## Cs Teachers(CS教师)研究综述

Cs Teachers CS教师 - This study aimed at identifying the reality of mathematics teachers’ practices in the secondary stages of electronic Mathematical communication skills and their attitude towards its use in teaching.^{[1]}The study results present the practice of cognitive assessment regularly carried out by online-based mathematics teachers in high-grade elementary schools to secondary schools.

^{[2]}This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the professional identity measure of the professional identity of Mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

^{[3]}This article presents an analysis of requests for authorization, conversion or recognition of courses that trained mathematics teachers in Brazil, between 1962 and 1979, from federal or private public institutions, published in Documenta Magazine.

^{[4]}This study critically examines the mathematics knowledge of pre-service post-primary mathematics teachers (N = 85) on commencing their Professional Master of Education (Level 9) initial teacher edu.

^{[5]}The purpose of the article is to determine the content and structure of future mathematics teachers’ preparedness to organize mobile learning for schoolchildren.

^{[6]}The COVID 19 pandemic promotes several new technological products to facilitate learning process However, there are still few studies on the integration of Augmented Reality (AR) technology into Blended Learning (BL), particularly on the education of prospective mathematics teachers This research examines the effect of using augmented reality blended learning during the COVID 19 epidemic on 3D geometry, as well as the learning motivation and attitudes 15 prospective teachers, including 4 males and 11 females, at one of Indonesia's private universities were engaged in to determine how 3D geometry is understood Data on learning motivation and attitudes were collected through questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired-samples t-test The results show that during the COVID-19 pandemic, augmented reality blended learning facilitates the comprehension of 3D geometry knowledge by prospective teacher applicants and promotes learning motivation and attitudes Therefore, the use of new technology is significant to prospective teachers' needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic, to facilitate their teaching practice in real classrooms © 2021 Karadeniz Technical University All rights reserved.

^{[7]}This research aims to identify science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their educational practice through applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).

^{[8]}The results of the data analysis show that: the implementation of learning components and strategies using the quantum learning model in physics learning are grouped into sufficient categories, the use of e-books is that physics teachers have never used them, teacher only uses printed books or modules in learning.

^{[9]}The subjects of this research were 30 students of senor high school and 5 mathematics teachers.

^{[10]}Pedagogical experiments were carried out based on the elaboration, development and evaluation of interdisciplinary projects conducted with students in the final years of elementary school (11 14 years of age), with the participation of science, geography, Portuguese, and mathematics teachers.

^{[11]}Can mathematics education contribute to build a better world? The chapter reports on a participatory research conducted by a researcher in mathematics education together with 11 mathematics teachers.

^{[12]}25% and has been tested on physics teachers with an average score of 82.

^{[13]}The research instrument was a paper‐based questionnaire on a five‐point Likert scale administered face to face to randomly selected mathematics teachers from among 5 states in Nigeria, Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data and possible conclusions were drawn.

^{[14]}Secondly, this study also aimed to examine participating Turkish preservice mathematics teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching by using international results of TEDS-M Study.

^{[15]}Specific topics for the physics teachers are presented in the following section:" Mechanical movement "based on Lego;" Sound and sound waves.

^{[16]}This study was intended to investigate high school Mathematics teachers’ perception of the learning models associated with students’ critical thinking skills.

^{[17]}Article History: Purpose: Drawing on semi-structured and focusedgroup interviews performed with various pre-service mathematics teachers and in-service mathematics teachers, the present study benefits from the frame of teacher identity to make the meaning of heterogeneity among their experiences and perceptions of mathematics teaching anxiety.

^{[18]}To understand the root of problem in teaching multiplication, this study aims a t elaborating the abilities of prospective mathematics teachers in making sense the multiplication algorithm.

^{[19]}The ability to prove formal mathematics is an important ability that must be mastered by undergraduate prospective mathematics teachers.

^{[20]}The research analyses the existing developments of the issue about the use of blended learning while training would-be mathematics teachers.

^{[21]}This article is the result of research that aimed to study the perceptions of physics teachers in the city of Vilhena-RO about their needs for continuing education in digital technologies in education.

^{[22]}Mathematics teachers in SMP / MTs in Lengayang District, Pesisir Selatan Regency still have limitations in using computers as a tool for making learning media with the help of math software.

^{[23]}The purpose of the research is to examine the development of elementary mathematics teachers’ use of multiple representation and translations between representations throughout the implementations of hypothetical learning trajectories.

^{[24]}80, determined by the results of the teaching material assessment conducted by mathematics teachers at SMP Negeri 56 Palembang.

^{[25]}The product design stage produces a product that is then validated by the media and material by experts in their fields and practicality by mathematics teachers.

^{[26]}This paper reports the results of a survey of English secondary mathematics teachers’ use of ICT (n = 183).

^{[27]}This article tries to show the paths taken by mathematics teachers, still without experience in Mathematical Modeling, in the conduction of a task using this methodology.

^{[28]}The duo of artefacts is a simplified model of the complex systems of various manipulatives (either tangible or virtual) that mathematics teachers and their students use in classrooms.

^{[29]}This report deals with one of the presented problems in the initial training of mathematics teachers and aims to characterize the process of variation problems of linear algebra at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo.

^{[30]}An intervention program to address these concerns was designed and recommended for use by the mathematics teachers.

^{[31]}Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Mathematics teachers should adopt cooperative learning strategy as an effective learning strategy in order to improve senior secondary school students’ academic performance.

^{[32]}The problem of High School Physics teachers in West Aceh Regency is the limited facilities and infrastructure for the Physics laboratory.

^{[33]}The samples were 132 Science and Mathematics teachers during 2019 academic year in Thailand.

^{[34]}The feasibility test was carried out by material experts, media experts, design experts and Senior High School Physics Teachers.

^{[35]}The article discusses the issues of enhancing the learning process, increasing the efficiency of the lesson using innovative methods necessary in the future and professional activities of future physics teachers.

^{[36]}In this study, we analyzed White Christian prospective and practicing mathematics teachers’ discourses.

^{[37]}And There is a positive and significant influence of transformational leadership, compensation and work motivation on job satisfaction at mathematics Teachers.

^{[38]}The interplay between mathematics teachers’ beliefs and practices has been widely investigated and research has examined how teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, teaching and learning change when participating in continuing professional development (CPD).

^{[39]}Previous studies of prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ mathematics anxiety have documented that many prospective teachers often worry about managing their repeated experiences of anxiety while developing their pedagogical and content knowledge to teach mathematics.

^{[40]}The study involved 10 physics teachers and 105 high school students in Lampung Province.

^{[41]}This study takes an in-depth look into what Japanese junior high mathematics teachers do during their daily kyouzaikenkyuu, and why they do it.

^{[42]}The results of this study are very important as information and input for educational providers in elementary schools, especially for mathematics teachers who directly interact with students in the learning process.

^{[43]}The subjects in the study were physics teachers and students at SMA Negeri 3 Palu and SMA Karunadipa Palu.

^{[44]}Based on the findings, Mathematics teachers were recommended to take control over the students and improve students’ perceived control and confidence value during Mathematics evaluation so that their emotional condition could be well-controlled.

^{[45]}Here, in addition to the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), later the State University of Amazonas (UEA), other private institutions made possible, in a certain way, the development of this area of knowledge in our state and the training of Mathematics teachers.

^{[46]}This study aims to analyze the skills of high school physics teachers in developing STEM-based learning in Curriculum K13.

^{[47]}

本研究旨在确定数学教师在电子数学交流技能的第二阶段实践的现实及其对教学中使用它的态度。

^{[1]}研究结果展示了高年级小学到中学在线数学教师定期开展的认知评估实践。

^{[2]}本研究旨在评估沙特阿拉伯王国数学教师专业认同的专业认同测量的心理测量特性。

^{[3]}本文分析了 1962 年至 1979 年间，联邦或私人公共机构对巴西数学教师培训课程的授权、转换或认可请求，发表在 Documenta Magazine 上。

^{[4]}这项研究批判性地检查了职前小学后数学教师（N = 85）在开始其专业教育硕士（9级）初始教师教育时的数学知识。

^{[5]}本文的目的是确定未来数学教师准备组织学童移动学习的内容和结构。

^{[6]}COVID 19 大流行促进了几种新技术产品以促进学习过程然而，关于将增强现实 (AR) 技术集成到混合学习 (BL) 中的研究仍然很少，特别是关于未来数学教师的教育这项研究检验了效果在 COVID 19 流行期间在 3D 几何上使用增强现实混合学习，以及学习动机和态度 印度尼西亚一所私立大学的 15 名准教师（包括 4 名男性和 11 名女性）参与确定如何理解 3D 几何通过问卷和访谈收集有关学习动机和态度的数据，并使用描述性统计和配对样本 t 检验进行分析 结果表明，在 COVID-19 大流行期间，增强现实混合学习有助于未来教师申请者对 3D 几何知识的理解并促进学习动机和态度es 因此，新技术的使用对未来教师的需求非常重要，尤其是在 COVID 19 大流行期间，以促进他们在真实教室中的教学实践 © 2021 Karadeniz Technical University 版权所有。

^{[7]}本研究旨在通过应用技术接受和使用统一理论 (UTAUT) 来确定科学和数学教师对将信息和通信技术 (ICT) 整合到其教育实践中的态度。

^{[8]}数据分析结果表明：物理学习中使用量子学习模型的学习组件和策略的实现被划分为足够的类别，电子书的使用是物理教师从未使用过的，教师只使用印刷书籍或学习模块。

^{[9]}本研究对象为30名高中学生和5名数学教师。

^{[10]}在科学、地理、葡萄牙语和数学教师的参与下，在小学最后几年（11 至 14 岁）学生进行的跨学科项目的制定、开发和评估的基础上进行了教学实验。

^{[11]}数学教育可以为建设一个更美好的世界做出贡献吗？本章报告了一位数学教育研究人员与 11 位数学教师一起进行的参与式研究。

^{[12]}25%，并在物理老师身上测试过，平均分 82 分。

^{[13]}研究工具是一份纸质问卷，采用李克特五点量表，对来自尼日利亚 5 个州的随机选择的数学教师进行面对面的问卷调查，使用均值和标准差分析数据并得出可能的结论。

^{[14]}其次，本研究还旨在利用 TEDS-M 研究的国际成果，考察参与的土耳其职前数学教师的数学教学知识。

^{[15]}物理教师的具体主题将在以下部分介绍：“基于乐高的机械运动”；“声音和声波”。

^{[16]}本研究旨在调查高中数学教师对与学生批判性思维技能相关的学习模式的看法。

^{[17]}文章历史： 目的：本研究利用对各种职前数学教师和在职数学教师进行的半结构化和集中式小组访谈，从教师身份的框架中受益，以了解他们的经历和认知的异质性。数学教学焦虑。

^{[18]}为了了解乘法教学中问题的根源，本研究旨在阐述未来数学教师理解乘法算法的能力。

^{[19]}证明形式数学的能力是本科未来数学教师必须掌握的一项重要能力。

^{[20]}该研究分析了在培训未来的数学教师时使用混合学习问题的现有发展。

^{[21]}本文是一项研究的结果，旨在研究 Vilhena-RO 市物理教师对教育数字技术继续教育需求的看法。

^{[22]}Pesisir Selatan Regency Lengayang 区的 SMP / MT 的数学教师在使用计算机作为借助数学软件制作学习媒体的工具方面仍然存在局限性。

^{[23]}该研究的目的是检查小学数学教师在整个假设学习轨迹的实施过程中使用多重表示和表示之间的转换的发展。

^{[24]}80，由 SMP Negeri 56 Palembang 的数学老师进行的教材评估结果确定。

^{[25]}产品设计阶段生产出一种产品，然后由媒体和材料由各自领域的专家验证，并由数学教师进行实用性验证。

^{[26]}本文报告了一项关于英语中学数学教师使用 ICT 的调查结果（n = 183）。

^{[27]}本文试图展示仍然没有数学建模经验的数学教师在使用这种方法执行任务时所采取的路径。

^{[28]}人工制品二重奏是数学教师及其学生在课堂上使用的各种操作工具（有形的或虚拟的）的复杂系统的简化模型。

^{[29]}本报告涉及数学教师初始培训中出现的问题之一，旨在描述圣多明各自治大学线性代数变化问题的过程。

^{[30]}为解决这些问题设计了一个干预计划，并推荐给数学教师使用。

^{[31]}根据研究结果，建议数学教师采用合作学习策略作为有效的学习策略，以提高高中生的学习成绩。

^{[32]}西亚齐县高中物理教师的问题是物理实验室的设施和基础设施有限。

^{[33]}样本是泰国 2019 学年的 132 名科学和数学教师。

^{[34]}可行性测试由材料专家、媒体专家、设计专家和高中物理教师进行。

^{[35]}本文讨论了使用未来必要的创新方法和未来物理教师的专业活动来加强学习过程、提高课堂效率的问题。

^{[36]}在这项研究中，我们分析了白人基督徒的前瞻性和实践数学教师的话语。

^{[37]}变革型领导、薪酬和工作动机对数学教师的工作满意度有显着的正向影响。

^{[38]}数学教师的信念和实践之间的相互作用已被广泛调查，并且研究检查了教师在参与持续专业发展 (CPD) 时对数学、教学和学习的信念如何变化。

^{[39]}以前对未来小学数学教师数学焦虑的研究表明，许多未来的教师在发展他们的教学和内容知识来教授数学时，经常担心管理他们反复的焦虑经历。

^{[40]}该研究涉及楠榜省的 10 名物理教师和 105 名高中生。

^{[41]}本研究深入探讨了日本初中数学教师在日常 kyouzakenkyuu 中所做的事情，以及他们这样做的原因。

^{[42]}这项研究的结果对于小学教育提供者，特别是对于在学习过程中直接与学生互动的数学教师来说，作为信息和输入非常重要。

^{[43]}研究对象是 SMA Negeri 3 Palu 和 SMA Karunadipa Palu 的物理教师和学生。

^{[44]}根据研究结果，建议数学教师在数学评估过程中对学生进行控制，提高学生的感知控制和信心值，从而使他们的情绪状态得到很好的控制。

^{[45]}在这里，除了亚马逊联邦大学（UFAM），后来的亚马逊州立大学（UEA）之外，其他私立机构以某种方式使我们州的这一知识领域的发展和培训成为可能的数学教师。

^{[46]}本研究旨在分析高中物理教师在 K13 课程中开展基于 STEM 的学习的技能。

^{[47]}

## junior high school 初中

The instrument was an open questionnaire, and it was given to 26 mathematics teachers at junior high school in Padang Pariaman region.^{[1]}Hence, this study aimed to describe the knowledge competency among junior high school mathematics teachers on the research processes applied on the contents of the various sections of a quantitative research paper.

^{[2]}For suggestion, mathematics teachers in junior high schools can apply this study’s results to improve higher-order thinking skills and become more familiar with their culture.

^{[3]}Drawing on convergent mixed methods research design, this study examined Junior High School (JHS) mathematics teachers’ practice of differentiated instruction and its associated challenges in Tano South district, in the Ahafo Region of Ghana.

^{[4]}ABSTRACT This study sought to determine the Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ level of professional and personal characteristics in Maguindanao Division I.

^{[5]}The study involved three mathematics teachers and 90 students from three different junior high school regions in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia (city center, semi-urban, and suburban).

^{[6]}The purpose of this study: To analyse the role of junior high school mathematics teachers in developing 4C competencies.

^{[7]}The research subjects were junior high school Mathematics teachers.

^{[8]}Sources of data came from seven junior high school mathematics teachers (SMP) in Kudus and Tangerang who provided answers to questions in the google form.

^{[9]}The results of interviews with mathematics teachers in Junior High School 2 Jumapolo, it is known that students often experience difficulties in learning mathematics.

^{[10]}The subject of the research was 34 physics teachers in Junior High School, which is 13 of male teachers and 21 female teachers.

^{[11]}This research uses descriptive qualitative methods, conducted by interviewing 15 mathematics teachers and observations made to 10 junior high school students.

^{[12]}Participants of this research were 12 junior high school mathematics teachers from 12 high schools in the Special Region of Yogyakarta and Central Java.

^{[13]}

该工具为开放式问卷，发放给巴东帕里亚曼地区的 26 名初中数学教师。

^{[1]}因此，本研究旨在描述初中数学教师对定量研究论文各部分内容的研究过程的知识能力。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}nan

^{[8]}nan

^{[9]}nan

^{[10]}nan

^{[11]}nan

^{[12]}nan

^{[13]}

## pedagogical content knowledge 教学内容知识

This paper presents an investigation of the development of mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through collaborative lesson design activities.^{[1]}Nøkkelord: matematiske undervisningsutfordringer, undervisningskunnskap, tallforståelse Mathematics teachers’ reflections about experienced tasks of teaching Teaching requires a special content knowledge as well as pedagogical content knowledge.

^{[2]}The current study, in particular, attempted to test whether prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ (PEMTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the domain of algebra improved through attendance in a structured elective course.

^{[3]}The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy of pre-service physics teachers on the competence of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge (WPACK), determine the relationship between the components of self-efficacy of pre-service physics teachers to these competencies, and map them out.

^{[4]}In this exploratory study, a sample of 244 secondary mathematics teachers was considered to analyze their perception of their readiness to ERT during the COVID-19 pandemic based on their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK), their previous training in digital teaching tools, their level of digital competence for teaching mathematics, and their adaptation to ERT.

^{[5]}This study reports mixed-methods research findings, which assesses the level of mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in selected secondary schools of Zanzibar.

^{[6]}This paper aims to discuss the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development by mathematics teachers (preservice and inservice) that participated in an online course for developing educational apps and puzzles with GeoGebra.

^{[7]}

本文通过协作课程设计活动对数学教师技术教学内容知识（TPACK）的发展进行了调查。

^{[1]}关键词：数学教学挑战，教学知识，数感 数学教师对教学经历的反思 教学需要特殊的内容知识以及教学内容知识。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}

## upper secondary school 高中

In this paper, we describe a study with 71 upper secondary school students, 50 pre-service mathematics teachers, and 66 in-service mathematics teachers, based on an extended didactical framework regarding mathematical modelling as a creativity-demanding activity.^{[1]}A descriptive design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized whereby data were collected from 201 upper secondary school respondents comprising 171 students, 16 mathematics teachers, 7 department heads, and 7 school heads from seven randomly selected schools in the districts of Ba and Tavua.

^{[2]}This is done by giving upper secondary school mathematics teachers real working life examples connected to topics in their courses and developing a MOOC for students in which they can solve workrelated mathematical problems.

^{[3]}

在本文中，我们描述了一项针对 71 名高中生、50 名职前数学教师和 66 名在职数学教师的研究，该研究基于将数学建模视为一项需要创造力的活动的扩展教学框架。

^{[1]}采用定量和定性方法的描述性设计，数据来自 201 名高中受访者，其中包括来自 Ba 和 Tavua 地区的 7 所随机选择的学校的 171 名学生、16 名数学教师、7 名系主任和 7 名校长。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## professional development course 专业发展课程

Our group has carried out a collaboration project with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in a PLS (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche) professional development course promoted by the Department of Science and High Technology (DiSAT – Dipartimento Scienze e Alta Tecnologia) of Insubria University in Como, Italy.^{[1]}That is why a professional development course was developed in which five mathematics teachers of braille readers in special secondary education participated.

^{[2]}The design heuristic was implemented in both cycles in an online professional development course for secondary mathematics teachers.

^{[3]}

我组与一群高中物理教师开展了一个合作项目，该项目由 Insubria 大学科学与高科技系 (DiSAT – Dipartimento Scienze e Alta Tecnologia) 推动，从事 PLS (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche) 专业发展课程。意大利科莫。

^{[1]}这就是为什么开发了一个专业发展课程，其中有五位特殊中学盲文阅读器的数学教师参加。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## cs teachers use Cs教师使用

However, not much is known about how primary school mathematics teachers use oral questioning to assess student learning because previous studies have focused more on oral questioning in general in terms of its implementation in teaching.^{[1]}Embracing a multisemiotic approach, this case study addresses the ways in which prospective middle school mathematics teachers use linguistic signifiers idiosyncratic to the Turkish language to construe mathematical meaning of angles formed by two lines cut by a transversal.

^{[2]}Therefore, we try to answer the following research questions: (1) What elements/ materials/sources do high school physics teachers use to organize didactic activities based on experimentation? (2) What are the main aspects that characterize how high school physics teachers usually work experimentation in their classes? To collect information, we conducted interviews with seven high school physics teachers from schools belonging to the State Public Network of a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.

^{[3]}Hence, this paper aimed to investigate to what extend do Malaysian primary Mathematics teachers use textbooks in preparing their lesson plans and implement textbooks approach in teaching Mathematics.

^{[4]}

然而，对于小学数学教师如何使用口头提问来评估学生的学习情况知之甚少，因为以往的研究更多地关注口头提问在教学中的实施。

^{[1]}本案例研究采用多符号学方法，探讨了未来的中学数学教师使用土耳其语特有的语言能指来解释由两条横切线形成的角度的数学意义的方式。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## cs teachers participated Cs教师参与

There were 408 mathematics teachers participated in this program which resulted in 78 revised teaching materials.^{[1]}The case explores demographic information related to teacher preparation and the sample is drawn from eighth grade science and mathematics teachers participated in TIMSS 2007, 2011, and 2015 in Turkey.

^{[2]}Therefore, an experiment was conducted to explore whether game-based teaching can change students’ interest and improves achievement? For this, 108 female students and 10 elementary mathematics teachers participated in this study.

^{[3]}1719 students and 53 mathematics teachers participated in the study.

^{[4]}

共有408名数学教师参加了该项目，修改了教材78部。

^{[1]}该案例探讨了与教师准备相关的人口统计信息，样本来自于土耳其参加 TIMSS 2007、2011 和 2015 年的八年级科学和数学教师。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## cs teachers must Cs教师必备

Factors that can affect the understanding of Civics teachers, the existence of socialization with fellow Civics teachers, the existence of a two-way communication with MGMP members, the existence of shared perceptions in overcoming problematic students, the existence of collaboration when solving problems faced by students and cooperation can be carried out with teachers PAI, counseling teachers, Civics teachers must know or really understand the role and objectives of Civics learning, because Civics subjects have a role in education to develop character development through the role of Civics teachers.^{[1]}Mathematics teachers must actively create conditions in teaching, and guide students to discover and learn direct activity, thinking and representation.

^{[2]}Mathematics teachers must be able to engage in self-reflection and think constructively about their professional activities to instruct students effectively.

^{[3]}Pre-service mathematics teachers must have the ability to select and use measures of center.

^{[4]}

可能影响公民教师理解的因素，与公民教师的社会交往的存在，与 MGMP 成员的双向沟通的存在，在克服问题学生时存在共同的看法，在解决学生面临的问题时存在协作学生和合作可以与教师PAI、辅导教师进行，公民教师必须知道或真正了解公民学习的作用和目标，因为公民学科在教育中的作用是通过公民教师的角色来发展性格。

^{[1]}数学教师在教学中要积极创造条件，引导学生发现和学习直接的活动性、思维性和表征性。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## cs teachers need Cs教师需要

As CS is (re-)entering national school curricula throughout the world, qualified CS teachers need to be trained.^{[1]}Physics teachers need to mastery TPACK and teamwork skills because they were essential in work.

^{[2]}After assessing the quality of pupils' knowledge, we can judge for which mathematics topics teachers need methodic help in the self-directed learning process in primary school.

^{[3]}One of the competencies mathematics teachers need is the deepening of subject matter in mathematical concepts.

^{[4]}

由于 CS 正在（重新）进入世界各地的国家学校课程，因此需要对合格的 CS 教师进行培训。

^{[1]}物理教师需要掌握 TPACK 和团队合作技能，因为它们在工作中必不可少。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}

## cs teachers working Cs教师工作

This study is a qualitative research which was conducted in order to reveal the instructional explanations of class teachers and primary school mathematics teachers working in state schools about division.^{[1]}Suitable samples were chosen among the sample types and the sample of the research was formed by 11 volunteer Religious Culture and Ethics teachers working at secondary schools at the 2019-2020 academic year.

^{[2]}Research data were obtained by evaluating 36 concept cartoons created by mathematics teachers working in Sivas city center.

^{[3]}

本研究是一项定性研究，旨在揭示在公立学校工作的班主任和小学数学教师对除法的教学解释。

^{[1]}从样本类型中选择合适的样本，研究样本由2019-2020学年在中学工作的11名志愿者宗教文化和伦理教师组成。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## cs teachers regarding Cs教师关于

This study aims to explore the beliefs of primary school mathematics teachers regarding mathematics assessment.^{[1]}This article aims to present the perceptions of a group of basic education mathematics teachers regarding the teaching strategy called application of models and highlight its relationship with mathematical modelling in the educational context.

^{[2]}This study was conducted to describe the types of feedback given by primary school mathematics teachers regarding the student response in the oral questioning process when teaching mathematics.

^{[3]}

本研究旨在探讨小学数学教师对数学评估的信念。

^{[1]}本文旨在介绍一群基础教育数学教师对模型应用教学策略的看法，并强调其与教育背景下的数学建模的关系。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## cs teachers solved Cs老师解决了

Having utilized data from a series of task-based interviews, this study examined connections between empirical and structural reasoning as preservice mathematics teachers solved problems designed to engage them in constructing and generalizing mathematical ideas aided by digital tools.^{[1]}, 2020) to characterize how 51 mathematics teachers solved a comparison proportional problem.

^{[2]}

本研究利用一系列基于任务的访谈的数据，检验了经验推理和结构推理之间的联系，因为职前数学教师解决了旨在让他们在数字工具的帮助下构建和概括数学思想的问题。

^{[1]}, 2020) 来描述 51 位数学教师如何解决比较比例问题。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers identified Cs教师确定

Latent profile analysis for 156 secondary-level mathematics teachers identified three motivational profiles which differed only in their performance goals: low performance goal-oriented (49%), high performance goal-oriented (38%), and high performance-avoidance goal-oriented (13%).^{[1]}The participants of the study were comprised of 13 middle school mathematics teachers identified via the maximum sampling technique.

^{[2]}

对 156 名中学数学教师的潜在概况分析确定了三种动机概况，它们仅在绩效目标上有所不同：低绩效目标导向 (49%)、高绩效目标导向 (38%) 和高绩效回避目标导向（13%）。

^{[1]}该研究的参与者由通过最大抽样技术确定的 13 名中学数学教师组成。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers spread Cs教师传播

The research data were obtained from unstructured interviews with 10 middle school mathematics teachers spread across 4 districts in West Sulawesi Province.^{[1]}Data were collected using a needs analysis questionnaire with 14 respondents of physics teachers spread across several regions in Indonesia and 36 respondents of class XI students in SMA Negeri 2 Sragen.

^{[2]}

研究数据来自对分布在西苏拉威西省 4 个地区的 10 名中学数学教师的非结构化访谈。

^{[1]}数据是使用需求分析问卷收集的，其中包括分布在印度尼西亚多个地区的 14 名物理教师受访者和 SMA Negeri 2 Sragen 的 36 名 XI 班学生的受访者。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers acros Cs Teachers Acros

xvii), the ICMI Study “is posited on the experience of many mathematics teachers across the world that its history makes a difference : that having the history of mathematics as a resource for the teacher is beneficial.^{[1]}Specifically, it aimed to study the competence level of economics teachers across curriculum content, instructional design and implementation, and assessment and evaluation procedures.

^{[2]}

xvii)，ICMI 研究“基于世界各地许多数学教师的经验，即其历史产生了影响：将数学史作为教师的资源是有益的。

^{[1]}具体而言，它旨在研究经济学教师在课程内容、教学设计和实施以及评估和评估程序方面的能力水平。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers actively Cs教师积极

In a face-to-face professional development workshop with 457 mathematics teachers actively participating using an online platform, we found that after a 10-min introduction they could successfully apply the algorithm and use it in a couple of models.^{[1]}In a face-to-face professional development workshop with 457 mathematics teachers actively participating using an online platform, we found that after a 10-minute introduction they could successfully apply the algorithm and use it in a couple of models.

^{[2]}

在一个有 457 名数学教师使用在线平台积极参与的面对面专业发展研讨会中，我们发现在 10 分钟的介绍之后，他们可以成功地应用该算法并在几个模型中使用它。

^{[1]}在一个有 457 名数学教师使用在线平台积极参与的面对面专业发展研讨会中，我们发现在 10 分钟的介绍后，他们可以成功地应用该算法并在几个模型中使用它。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers may Cs教师可能

Accordingly, aside from assisting their more gifted students, mathematics teachers may want to consider ways to introduce Gaussian thinking to the benefit of all their students.^{[1]}Researchers recommend that Mathematics teachers may use PEDE Productive Failure as a modular learning approach in the new normal to develop creative thinking ability in Mathematics.

^{[2]}

因此，除了帮助更有天赋的学生之外，数学老师可能还想考虑引入高斯思维的方法，以造福所有学生。

^{[1]}研究人员建议数学教师可以使用 PEDE 生产失败作为新常态下的模块化学习方法，以培养数学的创造性思维能力。

^{[2]}

## cs teachers toward Cs教师走向

This study aims to determine the opinions and attitudes of secondary school mathematics teachers towards using technology in mathematics education.^{[1]}Searching for effective teaching methods that contribute to providing structured and influential experiences in learning mathematics and finding and employing methods Educational assistance assisting the teacher in fixing concepts, facts and generalizations in the learner’s long-term memory during the Corona pandemic and raising the level of students ’achievement in mathematics in light of studies that confirm the low level of achievement in this topic during the pandemic and a comparison between the achievement of male and female students in terms of the effectiveness of the teaching method (using the telephone Mobile) from distance and knowing the trends of mathematics teachers towards using the mobile phone as an educational method for distance learning.

^{[2]}

本研究旨在确定中学数学教师对在数学教育中使用技术的看法和态度。

^{[1]}寻找有效的教学方法，有助于在学习数学方面提供结构化和有影响力的经验，并寻找和使用方法 教育援助，帮助教师在电晕大流行期间在学习者的长期记忆中确定概念、事实和概括，并提高学生的水平'根据研究证实在大流行期间该主题的成就水平较低以及男女学生在远程教学方法（使用电话移动）的有效性方面的成就比较了解数学教师使用手机作为远程学习教育方法的趋势。

^{[2]}