Arid Climates(干旱气候)研究综述Arid Climates 干旱气候 - Eight reservoirs located in subhumid and semi-arid climates in the Brazilian Drylands were studied.  Finally, this work puts forward a set of recommendations to improve the passive design of future buildings in hot and arid climates.  is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Zygophyllaceae, and is grows in semi-arid climates, such as Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Inner Mongolia in China, and also Middle East and North Africa.  ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in calcareous soils under semiarid climates are major reasons for low maize productivity grown in these conditions.  In contrast, low-CI stands are more likely to survive in hotter, more arid climates.  ) can survive in arid climates and tolerates both biotic and abiotic stresses.  The results of this evaluation offer insight that challenges assumptions of the traditional landfill methane estimation approach, especially in arid climates, that all methane corresponding to the total methane generation potential of the buried solid waste will be produced.  Floristic Diversity of the Rocky Outcrops in the Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, Quebrangulo, Alagoas ABSTRACTThe rocky outcrops occur mainly in regions with arid climates and are recognized for having a highly specialized flora, with high levels of diversity and endemism.  studies) for a better parameterization of the WG, especially for arid/semiarid climates.  In this study, we demonstrate that an integrated SQI would be more useful to assess post-fire soil functions than single soil properties in fire-affected rangelands of semi-arid climates.  Significant vertical gradients affect plant physiology, and closing the curtains in winter cultivation in semi-arid/arid climates has the potential to improve fruit yield and quality.  Lack of freshwater, especially in arid climates, persuades many countries to work on optimized water consumption.  These research results can provide a certain reference value for the management of loess collapse geological disasters in semiarid climates.  The management of groundwater resources is an important issue in arid and semi-arid climates because they are among the main water resources in these areas.  A literature review of 30 LCAs of WW-reuse case studies highlights that the majority are located in arid or semi-arid climates, with a third in coastal areas, thus illustrating the historical development of WW-reuse.  For species inhabiting arid and semiarid climates, such as the scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), frequent exposure to extreme temperatures may increase the importance of the nest microclimate.  Regardless the wide differences among the analyzed cases, the authors conclude that earth building is a suitable solution in hot and arid climates, since it preserves the indoor temperature within the thermal comfort limits most part of the time without any active system.  8, the boundary between semiarid and arid climates, which is predicted to advance geographically ∼28% by the end of the current century.  The electricity consumption in residential/office buildings corresponded to 45% of the total annual electricity demand in hot-arid climates.  ) production in arid and semiarid climates, severely reducing productivity.  However, very few studies have used vegetation stress in hydrocarbon exploration, and that, too, are limited to geographical areas characterized by arid to semi-arid climates.  Heat stress provokes thermal discomfort to people living in semiarid and arid climates.  Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility and design of zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) in cold and semi-arid climates.  Water plays a key role in determining successful seedling establishment, especially in arid and semi-arid climates.  We conclude that irrigation management of forage cactus grown in semi-arid climates is highly beneficial and that unconventionally low matric potential thresholds may be used.  The approach may be applicable in other confined aquifers in hyper-arid climates in which the formation of aquifer systems linked to river damming by geological action took place.  Located between the temperate and arid climates of Europe and North Africa, Iberia is one of the most climatic vulnerable regions of Europe with more severe and longstanding extreme climate events being expected in this region.  Water deficit is an important factor to challenge food security, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates.  For hot and arid climates, genotypes with high L* are recommended for their outstanding WUE but in the expense of An.  2% better than the ANFIS-MVO model in arid and semi-arid climates, respectively.  The major share of durum wheat production is currently located in semi-arid climates, where the risk of climate extremes such as drought and heat stress will likely substantially increase in the future.  “Rambla”are temporary watercourses, which are characteristic of mediterranean and semi-arid climates, with low rainfall and sporadic torrential rain.  The presented study will help to estimate ET0 for data scare regions, which is vital for agricultural water management in semi-arid climates.  Summary Numerous studies have focused on tailoring materials for sorption-based atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) in arid climates, but both the design and modification of materials are a compromise for specific conditions and even sacrifice the nature of S-shaped isotherm.  Sorghum is a cereal crop with key agronomic traits of drought and heat stress tolerance, making it an ideal food and industrial commodity for hotter and more arid climates.  The results can provide a theoretical basis for the phytoremediation of sugar beet in southern Xinjiang of China and maybe elsewhere with similar arid and semi-arid climates.  The wind can disperse dust particles (<100 μm) and once suspended in the atmosphere, can be ingested or inhaled; this is a common situation in arid climates.  This area is characterized by arid and semi-arid climates where generally occurred a few rainy days but have experienced significant flash floods.  Within arid and hyperarid climates, evaporation is a controlling hydrologic process leads to an important increase in the concentration of dissolved minerals of both surface water and groundwater.  CONCLUSIONS Patients sustaining snakebites in semi-arid climates were more commonly exposed to dangerous snake types, resulting in higher antivenom requirement, as well as longer hospital stays and need for intensive monitoring.  The hydrothermal dolomites of the upper Niubao Formation testify for active hot springs, whereas lacustrine dolomite imply arid or semiarid climates during the Eocene, in the early stages of Himalayan orogenesis.  This new dew point cooler’s hybrid system achieves the best energy saving rate in humid and arid climates, between 19.  CONTEXT Persistent drought is affecting the livelihood of American farmers in arid climates.  Thus, this work provides an example for places with arid climates where suffered SFD pollution to estimate dust emission.  Results indicate the following: (1) Global Precipitation Measurement–derived monthly rainfall products (IMERG) could be used as alternatives and/or complements to rainfall gauges over Morocco, especially in areas with lower elevations and temperate climates; IMERG overestimates rainfall rates in higher elevation areas with temperate climate and underestimates rainfall rates in arid and semiarid climates, compared to rain gauges.  This disease is a potential constraint to hemp production in hot, arid climates, where copious water is used in combination with plastic mulch and/or drainage is poor.  It is very important to study the role of global warming on the variability of summer characteristics in arid and semi-arid climates such as Iran, because of its impact on natural and social systems.  Loose right valves of radiolitids from the Campanian Khanasir Member have underwent diagenetic alterations, such as fragmentation and compaction, micritization, bioerosion, and micritic calcite cement, which indicates marine diagenetic stage, while very limited silicification, dolomitization, and dissolution suggest the meteoric diagenetic environments with arid climates.  This result adds to the existing literature two important findings: the first result is that the positive impact of CO2 on cereal yield in Sudan, support previous research findings in other countries of warm and arid climates.  Deciduous species from semi-arid climates were more negatively impacted by grass competition than deciduous species from humid climates whereas the reverse pattern was observed among evergreen species. 
研究了位于巴西旱地半湿润和半干旱气候的八个水库。  最后，这项工作提出了一系列建议，以改进未来炎热和干旱气候下建筑的被动设计。  蒺藜科多年生草本植物，生长于中国新疆、甘肃、宁夏、青海、内蒙古等半干旱气候地区，也有中东、北非等地。  摘要：半干旱气候条件下钙质土壤中磷 (P) 不可用和有机质缺乏是在这些条件下玉米产量低的主要原因。  相比之下，低 CI 的林分更有可能在更热、更干旱的气候中生存。  ) 可以在干旱的气候中生存并耐受生物和非生物胁迫。  该评估的结果提供了对传统垃圾填埋场甲烷估算方法的假设提出挑战的见解，特别是在干旱气候下，将产生与掩埋固体废物的总甲烷产生潜力相对应的所有甲烷。  阿拉戈斯州克布兰古洛佩德拉塔尔哈达生物保护区岩石露头的植物区系多样性摘要岩石露头主要发生在气候干旱的地区，并被认为具有高度专业化的植物区系，具有高度的多样性和特有性。  研究）以更好地对 WG 进行参数化，特别是对于干旱/半干旱气候。  在这项研究中，我们证明了在半干旱气候的受火灾影响的牧场中，综合 SQI 对评估火灾后土壤功能比单一土壤特性更有用。  显着的垂直梯度影响植物生理，在半干旱/干旱气候下关闭冬季栽培的帷幕有可能提高果实产量和质量。  缺乏淡水，尤其是在干旱气候下，促使许多国家致力于优化用水量。  这些研究成果可为半干旱气候下黄土塌陷地质灾害的治理提供一定的参考价值。  地下水资源的管理是干旱和半干旱气候中的一个重要问题，因为它们是这些地区的主要水资源之一。  对 30 个 WW 再利用案例研究 LCA 的文献回顾强调，大多数位于干旱或半干旱气候，三分之一位于沿海地区，从而说明了 WW 再利用的历史发展。  对于栖息在干旱和半干旱气候的物种，例如鳞鹌鹑（Callipepla squamata），频繁暴露在极端温度下可能会增加巢穴小气候的重要性。  尽管分析案例之间存在巨大差异，但作者得出结论，土建建筑是炎热和干旱气候下的合适解决方案，因为它在大部分时间将室内温度保持在热舒适范围内，而无需任何主动系统。  8，半干旱气候和干旱气候之间的边界，预计到本世纪末在地理上将提前 28%。  住宅/办公楼的用电量相当于炎热干旱气候下年总用电量的 45%。  ) 在干旱和半干旱气候下生产，严重降低了生产力。  然而，很少有研究在油气勘探中使用植被压力，而且这也仅限于以干旱至半干旱气候为特征的地理区域。  热应激会引起生活在半干旱和干旱气候中的人们的热不适。  目的 本文的目的是研究在寒冷和半干旱气候下零能耗建筑 (ZEB) 的可行性和设计。  水在确定成功的幼苗建立方面起着关键作用，特别是在干旱和半干旱气候中。  我们得出结论，对生长在半干旱气候中的牧草仙人掌进行灌溉管理是非常有益的，并且可以使用非常低的基质电位阈值。  该方法可能适用于超干旱气候中的其他承压含水层，在这些含水层中，含水层系统的形成与通过地质作用形成的河流筑坝有关。  伊比利亚位于欧洲和北非的温带和干旱气候之间，是欧洲气候最脆弱的地区之一，预计该地区将发生更严重和长期的极端气候事件。  缺水是挑战粮食安全的一个重要因素，特别是在干旱和半干旱气候下。  对于炎热和干旱的气候，推荐具有高 L* 的基因型，因为它们具有出色的 WUE，但会牺牲 An。  在干旱和半干旱气候下，分别比 ANFIS-MVO 模型好 2%。  硬粒小麦生产的主要部分目前位于半干旱气候，未来干旱和热应激等极端气候的风险可能会大幅增加。  <p> “Rambla”是临时性水道，具有地中海和半干旱气候的特点，降雨量少，偶有暴雨。  所提出的研究将有助于估计数据稀缺地区的 ET0，这对于半干旱气候下的农业用水管理至关重要。  总结 许多研究都集中在为干旱气候下基于吸附的大气集水 (AWH) 定制材料，但材料的设计和修改都是针对特定条件的折衷，甚至牺牲了 S 形等温线的性质。  高粱是一种谷类作物，具有耐旱和耐热胁迫的关键农艺性状，使其成为更热和更干旱气候的理想食品和工业商品。  研究结果可为我国南疆及其他干旱、半干旱气候条件下甜菜植物修复提供理论依据。  风可以吹散尘粒（<100 μm），一旦悬浮在大气中，就可以被摄入或吸入；这是干旱气候下的常见情况。  该地区的特点是干旱和半干旱气候，通常会下雨几天，但经历过严重的山洪暴发。  在干旱和超干旱气候中，蒸发是一个控制性的水文过程，导致地表水和地下水的溶解矿物质浓度显着增加。  结论 在半干旱气候中遭受蛇咬伤的患者更常接触危险的蛇类，导致对抗蛇毒血清的需求更高，住院时间更长，需要加强监测。  牛堡组上部的热液白云岩证明了活跃的温泉，而湖相白云岩则暗示了喜马拉雅造山早期始新世的干旱或半干旱气候。  这种新的露点冷却器的混合系统在潮湿和干旱的气候中实现了最佳的节能率，在 19 之间。  背景 持续干旱正在影响干旱气候下美国农民的生计。  因此，这项工作为遭受SFD污染的干旱气候地区估算粉尘排放提供了一个示例。  结果表明：(1) 全球降水测量得出的月降雨量产品 (IMERG) 可用作摩洛哥降雨量计的替代和/或补充，特别是在海拔较低和气候温和的地区；与雨量计相比，IMERG 高估了气候温和的高海拔地区的降雨率，而低估了干旱和半干旱气候的降雨率。  在炎热、干旱的气候中，这种疾病是大麻生产的潜在制约因素，在这些气候中，大量的水与塑料覆盖物结合使用和/或排水不畅。  由于全球变暖对自然和社会系统的影响，研究全球变暖对伊朗等干旱和半干旱气候中夏季特征变化的作用非常重要。  Campanian Khanasir 段放射性岩体右瓣松动发生碎裂压实、泥晶化、生物侵蚀和泥晶方解石胶结等成岩作用，表明为海洋成岩阶段，而非常有限的硅化、白云石化和溶解表明大气成岩环境气候干旱。  这一结果为现有文献增加了两个重要发现：第一个结果是二氧化碳对苏丹谷物产量的积极影响，支持了之前在其他温暖和干旱气候国家的研究结果。  来自半干旱气候的落叶物种比来自潮湿气候的落叶物种更受草竞争的负面影响，而在常绿物种中观察到相反的模式。  Large space buildings, such as airport terminal buildings, consume high energy due to the cooling demand; especially in hot arid climates; to achieve passenger thermal comfort.  In hot arid climates, air conditioning in the summer dominates energy use in buildings.  This paper introduces SaltBlock, a sustainable construction approach that utilizes sand and salt as abundant materials in hot arid climates.  Urban morphology should carefully consider climatic and behavioural aspects for hot arid climates.  The IAQHAC workshop is a scientific practicum aimed to support the provision of healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments in hot arid climates.  Improving microclimate can be a critical consideration when designing urban places, especially in hot arid climates, due to its relation to improving human comfort in outdoor places, mitigating urban heat island effect and reducing indoors air conditioning demand.  In hot arid climates, freshwater and power are produced simultaneously through seawater desalination since these regions receive little rainfall.  This study uses participatory action research methodology by means of an occupant centred approach for the design and construction of a Trombe wall system, suitable for passive heating and cooling in hot arid climates. 
大空间建筑，如机场航站楼，由于制冷需求而消耗大量能源；特别是在炎热干燥的气候中；以实现乘客热舒适。  在炎热干旱的气候中，夏季空调在建筑物的能源使用中占主导地位。  nan  城市形态应仔细考虑炎热干旱气候的气候和行为方面。  IAQHAC 研讨会是一项科学实践活动，旨在支持在炎热干旱气候下提供健康、舒适和高效的室内环境。  在设计城市场所时，改善小气候可能是一个关键考虑因素，尤其是在炎热干旱的气候中，因为它与提高户外场所的人类舒适度、减轻城市热岛效应和减少室内空调需求有关。  在炎热干旱的气候中，淡水和电力通过海水淡化同时产生，因为这些地区降雨量很少。  nan  We are interested in the study of the acclimation of plants growing under the combination of cold and water deficit stresses prevalent in cold-arid or semi-arid climates worldwide.  ], is an economically important disease of barley, wheat and other small grains in semi-arid climates worldwide (McKayet al. 
我们有兴趣研究在全球寒冷干旱或半干旱气候中普遍存在的寒冷和缺水胁迫下生长的植物的适应环境。  ]，是全球半干旱气候中大麦、小麦和其他小谷物的一种经济上重要的病害（McKayet al.