What is/are Terrestrial Climate?Terrestrial Climate - The impact of space weather on the terrestrial climate is discussed briefly.  We find that the alkenone unsaturation ratio and average chain length of n-alkanes appears to reflect the glacial-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature and terrestrial climate, respectively.  These are Mediterranean Climate that is hot, dry summers and rainy, mild winters, the Black Sea Climate that is although in the coastal area cool summer and warm winters, snowy the higher parts climate is snowy and cold, also the Terrestrial Climate have high temperature differences between day and night-summer and winter.  Paleosols (fossil soils) are valuable records of terrestrial climate and environments, and paleosol-based proxies are commonly used to reconstruct past climates and ecosystems.  Our work demonstrates that terrestrial climate and weathering intensity in the mid-latitude Songliao Basin fluctuated during the latest Cretaceous through the earliest Paleogene and sensitively responded to global climate changes.  Consequently, the interactions influence volcanic activity, ore deposit formation, growth of the crust, and terrestrial climate.  The current knowledge is summarized by three statements:During the minima periods in the 13th, 15/16th, 17th, and 19th centuries the terrestrial climate was colder by 0. 
Terrestrial climate-carbon feedbacks are the leading-order uncertainties in climate projections, hindering the full assessment of climate mitigation scenarios. The late Holocene is the most variable interval, both spatially and temporally, and a novel spatial trend appears in terrestrial climate with warmer coastal areas and cooler inland areas.  While in the southern high-latitudes, the EOT cooling is primarily recorded in the marine realm, the extent and effect on terrestrial climate and vegetation is poorly documented.  This, supported by our estimated mean atmospheric paleo-pCO2 concentration of 396 ppmv, indicates relatively cooler midlatitude terrestrial climate.  The scope of this work is to increase the scientific understanding of the relative role of solar variations on the terrestrial climate.  Here we examine the SW Iberian vegetation and terrestrial climate during MIS 13 directly compared with the sea surface temperatures using sediments from IODP Site U1385, and combine those terrestrial-marine profiles with climate-model experiments.  Additionally, annual lamination in some of these speleothems yields highly accurate age models for these palaeoclimate records, making these speleothems valuable archives for terrestrial climate.  The coupling of soil moisture (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical process of the terrestrial climate and water cycle, whose simulation in climate models exhibits substantial uncertainties.  High obliquity planets represent potentially extreme limits of terrestrial climate, as they exhibit large seasonality, a reversed annual-mean pole-to-equator gradient of stellar heating, and novel cryospheres.  This problem is related to the hotly debated subject of the impact of solar activity on the terrestrial climate and also to stars hosting exoplanets regarding the issue of accessing their habitability conditions.  The study demonstrates that such RCMs with coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions are necessary to downscale the global climate models to project the surface hydro-climate over regions like PF that have mesoscale features in the ocean, which can influence the terrestrial climate.  The Maunder Minimum (1645–1715) has generated significant interest as the archetype of a grand minimum in magnetic activity for the Sun and other stars, suggesting a potential link between the Sun and changes in terrestrial climate.  Our results highlight the importance of soil substrate quality when predicting the terrestrial climate-C feedback.  Stable isotope composition of speleothems reflects the physicochemical condition of their formation environment such as the local temperature and the isotope composition of surface precipitation, making them one of the best archives of terrestrial climate.  14 Additionally, annual lamination in some of these speleothems yields highly accurate age models for 15 these palaeoclimate records, making these speleothems valuable archives for terrestrial climate.  Level of measurement Data are for terrestrial climates (excluding Antarctica) taking sea level changes into account.  The Songliao Basin, northeast China, possesses an excellent Cretaceous lake sediment record that provides an opportunity to investigate Cretaceous terrestrial climate and environmental conditions.  Upper Cretaceous terrestrial climate proxies have been interpreted as evidence for “equable” climates with reduced seasonal variations in temperature.  Here, we present a statistically-derived global terrestrial climate dataset for every 1,000 years of the last 800,000 years.  We then compared these data to recent global terrestrial climate data (0.  Central European multidecadal climate variability was subdued during cold stadials through the last glacial cycle due to atmospheric and oceanic circulation shifts, according to almost annual-resolution terrestrial climate proxy records from varved maar lakes in Germany.  However, well-dated and high-resolution terrestrial climate reconstructions are lacking for the Southern Hemisphere.  However, despite their potentially major repercussions, little is known about current and expected changes in regional terrestrial climate variables and sea surface temperatures (SST).  However, the extent and effect of these changes in ocean circulation on regional terrestrial climate and vegetation across the E/O Transition is not readily known.  In addition, studying the paleo-sedimentary environment of the Denglouku Formation can effectively reconstruct the terrestrial climate change in the Cretaceous and provide basic terrestrial geological data for studying the global Cretaceous paleoclimate, paleoenvironmental changes, and greenhouse climate.  As Glacier changes, especially the changes in mountain glaciers, are one of the most sensitive indicators of terrestrial climate change.  In order to elucidate wildfire characteristics and terrestrial climate changes during the time of peat accumulation, petrographic characteristics of coals in the Lower Cretaceous Yimin Formation (Albian) in the Jiuqiao Sag, Hailar Basin, NE China were studied.  In 2011, I returned to visit the Larsen areas A, B and C with the oceanographic icebreaker Polarstern, this time in a third approach to an area that is experiencing as a major player the effects of terrestrial climate change (see below).  The complicity of long-term land surface temperature (LST) changes has been under investigated and less understood, hindering our understanding of the history and mechanism of terrestrial climate change.  Paleoclimate reconstructions that use speleothem proxy data have increased our understanding of terrestrial climate change, but gaps remain in our understanding of in-cave processes that influence speleothem chemistry.  In this paper, we summarize terrestrial climate records in mid-latitude East Asia during the latest Cretaceous and across the K-Pg boundary, based on a multi-proxy approach from the geochronologically well-constrained Sifangtai and Mingshui formations (SMF), accessed by scientific drilling of the Songliao Basin in northeastern China.  Terrestrial climate records covering the late Glacial and Holocene from this area are sparse.  Our understanding of the Eocene climate is based mainly on marine records, and comparison of marine and terrestrial climate records of the Eocene has revealed inconsistencies.  Central European multidecadal climate variability was subdued during cold stadials through the last glacial cycle due to atmospheric and oceanic circulation shifts, according to almost annual-resolution terrestrial climate proxy records from varved maar lakes in Germany.  Upper Cretaceous terrestrial climate proxies have been interpreted as evidence for “equable” climates with reduced seasonal variations in temperature.  A new mid-latitude terrestrial climate proxy record is presented for southeastern Australia.  The effects of atmospheric aerosols on the terrestrial climate system are more regional than those of greenhouse gases, which are more global.  Snowfall affects the terrestrial climate system at high latitudes through its impacts on local meteorology, freshwater resources and energy balance.  Oceanic subsurface circulation plays a crucial role in oceanic transport of heat and mass and consequently in the terrestrial climate system.  However, well-dated and high-resolution terrestrial climate reconstructions are lacking for the Southern Hemisphere.  Alpine glaciers are sensitive indicators of changes in climate, and their ubiquity in mountainous regions make them valuable proxies for terrestrial climate reconstructions worldwide. 
Speleothems store terrestrial climate information in the form of isotopic oxygen in mineral and are found mostly in the low-to mid-latitudes of the landmasses.  The study is well-conceived and provides some unique data, since obtaining highresolution and well-resolved terrestrial climate information from southern South America sheds light on the complex opening of the Drake Passage, specifically of the Powell Basin.  Yet, while it is associated with severe extinctions and biodiversity turnovers, terrestrial climate evolution remains poorly resolved.  Yet, while it is accompanied by severe extinctions and biodiversity turnovers, terrestrial climate evolution remains poorly resolved.