## Fields Inside(里面的字段)研究综述

Fields Inside 里面的字段 - The marriage of these components presents an exclusive combination of tightly focused amplification of Localised Surface Plasmon (LSP) fields inside the material with an extremely high surface-to-volume ratio.^{[1]}The radio-frequency (RF) fields inside these cavities have to be controlled better than 0.

^{[2]}A new steady flow test bench test facility has been designed and fabricated for exploration of complex three-dimensional flowfields inside a cylinder of an internal combustion engine.

^{[3]}The extracted field sources were incorporated into a full-wave solver, and the fields inside the disk-array enclosure (DAE) were simulated and validated by comparing to measured fields.

^{[4]}The fields inside and outside the scatterers are derived.

^{[5]}For wave propagations, the relation between the fields entering and leaving a system is more relevant than the detailed information about the fields inside it.

^{[6]}This report describes the process for characterising a reference antenna: traceable mapping of complex E-fields inside a liquid phantom which is illuminated by the antenna from beneath.

^{[7]}Hence, this contribution proposes an approach for computing electromagnetic (EM) fields inside a TEM-cell considering mechanical tolerances and unknown input parameters.

^{[8]}Although a new framework to gerontology, the threshold concept framework has been utilized in many fields inside (e.

^{[9]}Our formulation extends the previously proposed theory of non-uniform transmission lines by introducing an expression for impedance transfer, which yields a closed-form solution for the fields inside and outside the sphere.

^{[10]}We also obtain a representation for fields inside the horizon as operators in a single boundary CFT using mirror operator construction.

^{[11]}The order of solution and functions of each equation for the fields inside and outside the scattering object are discussed.

^{[12]}In the multiscale simulations, a 2-D contour integral method is used for the modeling of the fields inside the structure with numerous vias and a method of moments is used for the radiated fields outside.

^{[13]}For wave propagations, people usually focus on the signals entering and leaving a system, and do not need detailed information about the fields inside it.

^{[14]}The new analysis postulates three sub-fields inside a full-fledged DP based on the way different kinds of RCs are distributed across nominal space.

^{[15]}We propose invisible cavities which do not scatter electromagnetic waves under normal incidence but strongly enhance or suppress the fields inside.

^{[16]}We propose invisible cavities which do not scatter electromagnetic waves under normal incidence but strongly enhance or suppress the fields inside.

^{[17]}Reconstruction of the electromagnetic (EM) fields inside a dielectric object is investigated in order to develop a noninvasive specific absorption rate measurement.

^{[18]}

这些组件的结合提供了材料内部局部表面等离子体 (LSP) 场的紧密聚焦放大和极高的表面体积比的独家组合。

^{[1]}这些腔内的射频 (RF) 场必须控制得优于 0。

^{[2]}已经设计和制造了一个新的稳定流测试台测试设施，用于探索内燃机气缸内的复杂三维流场。

^{[3]}将提取的场源合并到全波求解器中，并通过与测量场的比较来模拟和验证磁盘阵列外壳 (DAE) 内的场。

^{[4]}导出散射体内部和外部的场。

^{[5]}对于波传播，进入和离开系统的场之间的关系比有关其中场的详细信息更相关。

^{[6]}本报告描述了表征参考天线的过程：液体体模内复杂电场的可追溯映射 被天线从下方照亮。

^{[7]}因此，该贡献提出了一种计算 TEM 单元内的电磁 (EM) 场的方法，该方法考虑了机械公差和未知输入参数。

^{[8]}虽然是老年学的一个新框架，但阈值概念框架已经在里面的许多领域（例如。

^{[9]}我们的公式通过引入阻抗传递的表达式扩展了先前提出的非均匀传输线理论，该表达式为球体内外的场产生了封闭形式的解。

^{[10]}我们还使用镜像算子构造获得了视界内场的表示，作为单边界 CFT 中的算子。

^{[11]}讨论了散射体内外场的解阶和各方程的函数。

^{[12]}在多尺度模拟中，二维轮廓积分法用于模拟具有多个通孔的结构内部场，而矩量法用于外部辐射场。

^{[13]}对于波传播，人们通常关注进入和离开系统的信号，而不需要有关系统内部场的详细信息。

^{[14]}新的分析基于不同种类的 RC 在标称空间中的分布方式，假设成熟的 DP 中存在三个子字段。

^{[15]}我们提出了不可见的空腔，它在垂直入射下不会散射电磁波，但会强烈增强或抑制内部的场。

^{[16]}我们提出了不可见的空腔，它在垂直入射下不会散射电磁波，但会强烈增强或抑制内部的场。

^{[17]}研究了介电物体内部电磁 (EM) 场的重建，以开发一种非侵入性的比吸收率测量方法。

^{[18]}

## finite element method 有限元法

The finite element method is used to calculate and analyze the distribution of sensitive fields inside the flow measurement sensor and the influence of different physical parameters of non-conductive objects on the disturbance characteristics of the flow measurement sensor.^{[1]}The analysis is based on the hybrid projection method involving projection matching of the field expansions on a spherical surface introduced in the algorithm, projection of the Maxwell's equations for the fields inside the sphere on the transverse vector spherical functions, and use of one-dimensional finite element method in projection form for solving the ordinary differential equations obtained for variable coefficients of expansions as a result of the projection.

^{[2]}The analysis is based on the hybrid projection method involving projection matching of the field expansions on a spherical surface introduced in the algorithm, projection of the Maxwell's equations for the fields inside the sphere on the transverse vector spherical functions, and use of the 1-D finite element method in projection form for solving the ordinary differential equations obtained for variable coefficients of expansions as a result of the projection.

^{[3]}The governing mass, momentum and thermal energy equations in transient state are solved using Galerkin finite element method in order to evaluate flow and thermal fields inside the vented cavity.

^{[4]}

采用有限元法计算分析流量测量传感器内部敏感场的分布以及非导电物体的不同物理参数对流量测量传感器扰动特性的影响。

^{[1]}分析基于混合投影方法，包括算法中引入的球面上场扩展的投影匹配、球内场的麦克斯韦方程组在横向矢量球函数上的投影，以及使用一维有限投影形式的元素方法，用于求解因投影而获得的可变膨胀系数的常微分方程。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## particle image velocimetry 粒子图像测速

The particle image velocimetry was used to generate information on the velocity fields inside the liquid droplets.^{[1]}We measure the two dimensional instantaneous velocity fields inside an axial turbine by using the technique PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry).

^{[2]}Using the particle image velocimetry method, the velocity fields inside the heated test section were captured and time-averaged velocity distributions and root-mean-square velocity fluctuation distributions were obtained under various experimental conditions.

^{[3]}

粒子图像测速仪用于生成有关液滴内部速度场的信息。

^{[1]}我们使用 PIV（粒子图像测速）技术测量轴流涡轮机内部的二维瞬时速度场。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## Flow Fields Inside 内部流场

The porous media model is applied to simulate the transient temperature and helium flow fields inside regolith thermal reservoir.^{[1]}The experiment of steel/aluminum laser welding was carried out, numerical simulation of temperature and flow fields inside molten pool was analyzed, and the effect of laser-Ti foil coupling on microstructure and mechanical property of steel/aluminum fusion welding joints was also investigated.

^{[2]}The results show that the rim clearance flow is unstable, and Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices are induced by the relatively large difference in circumferential velocity of the flow fields inside and outside the rim seal.

^{[3]}The effects of the lance twist angle and rotation speed on flow fields inside the molten bath vary with the bath depth.

^{[4]}Then a comparative analysis of the flow fields inside the impellers, diffusers and chambers under different flow conditions was performed.

^{[5]}The visualization of the internal flow field is evaluated for a better understanding of the flow fields inside the pump.

^{[6]}High-speed canyon cross wind with random directions is common in mountain areas and induces complex three-dimensional flow fields inside the tunnel while flowing across the tunnel portal, which changes smoke temperature distribution and movement characteristics in tunnel fires.

^{[7]}To this end, the three-dimensional flow fields inside the jumper tubes are solved with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, and the internal flow characteristics of the jumper tubes with blind tees installed at different positions are analyzed.

^{[8]}The detailed flow fields inside ITD1 and flow visualization were measured.

^{[9]}Next, the second-order AUSM$$^+$$+-up scheme is applied to model unsteady flow fields inside a combustor sector from the Energy Efficient Engine ($${\hbox {E}}^3$$E3) program, in conjunction with a sensitivity analysis of turbulent combustion models.

^{[10]}Preliminary tests have been conducted to examine the validity of implementing these techniques as well to investigate if flow fields inside prismatic core heated channels are affected by other different temperatures core channels.

^{[11]}The numerical method is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian method, which tracks the free water surface and the membrane using a Lagrangian method and solves the flow fields inside and outside the membrane using an Eulerian method.

^{[12]}This paper introduces a coupled 1D-2D computational nonlinear model of heat and flow fields inside loaded standing-wave thermoacoustic engines.

^{[13]}Flow fields inside such containers have been detected optically in two-dimensional (2D) or quasi-2D geometries.

^{[14]}Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and quantify the flow fields inside the hinge at physiological Reynolds number and dimensionless pressure drop.

^{[15]}The flow fields inside the free flow region and porous region are governed by Stokes equation and Brinkman equation together with mass conservation, respectively.

^{[16]}In this study, a high-speed PIV is applied to measure the crank-angle resolved flow fields inside a single-cylinder four-valve optical SIDI engine.

^{[17]}The flow fields inside the jet of the dispersed phase were qualitatively different for small and large values of the capillary number of the continuous phase revealing the relative contribution of the dispersed phase flow in jet formation.

^{[18]}Also, the velocity and pressure flow fields inside the ejector, temperature and pressure profiles along the ejector are presented and discussed.

^{[19]}Its dynamic behaviors, such as the decrease in the falling velocity, the deformation of the shape, and the flow fields inside the droplet are discussed.

^{[20]}Flow fields inside the flow chamber were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics under each SS condition.

^{[21]}Accurate computational modeling of hypersonic flow fields inside arc-jets under simulated planetary entry conditions would help improve the design of thermal protection systems that may enable human exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

^{[22]}In addition, despite of the remarkable level of accuracy (less than 9% of deviation), the recirculating cells found in the flow fields inside the pump suggest the convenience of the development of a full-unsteady 3D model in the near future.

^{[23]}The flow fields inside polydimethylsiloxane models of coronary artery bypass graft with various anastomotic angles (α = 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and different diameter ratios (Φ = 0.

^{[24]}The particle tracking technology has been used to evaluate the changes of flow fields inside the culture chamber as the variation of velocity in medium inlet.

^{[25]}

采用多孔介质模型模拟风化层热储层内的瞬态温度和氦流场。

^{[1]}进行了钢/铝激光焊接实验，分析了熔池内温度和流场的数值模拟，研究了激光-钛箔耦合对钢/铝熔焊接头组织和力学性能的影响。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}nan

^{[8]}测量了 ITD1 内部的详细流场和流量可视化。

^{[9]}接下来，应用二阶 AUSM$$^+$$+-up 方案来模拟来自节能引擎 ($${\hbox {E}}^3$$E3) 程序的燃烧器扇区内的非定常流场，结合湍流燃烧模型的敏感性分析。

^{[10]}已经进行了初步测试以检验实施这些技术的有效性，并调查棱柱形核心加热通道内的流场是否受到其他不同温度核心通道的影响。

^{[11]}数值方法基于混合欧拉-拉格朗日方法，采用拉格朗日方法跟踪自由水面和膜，采用欧拉方法求解膜内外流场。

^{[12]}本文介绍了加载驻波热声发动机内部热场和流场的耦合一维-二维计算非线性模型。

^{[13]}此类容器内的流场已在二维 (2D) 或准 2D 几何形状中进行光学检测。

^{[14]}粒子图像测速 (PIV) 用于可视化和量化生理雷诺数和无量纲压降下铰链内的流场。

^{[15]}自由流动区域和多孔区域内的流场分别由斯托克斯方程和布林克曼方程以及质量守恒控制。

^{[16]}在这项研究中，应用高速 PIV 来测量单缸四气门光学 SIDI 发动机内的曲柄角分辨流场。

^{[17]}nan

^{[18]}nan

^{[19]}nan

^{[20]}nan

^{[21]}nan

^{[22]}nan

^{[23]}nan

^{[24]}nan

^{[25]}

## Electric Fields Inside 内部电场

As electric fields inside the pore are increased, the unfolded state of cyt c is thermodynamically stabilized, facilitating its translocation.^{[1]}The absorption attributes to induced currents in the conductive films by the electric fields of incidence, and the shape- and position-independent characteristics originate from the uniformly distributed electric fields inside the zero-index media.

^{[2]}As electric fields inside the pore are increased, the unfolded state of cyt c is thermodynamically stabilized, facilitating its translocation.

^{[3]}Electric fields inside the ROI were, however, comparable for both methods.

^{[4]}The thermal motion of charged proteins causes randomly fluctuating electric fields inside cells.

^{[5]}In addition to expanding the spectrum of operating parameters, the current approach, through the application of electric fields inside a 3D hybrid microfluidic device, has additional advantages over existing techniques in terms of easy device fabrication, continuous operation without clogging, and uniform size distribution.

^{[6]}The electric fields inside the RVE of different inclusion shapes and volume fractions are studied.

^{[7]}The scalar potential finite difference (SPFD) method was adopted to voxel-based human models with realistic postures to calculate internal electric fields inside the models.

^{[8]}We show, that the QCSE is reduced with increasing doping concentration due to a screening of the internal electric fields inside GaN nanodiscs, resulting in a reduction of the carrier lifetimes and a blue shift of the emitted light.

^{[9]}Optical properties of dense plasma depend on electric fields inside it (the so-called microfield).

^{[10]}Our design results in novel multi-locus stimulation coils using a single driver that can realize multi-locus–induced electric fields inside a brain model.

^{[11]}An ad-hoc reconstruction points to high-energy particles being produced very close to the ground, suggesting that they originate from electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in strong electric fields inside low clouds, as is the case for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes above thunderstorms.

^{[12]}In this work, we investigate the electric fields inside organic photovoltaic device structures, in the presence of traps, using electroabsorption (EA) spectroscopy.

^{[13]}First, the sensitivity difference is due to the difference of electric fields inside EO crystal under ac and dc electric fields, and it is affected by the conductivity and dielectric constant of crystal and oil medium.

^{[14]}We demonstrate that the accumulation of the negative and positive charges in the bulk of the gate dielectric under high fields can significantly influence on the redistribution of electric fields inside the dielectric and, as a sequence, on change of the charge state of MOS structure which describes the sensor characteristics.

^{[15]}Modeling of proposed logic gates is performed using the rate equations for counter-propagating electric fields inside the ring lasers.

^{[16]}The proper boundary conditions are given for the forward- and backward-propagating electric fields inside the fiber with a finite amount of reflectivity at the fiber ends.

^{[17]}Thus, a mechanistic study was carried out, investigating the possible target of electric fields inside the spore.

^{[18]}Shaping the magnetic field topology and controlling the electric fields inside the source together with an improved caesium conditioning procedure have been identified as possible tools to improve the source performance.

^{[19]}Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) of the brain can have variable effects, plausibly driven by individual differences in neuroanatomy and resulting differences of the electric fields inside the brain.

^{[20]}Others have further suggested these vibrations of the electrically polar microtubules could be a source of electric fields inside the cell that could serve some biological function, such as a role in organizing mitosis or also possibly in cell-to-cell communication.

^{[21]}The criteria which allow one to reveal spectral lines serving as the indicators of the appearance of anomalous electric fields inside current sheets are suggested.

^{[22]}Promising candidates to explain this variability are individual anatomy and the resulting differences of electric fields inside the brain.

^{[23]}

随着孔内电场的增加，细胞色素 c 的展开状态在热力学上稳定，促进其易位。

^{[1]}吸收归因于入射电场在导电薄膜中的感应电流，并且与形状和位置无关的特性源于零折射率介质内均匀分布的电场。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}nan

^{[8]}nan

^{[9]}nan

^{[10]}nan

^{[11]}nan

^{[12]}nan

^{[13]}nan

^{[14]}nan

^{[15]}使用环形激光器内反向传播电场的速率方程对所提出的逻辑门进行建模。

^{[16]}为光纤内部的正向和反向传播电场给出了适当的边界条件，在光纤端部具有有限的反射率。

^{[17]}因此，进行了机械研究，调查了孢子内电场的可能目标。

^{[18]}塑造磁场拓扑结构和控制源内部的电场以及改进的铯调节程序已被确定为提高源性能的可能工具。

^{[19]}nan

^{[20]}nan

^{[21]}nan

^{[22]}nan

^{[23]}

## Temperature Fields Inside 内部温度场

Velocity and temperature fields inside the reformer, species concentration control, and reaction rate are studied.^{[1]}The purpose of modelling thermal processes occurring in a greenhouse is to identify advantages and disadvantages of selected methods of heating a greenhouse in winter, as well as to obtain a model, changing input parameters of which will show the distribution of temperature fields inside a greenhouse.

^{[2]}The effects of different injection volume on the pressure, velocity, and temperature fields inside a cyclone venturi dryer were analyzed.

^{[3]}The temperature fields inside and around the plasma discharge channel are analyzed by ansys software.

^{[4]}We further quantified the influence of superficial velocity, heat source intensity, and material on the temperature fields inside the foam and found conduction being the dominant heat transport mechanism.

^{[5]}On the contrary, CFD gives detailed flow and temperature fields inside the components, which is not possible even to measure experimentally due to the limitations of the measurement techniques.

^{[6]}Based on the test results, we further established temperature fields inside uncoated and coated samples, which were used to study how the TLCC affects the inner temperature field.

^{[7]}The finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm was used to solve the governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier Stokes and energy equations) and to analyze the flow and temperature fields inside the enclosure.

^{[8]}We analyze the dynamic temperature fields inside the sample and in the surrounding air, and the phase shifts induced by the thermoelastic displacement of the sample (thermal mirror) and the refractive index gradient of air (thermal lens), as well as the diffracted intensity profiles of the probe beam in the detection plane.

^{[9]}The results of this investigation showed that during the natural convection process, the change in moisture content in the moist air has a significant influence on the flow and temperature fields inside the enclosure and the variation of the vertical wall temperature gradients have also shown to affect the moisture concentration inside the cavity.

^{[10]}We quantify the effects of coupled conduction and radiation on the temperature fields inside the highly porous media.

^{[11]}Hence, analytical incoming radiative intensity, flux and temperature fields inside the gray medium are established, in function of the center coordinates of the fluid cavity.

^{[12]}The results show that the flow and temperature fields inside the enclosure are sensitive due to the variation of Rayleigh number, concentration of nanoparticles, Hartmann number and Darcy number.

^{[13]}The semi-analytical solution of the heat conduction problem provides access to the temperature fields inside the pavement plates.

^{[14]}A commercial CFD package was used to resolve the flow and temperature fields inside the shell and tubes of the heat exchanger used.

^{[15]}Temperature fields inside the muffles were evaluated.

^{[16]}The temperature fields inside the sample exhibit different penetration depths depending strongly on the heater line size.

^{[17]}The evaluation of temperature fields inside the electrolyzer was carried out.

^{[18]}

研究了重整器内的速度和温度场、物质浓度控制和反应速率。

^{[1]}对温室内发生的热过程进行建模的目的是确定所选温室冬季供暖方法的优缺点，并获得一个模型，改变其输入参数将显示温室内温度场的分布。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}等离子放电通道内部和周围的温度场由 ansys 软件分析。

^{[4]}我们进一步量化了表观速度、热源强度和材料对泡沫内部温度场的影响，发现传导是主要的热传输机制。

^{[5]}相反，CFD 给出了组件内部的详细流动和温度场，由于测量技术的限制，甚至无法通过实验测量。

^{[6]}根据测试结果，我们进一步建立了未镀膜和镀膜样品内部的温度场，用于研究 TLCC 如何影响内部温度场。

^{[7]}使用 SIMPLE 算法的有限体积法求解控制偏微分方程（连续性、Navier Stokes 和能量方程）并分析外壳内的流动和温度场。

^{[8]}我们分析了样品内部和周围空气中的动态温度场，以及由样品的热弹性位移（热镜）和空气的折射率梯度（热透镜）引起的相移，以及衍射强度分布探测平面中的探测光束。

^{[9]}本研究结果表明，在自然对流过程中，潮湿空气中水分含量的变化对围护结构内部的流动和温度场有显着影响，垂直壁温梯度的变化也显示出对围护结构的影响。腔内的水分浓度。

^{[10]}nan

^{[11]}nan

^{[12]}nan

^{[13]}nan

^{[14]}nan

^{[15]}nan

^{[16]}nan

^{[17]}nan

^{[18]}

## Magnetic Fields Inside 内部磁场

Using muon spin relaxation measurements, here we report that the weakly correlated pnictide compound LaPt3P has the two key features of a chiral superconductor: spontaneous magnetic fields inside the superconducting state indicating broken time-reversal symmetry and low temperature linear behaviour in the superfluid density indicating line nodes in the order parameter.^{[1]}We modify the Green’s function for the magnetic vector potential to match boundary conditions on the shield’s interior surface, enabling us to construct an inverse optimization problem to design planar coils that generate user-specified magnetic fields inside high-permeability shields.

^{[2]}Magnetic fields inside planetary objects can influence their rotation.

^{[3]}4 may depend on the isospin effects and the strength / orientation distribution of the magnetic fields inside the quark stars.

^{[4]}We have evaluated the electric and magnetic fields inside the material, and we have constructed the Poynting vector.

^{[5]}For the MQR, there is an angular momentum transition of eigenvalue as the inner radius of the ring varies, and the Aharonov–Bohm effect is observed in the eigenvalue spectra for both positive and negative magnetic fields inside the inner radius.

^{[6]}This article combines the result of many years of work, resulting in calculations to quantitatively predict the areas with ultra-low magnetic fields inside passive magnetic shields, as well as the experimental confirmation.

^{[7]}We study the dynamics of strong magnetic fields inside and outside magnetars.

^{[8]}During measurement, the pipe specimen immersed in the geomagnetic fields rotates around a vertical axis and the magnetic fields inside are simultaneously recorded.

^{[9]}Topological kink modes are peculiar edge excitations that take place at domain boundaries of magnetic fields inside homogeneous materials.

^{[10]}Dielectric structures with high refractive indices give rise to Mie-type resonances with a remarkably high localization of electric and magnetic fields inside the dielectric structures due to excitation of selective multipolar modes.

^{[11]}The voltage signals are sensitive to the phase difference between the electric and magnetic fields inside a FM.

^{[12]}Current flows within solar cells generate magnetic fields inside and around the solar cell.

^{[13]}Electron beam properties and magnetic fields inside the undulator solenoid are treated as inputs of the investigations.

^{[14]}The polarized neutron imaging technique provides a non-invasive method of characterizing localized magnetic fields inside superconductors.

^{[15]}

使用 μ 子自旋弛豫测量，我们在此报告了弱相关的 pnictide 化合物 LaPt3P 具有手性超导体的两个关键特征：超导状态内的自发磁场表明时间反转对称性被破坏和超流体密度指示线中的低温线性行为order 参数中的节点。

^{[1]}我们修改了磁矢量势的格林函数以匹配屏蔽内表面的边界条件，使我们能够构建逆优化问题来设计平面线圈，从而在高磁导率屏蔽内产生用户指定的磁场。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}我们研究磁星内外强磁场的动力学。

^{[8]}测量时，浸入地磁场中的管道试样绕垂直轴旋转，同时记录内部磁场。

^{[9]}拓扑扭结模式是发生在均质材料内磁场域边界的特殊边缘激发。

^{[10]}由于选择性多极模式的激发，具有高折射率的介电结构会产生 Mie 型共振，在介电结构内具有非常高的电场和磁场定位。

^{[11]}nan

^{[12]}nan

^{[13]}nan

^{[14]}nan

^{[15]}

## Velocity Fields Inside 内部速度场

In general, good agreement is obtained for the velocity fields inside the recirculation zone.^{[1]}A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the conjugate heat transfer yielded temperature distributions on the electronic boards and temperature and fluid velocity fields inside the enclosure.

^{[2]}The particle image velocimetry was used to generate information on the velocity fields inside the liquid droplets.

^{[3]}We measure the two dimensional instantaneous velocity fields inside an axial turbine by using the technique PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry).

^{[4]}Using the particle image velocimetry method, the velocity fields inside the heated test section were captured and time-averaged velocity distributions and root-mean-square velocity fluctuation distributions were obtained under various experimental conditions.

^{[5]}

^{[6]}The velocity fields inside the grooves are analyzed using ensemble averaging performed over a set of independent snapshots, recorded with the same operating parameters.

^{[7]}(1) Flow analysis using two-phase VOF algorithm: A series of two-dimensional velocity fields inside the slug along time is obtained for a certain duration.

^{[8]}Mean velocity fields inside the test chamber were obtained by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to quantitatively examine the effect of flow conditions on the PM deposition.

^{[9]}Through numerical simulations, this work provides detailed temperature fields and velocity fields inside a large internally heated corium pool, and further discusses in depth the interplay between the heat transfer characteristics and the natural convection behaviors.

^{[10]}Analyzing the airflow generated by a moving train in tunnels ventilated by jet fans is of significant importance because of the piston effects and the alternating pressure and velocity fields inside the tunnel.

^{[11]}It is shown that the instantaneous velocity fields inside the droplet, measured near the structured surface, are inhomogeneous.

^{[12]}The work numerically simulates the temperature and velocity fields inside the full arena using computational fluid dynamics techniques at different internal loads, prevailing wind speeds, prevailing wind temperatures and prevailing wind angles.

^{[13]}Besides, the analysis of the velocity fields inside the mill apparatus showed that decreasing milling nozzle numbers lead to increasing velocities inside the spiral jet mill, even if the mass flow rate of the gas supply is kept constant and the nozzle jet velocity is limited to sonic velocity at choked flow.

^{[14]}For correct simulation of the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer, it is necessary to take into account local characteristics of thermal and velocity fields inside a layer of the salt solution, as well as to determine the average characteristic scales of circulation into the liquid.

^{[15]}

一般来说，再循环区内的速度场得到了很好的一致性。

^{[1]}共轭传热的计算流体动力学 (CFD) 模拟产生了电子板上的温度分布以及外壳内的温度和流体速度场。

^{[2]}粒子图像测速仪用于生成有关液滴内部速度场的信息。

^{[3]}我们使用 PIV（粒子图像测速）技术测量轴流涡轮机内部的二维瞬时速度场。

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}(1) 使用两相VOF算法进行流动分析：在一定的时间段内获得段塞内部沿时间的一系列二维速度场。

^{[8]}通过粒子图像测速 (PIV) 技术获得测试室内的平均速度场，以定量检查流动条件对 PM 沉积的影响。

^{[9]}通过数值模拟，这项工作提供了大型内部加热的真皮池内的详细温度场和速度场，并进一步深入讨论了传热特性与自然对流行为之间的相互作用。

^{[10]}由于活塞效应以及隧道内的交变压力和速度场，分析由射流风扇通风的隧道中移动列车产生的气流非常重要。

^{[11]}结果表明，在结构化表面附近测量的液滴内部的瞬时速度场是不均匀的。

^{[12]}这项工作使用计算流体动力学技术在不同的内部载荷、盛行风速、盛行风温度和盛行风角度下对整个竞技场内的温度和速度场进行数值模拟。

^{[13]}nan

^{[14]}nan

^{[15]}

## Electromagnetic Fields Inside 内部的电磁场

Then there are opportunities for the implementation of the approximation of electromagnetic fields inside the premises and their prediction.^{[1]}To validate the experimental mapping technique, numerical simulations were used to predict the electromagnetic fields inside the cavity, and the simulations were then compared to the experimental result.

^{[2]}Here we investigate the radiative effects of sulfate containing aerosols of various sizes and core/shell structures using Mie scattering and three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations of the electromagnetic fields inside and around particulate matter particles.

^{[3]}In this work, we investigate how the 800 MeV proton radiography system of Los Alamos National Laboratory would respond to such influences with intentions to develop proton radiography/deflectometry diagnostics capable of probing electromagnetic fields inside dynamically changing objects.

^{[4]}This article investigates a statistical indoor exclusion zone (EZ) that can be efficiently applied to a nuclear power plant (NPP) by examining electromagnetic fields inside the actual NPP.

^{[5]}Incident optical radiation is coupled into plasmonic waveguide modes in metallic narrow-groove nanogratings leading to a localization of electromagnetic fields inside the narrow grooves.

^{[6]}Theoretical simulations confirmed that the metamaterial geometry with gap plasmons that was used allows us to confine electromagnetic fields inside the hematite semiconductor and to enhance the surface photochemistry.

^{[7]}Finite Difference Time Domain FDTD scheme is used to calculate the electromagnetic fields inside the different proposed unit cells during lightning surges.

^{[8]}In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electromagnetic fields inside specimens can be measured by detecting deflection of the convergent electron beam using a segmented or pixelated detector placed in the diffraction plane.

^{[9]}In this letter, we investigate the performance of subdermal ring designs for focusing electromagnetic fields inside the body for next-generation implantable medical devices.

^{[10]}In this study, we propose a new extrapolation expression based on the characteristic of electromagnetic fields inside the phantom in order to estimate internal electric field strength or SAR.

^{[11]}

然后有机会实现房屋内电磁场的近似及其预测。

^{[1]}为了验证实验映射技术，数值模拟用于预测腔内的电磁场，然后将模拟与实验结果进行比较。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}入射光辐射耦合到金属窄槽纳米光栅中的等离子体波导模式，导致电磁场在窄槽内的局部化。

^{[6]}理论模拟证实，使用具有间隙等离子体的超材料几何形状使我们能够将电磁场限制在赤铁矿半导体内部并增强表面光化学。

^{[7]}有限差分时域 FDTD 方案用于计算雷电浪涌期间不同建议单元格内的电磁场。

^{[8]}nan

^{[9]}nan

^{[10]}nan

^{[11]}

## Stres Fields Inside

Therefore, both experiments and finite element simulations were performed to investigate the effects of adding SSWs on the thermal and stress fields inside RPC specimens and structures, and then the thermal cracking risk of specimens and structures fabricated with SSW reinforced RPC were evaluated.^{[1]}In the current paper, a numerical method is built to predict the transient temperature and stress fields inside coated milling inserts during a dry milling application.

^{[2]}The presence of generalized vectors and transverse strain enhancement guarantee to the proposed formulation a good representation of strain and stress fields inside the element, allowing the use of complete three-dimensional constitutive law without any locking.

^{[3]}The symmetry of the stress tensor is strongly enforced using the well-known Voigt notation and the displacement and stress fields inside each cell are obtained by means of explicit formulas.

^{[4]}

因此，进行了实验和有限元模拟，以研究添加 SSW 对 RPC 试件和结构内部的热场和应力场的影响，然后评估 SSW 增强 RPC 制造的试件和结构的热开裂风险。

^{[1]}在当前的论文中，建立了一种数值方法来预测干铣应用期间涂层铣削刀片内的瞬态温度和应力场。

^{[2]}广义向量和横向应变增强的存在保证了所提出的公式可以很好地表示单元内的应变和应力场，允许使用完整的三维本构律而无需任何锁定。

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## Displacement Fields Inside 内部位移场

Given measurements of some displacement fields inside a medium, we show that a stable reconstruction of elastic parameters is possible, even for discontinuous parameters and without boundary information.^{[1]}Their consideration in disc modeling strategies has been proven to be essential for the reproduction of correct local strain and displacement fields inside the disc especially in the unconstrained directions of the disc.

^{[2]}Functions of bounded deformation (BD) are widely used in the theory of elastoplasticity to describe the possibly discontinuous displacement fields inside elastoplastic bodies.

^{[3]}By using phase retrieval, Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI) allows tracking of three-dimensional displacement fields inside individual nanocrystals.

^{[4]}

给定介质内一些位移场的测量结果，我们表明弹性参数的稳定重建是可能的，即使对于不连续参数且没有边界信息也是如此。

^{[1]}事实证明，他们在盘建模策略中的考虑对于再现盘内正确的局部应变和位移场至关重要，尤其是在盘的不受约束的方向上。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## Deformation Fields Inside 内部变形场

Mechanic-mathematical models of surface fiber optic piezoelectroluminescent (PEL) sensors installed on the surface of polymer composite structures, in particular, plates (shells) for refined monitoring of inhomogeneous "gradient" deformation fields inside structures, have been developed.^{[1]}In the paper, the mathematical model for determination of stress and deformation fields inside and at the elastic region boundary of deformation of orthotropic materials under the biaxial loadings is developed.

^{[2]}Furthermore, the finite element method is utilized to validate the accuracy of the presented solution by comparing the stress and deformation fields inside the light-sensitive FG hydrogel layer.

^{[3]}

已经开发了安装在聚合物复合结构表面上的表面光纤压电发光 (PEL) 传感器的机械数学模型，特别是用于精确监测结构内部不均匀“梯度”变形场的板（壳）。

^{[1]}建立了正交各向异性材料在双轴载荷作用下变形弹性区域边界内和边界处的应力和变形场确定数学模型。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## Pressure Fields Inside

The result of the work is a three-dimensional simulation of the velocity and pressure fields inside the synovial domain, as well as the loads and risks in every muscle and ligament.^{[1]}To reveal the damped oscillation of the system properly, the deformation and pressure fields inside the domain are described in terms of complete sets of basis functions.

^{[2]}Besides, the distribution of the velocity, axial, and wall pressure fields inside the microcapillary are also discussed.

^{[3]}

nan

^{[1]}为了正确揭示系统的阻尼振荡，域内的变形和压力场用完整的基函数集来描述。

^{[2]}此外，还讨论了微毛细管内的速度场、轴向场和壁压场的分布。

^{[3]}

## Sound Fields Inside 内部声场

The sound fields inside the ducts are modeled by Webster's horn equation.^{[1]}In this paper, the steady-state and transient sound fields inside 3D enclosed spaces were examined theoretically using the modal expansion method.

^{[2]}The present model was developed based on the existing plenum chamber theory in which the sound fields inside the plenum window cavities were assumed to make up of a diffracted wave and a reverberant field.

^{[3]}

管道内的声场由韦伯斯特喇叭方程建模。

^{[1]}在本文中，使用模态扩展方法从理论上检验了 3D 封闭空间内的稳态和瞬态声场。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## Reactive Fields Inside

It is based on dielectric loading which lessens the susceptibility of ICs independently of frequency by confining the reactive fields inside the dielectric load.^{[1]}It relies on dielectric loading which confines the reactive fields inside the dielectric load to improve the immunity of ICs independently of frequency without impairing IC performance.

^{[2]}

它基于介电负载，通过将电抗场限制在介电负载内，从而独立于频率降低 IC 的敏感性。

^{[1]}它依赖于将电介质负载限制在电介质负载内的电介质负载，以在不影响 IC 性能的情况下独立于频率提高 IC 的抗扰度。

^{[2]}

## Acoustic Fields Inside

The casing is considered as a complex coupled vibro-acoustic system, where the wall panels are excited by the acoustic fields inside the casing and by actuators bonded to the wall panels and used for active control.^{[1]}In this paper, we present a 3D numerical simulation taking into account the electromechanical fields of the piezoelectric SAW device, the acoustic displacement field in the attached elastic material, in which the liquid-filled microchannel is embedded, the acoustic fields inside the microchannel, as well as the resulting acoustic radiation force and streaming-induced drag force acting on micro- and nanoparticles suspended in the microchannel.

^{[2]}

## Thermal Fields Inside

The governing mass, momentum and thermal energy equations in transient state are solved using Galerkin finite element method in order to evaluate flow and thermal fields inside the vented cavity.^{[1]}Achieving good final uniformity of the film thickness depends critically on profiles of the thermal fields inside the film deposition chambers.

^{[2]}

## Strain Fields Inside 内部应变场

It is a well-known aspect that the strain fields inside QD(CL) gets altered both along [100] (perpendicular) and [001] (parallel) directions, when employed with an appropriate CL thickness and composition (%).^{[1]}Description of design, principles and functioning of distributed optical fiber piezoelectroluminescent (PEL) sensors embedded in polymer composite structures for refined monitoring of inhomogeneous “gradient” strains fields inside structures is given.

^{[2]}

众所周知，当采用适当的 CL 厚度和成分 (%) 时，QD(CL) 内部的应变场沿 [100]（垂直）和 [001]（平行）方向发生变化。

^{[1]}介绍了嵌入聚合物复合材料结构中的分布式光纤压电发光 (PEL) 传感器的设计、原理和功能，用于精确监测结构内部的不均匀“梯度”应变场。

^{[2]}

## fields inside structure 结构内的字段

Mechanic-mathematical models of surface fiber optic piezoelectroluminescent (PEL) sensors installed on the surface of polymer composite structures, in particular, plates (shells) for refined monitoring of inhomogeneous "gradient" deformation fields inside structures, have been developed.^{[1]}Description of design, principles and functioning of distributed optical fiber piezoelectroluminescent (PEL) sensors embedded in polymer composite structures for refined monitoring of inhomogeneous “gradient” strains fields inside structures is given.

^{[2]}

已经开发了安装在聚合物复合结构表面上的表面光纤压电发光 (PEL) 传感器的机械数学模型，特别是用于精确监测结构内部不均匀“梯度”变形场的板（壳）。

^{[1]}介绍了嵌入聚合物复合材料结构中的分布式光纤压电发光 (PEL) 传感器的设计、原理和功能，用于精确监测结构内部的不均匀“梯度”应变场。

^{[2]}