the hydrodynamic features of the nanofluids flowing inside a straight microchannel with hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic walls by the finite volume method.^{[1]}Nanofluids flow and heat transfer in micro-channels have a wide range of attributes in industrial process as well as engineering and biomedical applications.

^{[2]}This paper reports the results of a numerical study on the thermal performance of forced convection laminar flow of nanofluids flowing through a heated horizontal annular duct considering various nanoparticles types has been investigated.

^{[3]}Nanofluids flow through a twisted duct with uniform wall temperature boundary conditions, twist ratios of 8.

^{[4]}Moreover, the two-phase mixture method was employed to simulate the nanofluids flow based on finite volume method.

^{[5]}The review of literature shows that there are limited works on entropy production rate of nanofluids flowing through a converging pipe as the available ones only considered entropy production rate in a linear converging pipe.

^{[6]}Presence of different terms with various values can alter the thermal behavior of the nanofluids flow over porous surfaces.

^{[7]}Nanofluids flowing in parallel-plate nanochannels are simulated.

^{[8]}The current work aims at a fundamental understanding of the concept of head loss coefficient, K, of nanofluids flowing in sudden expansionpipe.

^{[9]}The model is based upon energy conservation equations for nanofluids flow, heat transfer for different nanofluids and magnetic field.

^{[10]}An experiment set for researching the flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through CPU is established and validated.

^{[11]}Poisson–Boltzmann, momentum, energy, solute concentration, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are considered to govern the nanofluids flow.

^{[12]}The present paper reports the analysis of flow and heat transfer of nanofluids surface tension driven convection in a rectangular cavity, in which two types of nanofluids of distilled water–Al2O3 and PGW(60% propylene glycol and 40% water by mass)-ZnO are considered, and the two-phase Mixture model is used to simulate the nanofluids flow.

^{[13]}The model is based upon energy conservation equations for nanofluids flow and heat transfer mechanisms for different nanofluids.

^{[14]}The effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) were calculated for water/nanofluids flow in a tube with WCCR inserts.

^{[15]}As evident from this review, there, indeed has been little progress made in regard to the accurate modeling of heat transport in nanofluids flowing in confined geometries such as tubes.

^{[16]}The model has been established after the energy and mass conservation equations for nanofluids flow the dynamic behavior of the PV-Thermal panels, and the thermoelectric generator has been studied and analyzed under different nanofluid particles concentrations and different solar radiations conditions.

^{[17]}

我们通过有限体积法研究了在具有亲水、疏水和超疏水壁的直微通道内流动的纳米流体的流体动力学特征。

^{[1]}微通道中的纳米流体流动和传热在工业过程以及工程和生物医学应用中具有广泛的属性。

^{[2]}本文报告了对流经加热水平环形管道的纳米流体的强制对流层流热性能的数值研究结果，该研究考虑了各种纳米粒子类型。

^{[3]}纳米流体流过具有均匀壁温边界条件的扭曲管道，扭曲比为 8。

^{[4]}此外，基于有限体积法，采用两相混合法模拟纳米流体流动。

^{[5]}文献回顾表明，关于流过会聚管的纳米流体的熵产率的研究有限，因为现有的研究仅考虑了线性会聚管中的熵产率。

^{[6]}具有不同值的不同项的存在可以改变纳米流体在多孔表面上流动的热行为。

^{[7]}模拟在平行板纳米通道中流动的纳米流体。

^{[8]}目前的工作旨在从根本上理解在突然膨胀管中流动的纳米流体的水头损失系数 K 的概念。

^{[9]}该模型基于纳米流体流动的能量守恒方程、不同纳米流体的传热和磁场。

^{[10]}建立并验证了用于研究纳米流体流经 CPU 的流动和传热特性的实验装置。

^{[11]}Poisson-Boltzmann、动量、能量、溶质浓度和纳米粒子体积分数方程被认为是控制纳米流体流动的因素。

^{[12]}本文报道了纳米流体表面张力驱动对流在矩形腔内的流动和传热分析，其中蒸馏水的两种纳米流体——Al2O3 和 PGW（按质量计 60% 丙二醇和 40% 水）-ZnO 是考虑，并使用两相混合物模型来模拟纳米流体流动。

^{[13]}该模型基于纳米流体流动的能量守恒方程和不同纳米流体的传热机制。

^{[14]}计算了具有 WCCR 插件的管中的水/纳米流体流动的传输单元 (NTU) 的有效性数量。

^{[15]}从这篇综述中可以明显看出，在精确模拟在受限几何形状（如管子）中流动的纳米流体中的热传输方面确实进展甚微。

^{[16]}在纳米流体能量和质量守恒方程的基础上建立了该模型，并对PV-Thermal电池板的动态行为进行了研究，并对不同纳米流体粒子浓度和不同太阳辐射条件下的热电发电机进行了研究和分析。

^{[17]}

## heat flux condition

The present paper aims to provide a theoretical analysis of energy, exergy loss and pumping power demand of water-based Al2O3, TiO2, CuO, SiC nanofluids flow through rectangular microchannel heat sinks under constant heat flux condition.^{[1]}Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through helically coiled tubes under uniform heat flux condition are studied experimentally.

^{[2]}A computational study is carried out on a rectangular microchannels heat sink using nanofluids flow for cooling of electronics device under uniform heat flux condition.

^{[3]}

本文旨在对水基Al2O3、TiO2、CuO、SiC纳米流体在恒定热通量条件下流经矩形微通道散热器的能量、火用损失和泵浦功率需求进行理论分析。

^{[1]}实验研究了均匀热流条件下纳米流体流经螺旋盘管的流体流动和传热特性。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## convective heat transfer 对流传热

Thus, this experimental study reports the convective heat transfer performance of the aluminum oxide-water nanofluids flowing in the triangle channel.^{[1]}The objective of the present work is to evaluate the experimental convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of the nanofluids flowing through a copper tube under a uniform heat flux of 7962 W/m2.

^{[2]}In this paper, the effect of nanoparticle migration on the convective heat transfer characteristics of EG/water-based Al2O3 nanofluids flowing through a simple round tube with constant heat flux in a fully developed turbulent flow regime was investigated experimentally.

^{[3]}

因此，本实验研究报告了在三角形通道中流动的氧化铝-水纳米流体的对流传热性能。

^{[1]}本工作的目的是评估在 7962 W/m2 的均匀热通量下流过铜管的纳米流体的实验对流传热系数和摩擦系数。

^{[2]}本文通过实验研究了纳米粒子迁移对EG/水基Al2O3纳米流体在完全发展的湍流状态下流经具有恒定热通量的简单圆管的对流传热特性的影响。

^{[3]}

## double tube heat

When the nanofluids flow in the shell-side of the corrugated double-tube heat exchanger, the comprehensive performance of nanofluids-side is better than that of the smooth double-tube heat exchanger.^{[1]}Heat transfer coefficient and thermal efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluids flowing through a double tube heat exchanger were experimentally investigated.

^{[2]}

当纳米流体在波纹双管换热器壳程内流动时，纳米流体侧的综合性能优于光滑双管换热器。

^{[1]}对流经双管换热器的γ-Al2O3/水纳米流体的传热系数和热效率进行了实验研究。

^{[2]}

## constant heat flux 恒定热通量

This study numerically investigates the heat transfer and hydraulic performance of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal smooth pipe exposed to a constant heat flux.^{[1]}The current numerical study is aimed to examine the forced convection heat transfer of fly ash-Copper (80:20% by volume) water-based hybrid nanofluids flowing in a horizontal circular copper tube under a constant heat flux of 7962W/m2 using STAR CCM+ software.

^{[2]}

本研究以数值方式研究了 Al2O3-水纳米流体流过暴露于恒定热通量的水平光滑管的传热和水力性能。

^{[1]}目前的数值研究旨在使用 STAR CCM+ 研究在 7962W/m2 恒定热通量下在水平圆形铜管中流动的粉煤灰-铜（体积比为 80:20%）水基混合纳米流体的强制对流换热软件。

^{[2]}

## Water Nanofluids Flow 水纳米流体流动

In the present study, the heat transfer, entropy, friction factor, exergy efficiency, pumping power, and performance index ratio of nickel/water nanofluids flow in a corrugated plate heat exchanger are investigated experimentally.^{[1]}Thus, this experimental study reports the convective heat transfer performance of the aluminum oxide-water nanofluids flowing in the triangle channel.

^{[2]}This study numerically investigates the heat transfer and hydraulic performance of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal smooth pipe exposed to a constant heat flux.

^{[3]}TiO2/water nanofluids flowing inside a square minichannel with a microfin structure (SMM) were observed as a practical application.

^{[4]}In this study, Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a micro-scale T45-R type Tesla valve was investigated numerically.

^{[5]}This article presents the effect of heat transfer and pressure drop of the TiO2–water nanofluids flowing in a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger with various flow patterns.

^{[6]}Heat transfer coefficient and thermal efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluids flowing through a double tube heat exchanger were experimentally investigated.

^{[7]}

在本研究中，对波纹板式换热器中镍/水纳米流体流动的传热、熵、摩擦系数、火用效率、泵送功率和性能指数比进行了实验研究。

^{[1]}因此，本实验研究报告了在三角形通道中流动的氧化铝-水纳米流体的对流传热性能。

^{[2]}本研究以数值方式研究了 Al2O3-水纳米流体流过暴露于恒定热通量的水平光滑管的传热和水力性能。

^{[3]}观察到在具有微鳍结构 (SMM) 的方形微通道内流动的 TiO2/水纳米流体作为实际应用。

^{[4]}本研究对流经微型 T45-R 型特斯拉阀的 Al2O3-水纳米流体进行了数值研究。

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}对流经双管换热器的γ-Al2O3/水纳米流体的传热系数和热效率进行了实验研究。

^{[7]}

## Hybrid Nanofluids Flow 混合纳米流体流动

Hybrid nanofluids flows with wire coils are proven to be beneficial in improving the performance of heat transfer.^{[1]}The present paper studies the flow and heat transfer of the hybrid nanofluids flows induced by a permeable power-law stretching/shrinking surface modulated orthogonal surface shear.

^{[2]}Thus, we attempt to introduce hybrid nanofluids flow in a straight pipe using Ansys Fluent software.

^{[3]}Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the comparative analysis between three hybrid nanofluids flow past a permeable stretching surface in a porous medium with thermal radiation.

^{[4]}The energy transport for hybrid nanofluids flow through non-parallel surfaces with converging/diverging nature is becoming important engineering topics because of its occurrence in biomedicine, cavity flow model and flow through canals, etc.

^{[5]}The current numerical study is aimed to examine the forced convection heat transfer of fly ash-Copper (80:20% by volume) water-based hybrid nanofluids flowing in a horizontal circular copper tube under a constant heat flux of 7962W/m2 using STAR CCM+ software.

^{[6]}This paper aimed to evaluate the state of three different flow parameters of nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids flowing through inside header and riser tube of flat plate solar collector.

^{[7]}

事实证明，带有线圈的混合纳米流体流动有助于提高传热性能。

^{[1]}本论文研究了由可渗透幂律拉伸/收缩表面调制的正交表面剪切引起的混合纳米流体流动的流动和传热。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}目的 本文的目的是研究三种混合纳米流体在热辐射多孔介质中流过可渗透拉伸表面的比较分析。

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}目前的数值研究旨在使用 STAR CCM+ 研究在 7962W/m2 恒定热通量下在水平圆形铜管中流动的粉煤灰-铜（体积比为 80:20%）水基混合纳米流体的强制对流换热软件。

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}

## Different Nanofluids Flow

In this paper, the Fuzzy Nanofluid Model (FNFM) used to develop a fuzzy analysis investigation on heat transfer optimal performance at different Nanofluids flow rate.^{[1]}This complex model also yields analytical formulas with regard to the momentum and thermal transport of nanoparticles of different nanofluids flowing in the concentric annuli.

^{[2]}The purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the heat transfer enhancement by using two different nanofluids flow throughout the square duct under a constant heat flux (500 × 103 W/m2).

^{[3]}

在本文中，模糊纳米流体模型 (FNFM) 用于对不同纳米流体流速下的传热优化性能进行模糊分析研究。

^{[1]}这个复杂的模型还产生了关于在同心环中流动的不同纳米流体的纳米粒子的动量和热传输的分析公式。

^{[2]}本研究的目的是通过在恒定热通量 (500 × 103 W/m2) 下使用两种不同的纳米流体流过方形管道，对传热增强进行数值研究。

^{[3]}

## Al2o3 Nanofluids Flow

In this paper, the effect of nanoparticle migration on the convective heat transfer characteristics of EG/water-based Al2O3 nanofluids flowing through a simple round tube with constant heat flux in a fully developed turbulent flow regime was investigated experimentally.^{[1]}In this paper, an experimental study for HTC (heat transfer coefficient) of water-based TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids flowing in an annulus has been carried out at 1 bar.

^{[2]}

本文通过实验研究了纳米粒子迁移对EG/水基Al2O3纳米流体在完全发展的湍流状态下流经具有恒定热通量的简单圆管的对流传热特性的影响。

^{[1]}nan

^{[2]}

## nanofluids flow past

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the comparative analysis between three hybrid nanofluids flow past a permeable stretching surface in a porous medium with thermal radiation.^{[1]}In this exploration, we attempt to deliver a numerical study to simulate the nanofluids flow past a circular cylinder with convective heat transfer in the framework of Buongiorno’s model.

^{[2]}This article mainly focuses on the energy transfer with the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nanofluids flow past a stretching sheet under thermal radiation and Newtonian heating.

^{[3]}

目的 本文的目的是研究三种混合纳米流体在热辐射多孔介质中流过可渗透拉伸表面的比较分析。

^{[1]}在本次探索中，我们尝试进行数值研究，以在 Buongiorno 模型的框架内模拟纳米流体流过具有对流热传递的圆柱体。

^{[2]}本文主要关注在热辐射和牛顿加热下磁流体动力学 (MHD) 纳米流体的碳纳米管 (CNT) 流过拉伸片时的能量转移。

^{[3]}