## Cs Courses(计算机科学课程)研究综述

Cs Courses 计算机科学课程 - Poor student motivation in the online lecture process encourages researchers to provide a treatment that results in better student motivation in basic physics courses.^{[1]}One of them is mathematical communication skills in learning mathematics courses.

^{[2]}Physics courses that focus on developing and assessing student competency through the use of standards have successfully been implemented in the past.

^{[3]}Based on these results, the authors suggest applying this description model within Learning Factories, online learning platforms, and offline robotics courses.

^{[4]}In this study, we showcase a design of an undergraduate Business Analytics track that integrates professional certifications from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAS, and Salesforce with core Business Analytics courses in an Information Systems undergraduate degree program.

^{[5]}These effects are evidence that the content of introductory economics courses, not just the messaging around the gender of economists.

^{[6]}On the other hand, organizations like the European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI), the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the American Mathematical Society (AMS), and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) involved with the education of engineering professionals, for decades have regarded modeling as an essential skill to foster in students of engineering and related professions, and have called for including modeling in university mathematics courses.

^{[7]}9%), and SCS courses (75.

^{[8]}However, students who are prospective mathematics teachers have difficulty in constructing proof in mathematics courses.

^{[9]}It is hoped that this experimental setup can be used by teachers in STEM activities, especially for physics courses.

^{[10]}Statistical power is an important topic taught in most graduate-level and undergraduate-level mathematical statistics courses, but it is often difficult to understand conceptually.

^{[11]}Only later, in graduate school, some had an opportunity to take bioinformatics courses such as computational biology, systems biology, or statistical programming.

^{[12]}However, high-quality bioinformatics courses are often impeded by differences in computational environments, complicated software stacks, numerous dependencies, and versions of bioinformatics tools along with a lack of local computational infrastructure and expertise.

^{[13]}Furthermore, structured training programs and ethics courses in graduate programs are needed to enhance practitioners’ ethical knowledge.

^{[14]}This review seeks to address the overall trends of the existing studies, contribution of integrated model or strategy and media into flipped classroom approach, the advantages of flipping classroom for physics courses, and the challenges of these studies.

^{[15]}As the selectivity and rigor increases among Advanced Placement Physics courses, the enrollment distribution of student ethnicities increasingly diverge from the U.

^{[16]}The object of the research was students of civil engineering, unsera in engineering mathematics courses.

^{[17]}We describe our experience in teaching two different levels of undergraduate business analytics courses during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic In particular, we focus on two challenges that arose during the shift to emergency remote teaching: 1) engaging students and 2) teaching students how to use software We discuss our efforts to mitigate the effects of these problems and highlight the differences in implementing our strategies in a general-education (i e , required for business majors) course versus an upper-level elective Finally, we discuss lessons learned and recommendations for other educators regardless of their teaching modality © 2021 by the Association for Information Systems.

^{[18]}It was physics teachers’ responsibility to teach applications of mathematics; therefore, physics courses were highly mathematics-intensive, making extensive use of mathematics from algebra to calculus in the formulation of scientific laws and the investigation of their consequences.

^{[19]}Unmotivated students, acting as passive consumers, wanting to pass the exam with the least possible effort, is a common problem in basic statistics courses in undergraduate engineering education.

^{[20]}The population in this study were Mechanical Engineering students in semester 4 of the 2020 academic year at the Muhammadiyah University of Tangerang who took Engineering Mathematics courses on the topic of Differential Equations.

^{[21]}Understanding the concept of randomness is fundamental for students in introductory statistics courses, but the notion of randomness is deceivingly complex, so it is often emphasized less than the mechanics of probability and inference.

^{[22]}The research was conducted on 30 students of IAIN Salatiga who program basic physics courses.

^{[23]}This study aims to see the role of virtual experiments during online learning in basic electronics courses and to describe students' conceptual understanding.

^{[24]}The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether students’ motivation-related perceptions of mathematics courses were related to their ratings of instruction while controlling for their academic major, type of math class, and expected grade in the class.

^{[25]}) over conventional null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) raises the question of appropriate material coverage in undergraduate statistics courses.

^{[26]}The American Sociological Association recommends that sociology majors engage in research beyond their research methods and statistics courses.

^{[27]}Basic econometrics courses are taught in economics, finance, business administration, and different departments of other faculties.

^{[28]}Digital books themselves are very suitable for complex and memorizing learning such as macroeconomics courses, the reason digital books are suitable for macroeconomic learning is that they can be carried anytime and anywhere.

^{[29]}The research subjects were students of technical engineering vocational education in one of the public universities in Indonesia who took Basic Electrical and Electronics courses, namely 25 students.

^{[30]}However, research on the instrument identification test of the difficulty of learning mathematics in students in basic mathematics courses is still very little especially with the approach of item response theory.

^{[31]}to establish the dependence of hormonal resistance on the frequency of GCS courses for 12 months without taking into account the starting dosage of GCS.

^{[32]}The results of the assessment of Electronics courses with the application of the SCL-PjBL method for 131 students in the 2018/2019 school year obtained an average score of soft skills of 72% from a 40% rating or 28.

^{[33]}The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their engagement in an experiential learning project with a focus on financial literacy within general education mathematics courses (skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors).

^{[34]}The authors provide detailed guidance on conducting the activity in upper-level economics courses, based on their experiences while teaching labor economics, public economics, urban economics, health economics, and econometrics.

^{[35]}In order to support the learning process in statistics courses, and in order to make the courses more flexible, the author experimented with the use of Padlet in two different student groups taking an introductory course in statistics for economists.

^{[36]}In this study, a sample of 503 students in a five-year combined Bachelor's/Master's degree program at a Belgian university reported their statistics cognitive competence, utility value, and interest at the beginning of or prior to each of three progressively more advanced statistics courses.

^{[37]}The subjects in this study were students of the Physics Education Study Program taking Energy Physics courses.

^{[38]}The purpose of this study is to diagnose student concepts in environmental physics courses.

^{[39]}This study aims to describe the mastery of HOTS of prospective physics teachers in digital electronics courses after implementing game-based learning.

^{[40]}Graduate students often come to statistics courses with varying levels of motivation and previous academic preparation.

^{[41]}The paper reports on an approach to teaching mathematics courses by integrating significant multimedia technologies into the learning process.

^{[42]}Therefore, a large number of professional courses must be based on solid mathematical knowledge, which makes mathematics courses have an extremely important position in professional teaching.

^{[43]}

在线讲座过程中学生积极性低下会鼓励研究人员提供一种治疗方法，从而提高学生在基础物理课程中的积极性。

^{[1]}其中之一是学习数学课程中的数学沟通技巧。

^{[2]}过去已经成功实施了侧重于通过使用标准开发和评估学生能力的物理课程。

^{[3]}基于这些结果，作者建议在学习工厂、在线学习平台和离线机器人课程中应用这种描述模型。

^{[4]}在这项研究中，我们展示了本科商业分析课程的设计，该课程将来自亚马逊网络服务、谷歌、SAS 和 Salesforce 的专业认证与信息系统本科学位课程中的核心商业分析课程相结合。

^{[5]}这些影响证明了经济学入门课程的内容，而不仅仅是围绕经济学家性别的信息。

^{[6]}另一方面，欧洲工程教育学会 (SEFI)、美国数学协会 (MAA)、美国数学会 (AMS) 和工业与应用数学学会 (SIAM) 等组织参与了教育几十年来，工程专业人士一直将建模视为培养工程及相关专业学生的一项基本技能，并呼吁将建模纳入大学数学课程。

^{[7]}9%）和 SCS 课程（75.

^{[8]}然而，作为准数学教师的学生在数学课程中难以构建证明。

^{[9]}希望这个实验装置可以被教师们用于 STEM 活动，尤其是物理课程。

^{[10]}统计能力是大多数研究生水平和本科水平的数理统计课程中教授的一个重要主题，但通常很难从概念上理解。

^{[11]}直到后来，在研究生院，一些人才有机会学习生物信息学课程，例如计算生物学、系统生物学或统计编程。

^{[12]}然而，高质量的生物信息学课程通常受到计算环境、复杂软件堆栈、众多依赖项和生物信息学工具版本的差异以及缺乏本地计算基础设施和专业知识的阻碍。

^{[13]}此外，需要在研究生课程中进行结构化的培训计划和道德课程，以提高从业人员的道德知识。

^{[14]}本综述旨在探讨现有研究的总体趋势、整合模型或策略和媒体对翻转课堂方法的贡献、物理课程翻转课堂的优势以及这些研究的挑战。

^{[15]}随着大学先修物理课程的选择性和严谨性的增加，学生种族的招生分布越来越偏离美国。

^{[16]}研究对象是土木工程专业的学生，非工程数学课程的学生。

^{[17]}我们描述了我们在 2019 年冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 大流行期间教授两个不同级别的本科商业分析课程的经验，特别是，我们重点关注在向紧急远程教学转变期间出现的两个挑战：1) 吸引学生和 2 ) 教学生如何使用软件 我们讨论了我们为减轻这些问题的影响所做的努力，并强调了在通识教育（即商业专业所需）课程与高级选修课中实施我们的策略的差异最后，我们讨论对其他教育工作者的经验教训和建议，无论他们采用何种教学方式 © 2021 信息系统协会。

^{[18]}教授数学应用是物理教师的责任；因此，物理课程是高度数学密集型的，广泛使用从代数到微积分的数学来制定科学定律并研究其后果。

^{[19]}无动力的学生，充当被动消费者，想以最少的努力通过考试，是本科工程教育统计学基础课程的普遍问题。

^{[20]}本研究的对象是坦格朗 Muhammadiyah 大学 2020 学年第 4 学期的机械工程专业学生，他们参加了有关微分方程的工程数学课程。

^{[21]}理解随机性的概念是统计学入门课程学生的基础，但随机性的概念非常复杂，因此与概率和推理的机制相比，它往往被强调得更少。

^{[22]}这项研究是对 IAIN Salatiga 的 30 名编写基础物理课程的学生进行的。

^{[23]}本研究旨在了解虚拟实验在电子基础课程在线学习中的作用，并描述学生对概念的理解。

^{[24]}本研究的主要目的是检查学生对数学课程的动机相关认知是否与他们的教学评分相关，同时控制他们的学术专业、数学课类型和课堂预期成绩。

^{[25]}) 与传统的零假设显着性检验 (NHST) 相比，提出了本科统计学课程中适当材料覆盖的问题。

^{[26]}美国社会学协会建议社会学专业的学生从事研究方法和统计课程之外的研究。

^{[27]}在经济学、金融学、工商管理和其他学院的不同部门教授基础计量经济学课程。

^{[28]}电子书本身就非常适合宏观经济学课程等复杂的记忆性学习，电子书之所以适合宏观经济学习，是因为可以随时随地随身携带。

^{[29]}研究对象是印度尼西亚一所公立大学的技术工程职业教育学生，他们参加了基础电气和电子课程，即25名学生。

^{[30]}然而，尤其是采用项目反应理论的方法，对基础数学课程学生数学学习难度的仪器识别测试的研究还很少。

^{[31]}在不考虑 GCS 的起始剂量的情况下，确定激素抵抗对 12 个月 GCS 课程频率的依赖性。

^{[32]}在 2018/2019 学年应用 SCL-PjBL 方法对 131 名学生进行的电子课程评估结果从 40% 的评分或 28 分获得了 72% 的软技能平均得分。

^{[33]}本研究的目的是调查学生如何看待他们参与体验式学习项目，重点是通识教育数学课程中的金融知识（技能、知识、态度和行为）。

^{[34]}作者根据他们在教授劳动经济学、公共经济学、城市经济学、卫生经济学和计量经济学时的经验，为在高级经济学课程中开展活动提供了详细的指导。

^{[35]}为了支持统计学课程的学习过程，并使课程更加灵活，作者在两个不同的学生群体中尝试使用 Padlet，为经济学家开设统计学入门课程。

^{[36]}在这项研究中，比利时一所大学五年制学士/硕士学位课程的 503 名学生的样本报告了他们在三门逐渐更高级的统计学课程开始或之前的统计认知能力、效用价值和兴趣.

^{[37]}这项研究的对象是物理教育研究计划的学生，他们修读了能量物理课程。

^{[38]}本研究的目的是诊断学生在环境物理课程中的概念。

^{[39]}本研究旨在描述在实施基于游戏的学习后，未来物理教师在数字电子课程中对 HOTS 的掌握情况。

^{[40]}研究生经常带着不同程度的动机和以前的学术准备来参加统计课程。

^{[41]}该论文报告了一种通过将重要的多媒体技术整合到学习过程中来教授数学课程的方法。

^{[42]}因此，大量的专业课程必须以扎实的数学知识为基础，这使得数学课程在专业教学中具有极其重要的地位。

^{[43]}

## randomized controlled trial 随机对照试验

This paper reports on gender differences in responses to a randomized controlled trial that provided encouragement and information nudges to take subsequent economics courses and major in the subject for students enrolled in large introductory economics classes at a large elite public university.^{[1]}The authors of this article describe the design and implementation of a multi-site randomized controlled trial of team-based learning (TBL) application exercises (AE) in introductory economics courses that use TBL.

^{[2]}Method The authors conducted a 3-year (2017, 2018, and 2019) randomized controlled trial in a series of introductory prosthodontics courses in dental education.

^{[3]}

本文报告了对一项随机对照试验的反应中的性别差异，该试验为在大型精英公立大学就读的大型经济学入门课程的学生提供后续的经济学课程和主修经济学课程提供了鼓励和信息推动。

^{[1]}本文的作者描述了在使用 TBL 的经济学入门课程中团队学习 (TBL) 应用练习 (AE) 的多地点随机对照试验的设计和实施。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## first year university 大学一年级

mathematics and statistics courses for first-year university students, in order “to provide a resource for faculty to tap into students’ interest in sports as a tool for learning mathematics and to battle the commonly held position that math (sic) is to be feared and disliked”.^{[1]}The study was conducted in 2019 and the sample included first-year university students from two groups from the General Mathematics courses at Universidad Nacional (UNA), Costa Rica.

^{[2]}In this article, we recount our teaching context and the realization of the gap between traditional teaching and grammar reference texts, and the instantiations of various forms of conditional language in authentic academic texts across first year university Political Science, Psychology, Physics and Economics courses.

^{[3]}

为大学一年级学生开设数学和统计学课程，以“为教师提供资源，以利用学生对体育的兴趣，将其作为学习数学的工具，并与人们普遍认为数学（原文如此）令人恐惧的立场作斗争和不喜欢”。

^{[1]}该研究于 2019 年进行，样本包括来自哥斯达黎加国立大学 (UNA) 普通数学课程的两组一年级大学生。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}

## observed home administration 观察家庭管理

Introduction and ObjectivesChildren with severe asthma receiving biologic injections, require 2–4 weekly hospital visits Omalizumab and mepolizumab are licensed for home use, however data on the safety of home administration in children is lacking In March 2020 due to Covid-19, services urgently needed to be redesigned to reduce footfall within the hospital and protect shielding patients and we trialled home administration MethodsFamilies suitable for home-administration were identified by the multidisciplinary team (MDT) If they accepted, they were then consented and attended hospital for a face to face, two-hour training session with the Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) Subsequent injections were supervised by video call with the CNS Spirometry, measured using a home spirometer (Nuvoair®), Asthma Control Test (ACT), Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), oral corticosteroid (OCS) requirement and unscheduled healthcare visits were documented 4 weekly ResultsOf 23 patients, 16 (70%) were identified by the MDT as suitable for home-administration;14 families agreed to this recommendation and 2 patients agreed to local services administering it All were trained within four weeks 7 patients were unsuitable (dose not licensed for home administration n=1;parent not wanting to administer n=2;safeguarding concerns n=2, previous mild reaction n=1;not fully established on biologic, n=1) We initially encountered some problems including parents not giving a full dose (1) and breaking the syringe (1) However, video call supervision ensured issues were addressed in real time and appropriate action taken There were no adverse effects Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) remained unchanged, unscheduled healthcare visits and OCS courses did not increase with virtually observed home-administration of biologics ACT and PAQLQ scores improved during the first 4 months of home-administration ConclusionsVirtually observed home-administration of omalizumab and mepolizumab is a feasible and safe option To our knowledge we were the first UK paediatric centre to implement this model, with home spirometry and video calls supporting home-administration Consequently, this has changed our practice and once established, virtually observed home-administration can be offered to suitable families, being mindful of the financial and time implications this high level service requires.^{[1]}

简介和目标接受生物注射的重症哮喘儿童需要每周 2-4 次医院就诊 奥马珠单抗和美泊利单抗获准在家使用，但缺乏关于儿童在家用药安全性的数据 2020 年 3 月，由于 Covid-19，迫切需要服务进行重新设计以减少医院内的人流量并保护屏蔽患者，我们试验了家庭管理方法适合家庭管理的家庭由多学科团队（MDT）确定如果他们接受，则他们同意并去医院面对面，与临床护士专家 (CNS) 进行的两小时培训课程随后的注射由 CNS 肺活量计进行视频通话监督，使用家用肺活量计 (Nuvoair®)、哮喘控制测试 (ACT)、儿童哮喘生活质量问卷 (PAQLQ) 进行测量)、口服皮质类固醇 (OCS) 需求和计划外的医疗就诊记录在案 4 周 23 名患者的结果MDT 确定 16 名 (70%) 适合家庭给药；14 个家庭同意该建议，2 名患者同意当地服务机构进行管理 所有患者均在 4 周内接受培训 7 名患者不适合（未获准在家使用的剂量）给药 n=1；父母不想给药 n=2；保障问题 n=2，先前的轻度反应 n=1；未完全建立在生物学上，n=1) 我们最初遇到了一些问题，包括父母未给予全剂量（ 1) 和打破注射器 (1) 但是，视频通话监督确保实时解决问题并采取适当措施 没有不良影响 一秒用力呼气量 (FEV1) 保持不变，计划外就诊和 OCS 课程没有ACT 和 PAQLQ 评分在家庭管理的前 4 个月内得到改善olizumab 是一种可行且安全的选择 据我们所知，我们是第一个实施这种模式的英国儿科中心，通过家庭肺活量测定和视频通话支持家庭管理因此，这改变了我们的实践，并且一旦建立，虚拟观察到的家庭管理可以提供给合适的家庭，注意这种高水平服务所需的财务和时间影响。

^{[1]}

## Introductory Cs Courses Cs 入门课程

These findings suggest that there are potential benefits to incorporating self-evaluation tasks into introductory CS courses, although perhaps not by virtue of directly influencing self-efficacy.^{[1]}Specifically, we studied the instructor solutions to homework and exams from 12 introductory CS courses from nine universities, identifying the presence of 15 patterns throughout the semester.

^{[2]}Our work contributes a demonstration of the various ways comics can be used in introductory CS courses and an initial understanding of benefits and challenges with using comics in computing education gleaned from an analysis of students' survey responses and code submissions.

^{[3]}We present our learnings from the use of PearProgram in three remote introductory CS courses: a CS1 course, and two large international courses, including one for high school students.

^{[4]}This approach, clearly elucidated over fifteen years ago in the “Computing as a Discipline” report, suggests that introductory CS courses should provide a breadth-first introduction to our discipline[DCG89].

^{[5]}Nudged by these concerns and energized by the creative possibilities of a classroom, we realize the integration of the critical and social dimensions of computing technologies into introductory CS courses as a key area of attention and propose a pedagogical approach largely through concepts that have their legacies in intersectional feminist activism, collective organizing [1], and critical theory [4].

^{[6]}In this work, we focus on the relatively understudied transition from introductory CS courses to upper level courses via CS3 (data structures and algorithms).

^{[7]}

这些研究结果表明，将自我评估任务纳入 CS 入门课程有潜在的好处，尽管可能不会直接影响自我效能。

^{[1]}具体来说，我们研究了来自 9 所大学的 12 门 CS 入门课程的教师对家庭作业和考试的解决方案，确定了整个学期存在的 15 种模式。

^{[2]}nan

^{[3]}nan

^{[4]}nan

^{[5]}nan

^{[6]}nan

^{[7]}

## Two Cs Courses 两门 Cs 课程

We present results from surveys of students in two CS courses offered at Virginia Tech.^{[1]}Our research questions were: How do these three curricular interventions affect (RQ1) the climate among online CS students and (RQ2) how online CS students honor the diversity of their users in the tech they create? Method: To answer these research questions, we implemented the curricular interventions in four asynchronous online CS classes across two CS courses within Oregon State University’s Ecampus and conducted an action research study to investigate the impacts.

^{[2]}

我们展示了对弗吉尼亚理工大学提供的两门 CS 课程学生的调查结果。

^{[1]}我们的研究问题是：这三种课程干预措施如何影响（RQ1）在线 CS 学生的氛围以及（RQ2）在线 CS 学生如何尊重他们所创造的技术中用户的多样性？方法：为了回答这些研究问题，我们在俄勒冈州立大学校园内的两门 CS 课程中实施了四门异步在线 CS 课程的课程干预，并进行了一项行动研究以调查影响。

^{[2]}

## Offering Cs Courses 提供 Cs 课程

Many high school mathematics teachers have stepped up to the charge of learning computer science and offering CS courses to their students.^{[1]}Despite the growing demand for computer science (CS) education for K-12 students, one of the most significant barriers to schools offering CS courses is the lack of certified teachers [1].

^{[2]}

许多高中数学老师已经加紧学习计算机科学并为学生提供CS课程。

^{[1]}尽管 K-12 学生对计算机科学 (CS) 教育的需求不断增长，但提供 CS 课程的学校面临的最大障碍之一是缺乏经过认证的教师 [1]。

^{[2]}

## Level Cs Courses Cs 级课程

The results of this study will inform online, F2F, and hybrid course design of upper-level CS courses.^{[1]}These challenges can result in degraded project outcomes, as commonly observed in programming-intensive mid-level CS courses.

^{[2]}

这项研究的结果将为高级 CS 课程的在线、F2F 和混合课程设计提供信息。

^{[1]}这些挑战可能导致项目成果下降，这在编程密集型中级 CS 课程中很常见。

^{[2]}

## Early Cs Courses 早期 Cs 课程

BRIDGES provides an infrastructure for use in early CS courses that allows students to easily integrate real-world data into their routine course assignments and visualize the data and data structures of their implementations.^{[1]}and around the world have started to cover some of these topics in early CS courses.

^{[2]}

BRIDGES 提供了一个用于早期 CS 课程的基础架构，使学生能够轻松地将现实世界的数据集成到他们的日常课程作业中，并可视化他们实施的数据和数据结构。

^{[1]}世界各地已经开始在早期的 CS 课程中涵盖其中一些主题。

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## Core Cs Courses 核心 Cs 课程

In this workshop, we present modules to incorporate heterogeneous computing into core CS courses taken by all majors (e.^{[1]}Moreover, most of them include accessibility topics in specialized human-computer interaction (HCI) courses rather than core CS courses such as Software Engineering.

^{[2]}

在本次研讨会中，我们展示了将异构计算纳入所有专业（例如。

^{[1]}此外，它们中的大多数都包括专门的人机交互 (HCI) 课程中的可访问性主题，而不是软件工程等核心 CS 课程。

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## cs courses offered 提供的CS课程

The FCI test was implemented twice as pre and post-tests for two introductory calculus-based physics courses offered at the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Oman for students mainly from the Colleges of Sciences, Education and Agriculture and the students from the College of Enginerring in the Spring 2017 and Spring 2018 semesters.^{[1]}While numerous studies on digital forensics standards and curriculum exist, few, if any, have examined digital forensics courses offered across the nation.

^{[2]}We present results from surveys of students in two CS courses offered at Virginia Tech.

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FCI 测试在阿曼苏丹卡布斯大学 (SQU) 为主要来自科学、教育和农业学院的学生以及学院的学生提供的两门基于微积分的入门物理课程的前后测试进行了两次。 2017 年春季和 2018 年春季学期的工程。

^{[1]}虽然存在大量关于数字取证标准和课程的研究，但很少有（如果有的话）研究过全国范围内提供的数字取证课程。

^{[2]}我们展示了对弗吉尼亚理工大学提供的两门 CS 课程学生的调查结果。

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## cs courses within Cs课程内

Although studies in computing education have documented the barriers that non-native English speakers face while learning CS using online programming platforms, little research has been done on their experiences in CS courses within a university setting.^{[1]}Our research questions were: How do these three curricular interventions affect (RQ1) the climate among online CS students and (RQ2) how online CS students honor the diversity of their users in the tech they create? Method: To answer these research questions, we implemented the curricular interventions in four asynchronous online CS classes across two CS courses within Oregon State University’s Ecampus and conducted an action research study to investigate the impacts.

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尽管计算机教育研究记录了非英语母语人士在使用在线编程平台学习 CS 时面临的障碍，但很少有人研究他们在大学环境中的 CS 课程体验。

^{[1]}我们的研究问题是：这三种课程干预措施如何影响（RQ1）在线 CS 学生的氛围以及（RQ2）在线 CS 学生如何尊重他们所创造的技术中用户的多样性？方法：为了回答这些研究问题，我们在俄勒冈州立大学校园内的两门 CS 课程中实施了四门异步在线 CS 课程的课程干预，并进行了一项行动研究以调查影响。

^{[2]}