In addition, they also indicated the difference in sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by specimen types as well as the possibility of temporary negative conversion of sequential tests, using a real case.
The Taiwan CDC assay utilises a stand-alone nucleic acid extraction process which enables polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of a wider spectrum of specimen types with previously published primers and probes .
We systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar, medRxiv, and bioRxiv (last retrieval 1 October 2020) for comparative studies of alternative specimen types (saliva, oropharyngeal [OP], and nasal [NS] swabs) versus NP swabs for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT).
Syndromic molecular diagnostic panels have revolutionized clinical microbiology laboratories as they can simultaneously identify an organism and detect some of the most significant antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes directly from positive blood culture broth or from various specimen types (e.
Although nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) remains the gold standard for detecting and theoretically quantifying SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in various specimen types, antigen assays may be considered a suitable alternative, under specific circumstances.
Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NP/OP) and saliva are two specimen types that are most often analyzed to detect SARS‐CoV‐2 by molecular tests that detect viral RNA or by antigen/antibody tests that detect viral proteins and/or the host immune response against the virus.
Because CSF is a common specimen type, cytotechnologists and cytopathologists need to be aware of these inclusions, so they do not interpret them erroneously as evidence of infection or hemorrhage, especially in light of the fact that oligonucleotide therapy has been approved for a variety of conditions and is currently under investigation for intrathecal delivery in several other neurodegenerative disorders.
In 6 of the 23 participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in at least one specimen type, the virus was detected in saliva but not in NP/OP swab, while in 3 participants the NP/OP swab was positive and saliva negative.
Clinical laboratories and diagnostic companies have stepped up to the challenge by validating alternative transport media and devices, developing alternative types of swab, evaluating unique specimen types and pooling methods, and utilizing nontraditional automation systems to meet the enormous need for testing (1–3).
BackgroundBlood has proven to be a useful resource for molecular analysis in numerous biomedical studies, with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and whole blood being the major specimen types.
This research effort, involving several specific specimen types, was undertaken to investigate concerns that commonly used configurations may not always result in plateaus in the force-displacement response.
Inhibitory mold agar was the best medium for recovering all mold types among all tested specimen types, yielding nearly 78% of mold growth overall, indicating the necessity of selective medium for fungal cultures.
Our findings suggest that any SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay that requires pre-dilution of serum is amenable to DBS as an alternate specimen type that is relatively low cost, self-collectable, stable, can be shipped by standard mail and could be used to establish the seroprevalence of large populations.
Although the specimen types evaluated in this study were not interchangeable in results, rectal swab specimens were practical to collect from dogs and cats to study bacterial composition within the intestinal tract and may provide an alternative to colonic mucosal biopsy and fecal specimens.
Various gross and microscopic findings (along with age, sex) were noted, for example, specimen type, tumor site, resection margins including circumferential resection margin (CRM), lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, pTNM stage, lymph node yield, etc.
The results of the experimental investigations based on the nominal stress approach show that the fatigue strength of both specimen types could be significantly increased by the application of HFMI treatment compared to the corresponding specimens in the as-welded condition even if exposed to the investigated corrosive conditions.
Molecular epidemiology studies targeting the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene were performed in a wide range of specimens (serum, faeces, spleen, lung, nasal swabs, and trachea) collected from wild deer and cattle, with PCR amplification obtained in all specimen types except lung and spleen.
The characteristics of the patients' age, gander, basic information, case type, clinical manifestations, first consultation department, days of diagnosis, infection indicator, specimen type, results of drug sensitivity, treatment plan, hospital infection or not, outcome, follow-up data were analyzed.
Specimen type (cytology, small biopsy or resection), specimen site (lung, lymph node, pleura/pleural effusion or distant metastasis), time between specimen collection, and treatment between specimen collection were not significantly associated with the rate of discordance.
Finally, numerical expressions are provided as an alternative tool to traditional testing to predict the residual strength of the Barcelona Test for pre-design and quality control purposes based on fibre dosage, concrete strength, specimen type and height and fibre geometric characteristics.
Elements such as biobank size, biospecimen types, disease cohorts, predetermined collection protocols, broad informed consent, sample handling and storage protocols, and available infrastructure directly influence the effectiveness and capacity of a biobank.