## What is/are Resonance Gas?

Resonance Gas - The quark matter is modeled by the two flavor Nambu–Jona–Lassinio (NJL) model and the hadronic medium is modeled by the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model with hadrons and their resonances up to a mass cutoff $${\tilde{\varLambda }}\sim 2.^{[1]}We adopt the hadron resonance gas model as an approach free from fitting parameters.

^{[2]}We also discuss the results of the thermal model in explaining the measured particle yield ratios in heavy-ion collisions and comparison of the different variants of hardon resonance gas model calculation to the data on higher moments of net-proton distributions.

^{[3]}This article reviews the strategies, by which a number of qualitative insights have been attained, notably the emergence of the hadron resonance gas or the identification of the onset transition to baryon matter in specific regions of the QCD parameter space.

^{[4]}The increase in strangeness production with charged particle multiplicity, as seen by the ALICE collaboration at CERN in $p\text{\ensuremath{-}}p$, $p$-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions, is investigated in the hadron resonance gas model taking into account interactions among hadrons using $S$-matrix corrections based on known phase shift analyses.

^{[5]}The experimental results are compared with HIJING and EPOS model calculations and the dependence of fluctuation measurements on the phase-space coverage is addressed in the context of calculations from Lattice QCD (LQCD) and the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model.

^{[6]}We present a systematic study of comparing the results from a thermal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model with data on higher moments of net-proton, net-kaon and net-charge distributions measured at RHIC beam energy scan program.

^{[7]}We compare these results to hadron resonance gas calculations with and without excluded volume terms as well as S-matrix results in the hadronic phase of QCD, and comment on their current limitations.

^{[8]}The recently developed hadron resonance gas model with multicomponent hard-core repulsion is used to address and resolve the long standing problem to describe the light nuclear cluster multiplicities including the hyper-triton measured by the STAR Collaboration, known as the hyper-triton chemical freeze-out puzzle.

^{[9]}The change in the composition of the system from a hadron resonance gas to a quark–gluon plasma takes place in the narrow temperature interval of 150–190 MeV, where the Mott dissociation of hadrons is triggered by the dropping quark mass as a result of the restoration of chiral symmetry.

^{[10]}We discuss the construction of the equation of state with net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness using the results of lattice QCD simulations and hadron resonance gas models.

^{[11]}The results of studies of forced resonance gas oscillations in a cubic resonator are presented.

^{[12]}By comparing the electric charge-related fluctuations and correlations with hadron resonance gas model calculations and ideal gas limits we find that the changes in degrees of freedom start at lower temperatures in stronger magnetic fields.

^{[13]}A hadron resonance gas model with pion interactions, based on first-principle lattice QCD simulations at nonzero isospin density, is used to evaluate cosmic trajectories at various values of electron, muon, and tau lepton asymmetries that satisfy the available constraints on the total lepton asymmetry.

^{[14]}The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluctuations, expected due to QCD dynamics such as the chiral transition or QCD critical point.

^{[15]}All these data are then confronted with the ideal Hadron Resonance Gas Model.

^{[16]}We test the modified equilibrium distribution’s hydrodynamic output for a stationary hadron resonance gas subject to either shear stress, bulk pressure, or baryon diffusion current at a given freeze-out temperature and baryon chemical potential.

^{[17]}Compared to the predictions based on the hadron resonance gas model or Skellam distribution a clear suppression of fluctuations is observed due to exact baryon-number conservation.

^{[18]}We smoothly merge these results to the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model, to be able to reach temperatures as low as 30 MeV; in the high temperature regime, we impose a smooth approach to the Stefan-Boltzmann limit.

^{[19]}A noninteracting hadron resonance gas model is used often to study the hadronic phase formed in heavy ion collisions.

^{[20]}Using the moments of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state of-the-art hadron resonance gas model compared to experimental data from STAR's Beam Energy Scan, we find that the extracted strange freeze-out temperature is incompatible with the light one extracted from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations.

^{[21]}Thermal-FIST 1 is a C++ package designed for convenient general-purpose physics analysis within the family of hadron resonance gas (HRG) models.

^{[22]}These measurements will help map the QCD phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[23]}We construct the QCD equation of state at finite chemical potentials including net baryon, electric charge, and strangeness, based on the conserved charge susceptibilities determined from lattice QCD simulations and the equation of state of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[24]}We present cross-correlators of QCD conserved charges at $\mu_B=0$ from lattice simulations and perform a Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model analysis to break down the hadronic contributions to these correlators.

^{[25]}We also compare our results with RHIC measurements and hadron resonance gas model calculations.

^{[26]}We calculate the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon fluctuations in the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model for the five highest energies of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) for different particle data lists.

^{[27]}Besides the experimental data, our results are also compared to those of the hadronic resonance gas, as well as the transport models.

^{[28]}In order to relate the grand canonical observables to the experimentally available net-particle fluctuations and correlations, we perform a Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model analysis, which allows us to completely break down the contributions from different hadrons.

^{[29]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[30]}We have attempted to review on microscopic calculation of transport coefficients like shear and bulk viscosities in the framework of hadron resonance gas (HRG) model, where a special attention is e.

^{[31]}We analyze the recent STAR collaboration results on net-kaon fluctuations in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model.

^{[32]}We report the effect of including repulsive interactions on various thermodynamic observables calculated using a S-matrix based Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model to already available corresponding results with only attractive interactions [A.

^{[33]}Finally, we compare the UChPT saturated description with one based on the hadron resonance gas, for which the hadron mass dependences are extracted from recent theoretical analysis.

^{[34]}The calculation is performed for hadronic matter modeled by the hadron resonance gas model with hadrons and resonance states up to a cutoff in the mass as 2.

^{[35]}An extension of the van der Waals hadron resonance gas (VDWHRG) model which includes in-medium thermal modification of hadron masses, the TVDWHRG model, is considered in this paper.

^{[36]}We introduce a new prescription for obtaining the chemical freeze-out parameters in the heavy ion collision experiments using the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[37]}The hadron resonance gas (HRG) is a widely used description of matter under extreme conditions, e.

^{[38]}The explicit calculation is performed within the ambit of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[39]}We study the baryonic fluctuations of electric charge, baryon number and strangeness, by considering a realization of the Hadron Resonance Gas model in the light flavor sector of QCD.

^{[40]}In this paper, we discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model in the presence of a constant external magnetic field.

^{[41]}By adopting a standard Hadron Resonance Gas equation of state, we determine the average temperature $\langle T \rangle$ and the average baryon chemical potential $\langle\mu_{\mathrm{B}}\rangle$ on the space-time hyper-surface of last interaction.

^{[42]}These measurements will help map the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[43]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[44]}We discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model to describe the thermodynamics of hadronic matter.

^{[45]}In this work, we have studied the isothermal compressibility (${\ensuremath{\kappa}}_{T}$) as a function of temperature, baryon chemical potential, and center-of-mass energy ($\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}$) using hadron resonance gas (HRG) and excluded-volume hadron resonance gas (EV-HRG) models.

^{[46]}Explicit calculations are done for the hadronic matter in the ambit of hadron resonance gas model.

^{[47]}The calculations are done within the framework of an $S$-matrix based interacting hadron resonance gas model.

^{[48]}We discuss inverse magnetic catalysis effect on conserved charge fluctuations and correlations along the chemical freezeout curve in hadron resonance gas model.

^{[49]}As an application to hot QCD, we demonstrate the fluctuations and correlations involving baryon number in hot hadronic matter with modified masses of negative-parity baryons, in the context of the hadron resonance gas.

^{[50]}

## net kaon distribution

Using the moments of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state of-the-art hadron resonance gas model compared to experimental data from STAR's Beam Energy Scan, we find that the extracted strange freeze-out temperature is incompatible with the light one extracted from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations.^{[1]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[2]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[3]}

## Hadron Resonance Gas

The quark matter is modeled by the two flavor Nambu–Jona–Lassinio (NJL) model and the hadronic medium is modeled by the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model with hadrons and their resonances up to a mass cutoff $${\tilde{\varLambda }}\sim 2.^{[1]}We adopt the hadron resonance gas model as an approach free from fitting parameters.

^{[2]}This article reviews the strategies, by which a number of qualitative insights have been attained, notably the emergence of the hadron resonance gas or the identification of the onset transition to baryon matter in specific regions of the QCD parameter space.

^{[3]}The increase in strangeness production with charged particle multiplicity, as seen by the ALICE collaboration at CERN in $p\text{\ensuremath{-}}p$, $p$-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions, is investigated in the hadron resonance gas model taking into account interactions among hadrons using $S$-matrix corrections based on known phase shift analyses.

^{[4]}The experimental results are compared with HIJING and EPOS model calculations and the dependence of fluctuation measurements on the phase-space coverage is addressed in the context of calculations from Lattice QCD (LQCD) and the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model.

^{[5]}We present a systematic study of comparing the results from a thermal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model with data on higher moments of net-proton, net-kaon and net-charge distributions measured at RHIC beam energy scan program.

^{[6]}We compare these results to hadron resonance gas calculations with and without excluded volume terms as well as S-matrix results in the hadronic phase of QCD, and comment on their current limitations.

^{[7]}The recently developed hadron resonance gas model with multicomponent hard-core repulsion is used to address and resolve the long standing problem to describe the light nuclear cluster multiplicities including the hyper-triton measured by the STAR Collaboration, known as the hyper-triton chemical freeze-out puzzle.

^{[8]}The change in the composition of the system from a hadron resonance gas to a quark–gluon plasma takes place in the narrow temperature interval of 150–190 MeV, where the Mott dissociation of hadrons is triggered by the dropping quark mass as a result of the restoration of chiral symmetry.

^{[9]}We discuss the construction of the equation of state with net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness using the results of lattice QCD simulations and hadron resonance gas models.

^{[10]}By comparing the electric charge-related fluctuations and correlations with hadron resonance gas model calculations and ideal gas limits we find that the changes in degrees of freedom start at lower temperatures in stronger magnetic fields.

^{[11]}A hadron resonance gas model with pion interactions, based on first-principle lattice QCD simulations at nonzero isospin density, is used to evaluate cosmic trajectories at various values of electron, muon, and tau lepton asymmetries that satisfy the available constraints on the total lepton asymmetry.

^{[12]}The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluctuations, expected due to QCD dynamics such as the chiral transition or QCD critical point.

^{[13]}All these data are then confronted with the ideal Hadron Resonance Gas Model.

^{[14]}We test the modified equilibrium distribution’s hydrodynamic output for a stationary hadron resonance gas subject to either shear stress, bulk pressure, or baryon diffusion current at a given freeze-out temperature and baryon chemical potential.

^{[15]}Compared to the predictions based on the hadron resonance gas model or Skellam distribution a clear suppression of fluctuations is observed due to exact baryon-number conservation.

^{[16]}We smoothly merge these results to the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model, to be able to reach temperatures as low as 30 MeV; in the high temperature regime, we impose a smooth approach to the Stefan-Boltzmann limit.

^{[17]}A noninteracting hadron resonance gas model is used often to study the hadronic phase formed in heavy ion collisions.

^{[18]}Using the moments of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state of-the-art hadron resonance gas model compared to experimental data from STAR's Beam Energy Scan, we find that the extracted strange freeze-out temperature is incompatible with the light one extracted from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations.

^{[19]}Thermal-FIST 1 is a C++ package designed for convenient general-purpose physics analysis within the family of hadron resonance gas (HRG) models.

^{[20]}These measurements will help map the QCD phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[21]}We construct the QCD equation of state at finite chemical potentials including net baryon, electric charge, and strangeness, based on the conserved charge susceptibilities determined from lattice QCD simulations and the equation of state of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[22]}We present cross-correlators of QCD conserved charges at $\mu_B=0$ from lattice simulations and perform a Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model analysis to break down the hadronic contributions to these correlators.

^{[23]}We also compare our results with RHIC measurements and hadron resonance gas model calculations.

^{[24]}We calculate the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon fluctuations in the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model for the five highest energies of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) for different particle data lists.

^{[25]}In order to relate the grand canonical observables to the experimentally available net-particle fluctuations and correlations, we perform a Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model analysis, which allows us to completely break down the contributions from different hadrons.

^{[26]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[27]}We have attempted to review on microscopic calculation of transport coefficients like shear and bulk viscosities in the framework of hadron resonance gas (HRG) model, where a special attention is e.

^{[28]}We analyze the recent STAR collaboration results on net-kaon fluctuations in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model.

^{[29]}We report the effect of including repulsive interactions on various thermodynamic observables calculated using a S-matrix based Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model to already available corresponding results with only attractive interactions [A.

^{[30]}Finally, we compare the UChPT saturated description with one based on the hadron resonance gas, for which the hadron mass dependences are extracted from recent theoretical analysis.

^{[31]}The calculation is performed for hadronic matter modeled by the hadron resonance gas model with hadrons and resonance states up to a cutoff in the mass as 2.

^{[32]}An extension of the van der Waals hadron resonance gas (VDWHRG) model which includes in-medium thermal modification of hadron masses, the TVDWHRG model, is considered in this paper.

^{[33]}We introduce a new prescription for obtaining the chemical freeze-out parameters in the heavy ion collision experiments using the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[34]}The hadron resonance gas (HRG) is a widely used description of matter under extreme conditions, e.

^{[35]}The explicit calculation is performed within the ambit of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[36]}We study the baryonic fluctuations of electric charge, baryon number and strangeness, by considering a realization of the Hadron Resonance Gas model in the light flavor sector of QCD.

^{[37]}In this paper, we discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model in the presence of a constant external magnetic field.

^{[38]}By adopting a standard Hadron Resonance Gas equation of state, we determine the average temperature $\langle T \rangle$ and the average baryon chemical potential $\langle\mu_{\mathrm{B}}\rangle$ on the space-time hyper-surface of last interaction.

^{[39]}These measurements will help map the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[40]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[41]}We discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model to describe the thermodynamics of hadronic matter.

^{[42]}In this work, we have studied the isothermal compressibility (${\ensuremath{\kappa}}_{T}$) as a function of temperature, baryon chemical potential, and center-of-mass energy ($\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}$) using hadron resonance gas (HRG) and excluded-volume hadron resonance gas (EV-HRG) models.

^{[43]}Explicit calculations are done for the hadronic matter in the ambit of hadron resonance gas model.

^{[44]}The calculations are done within the framework of an $S$-matrix based interacting hadron resonance gas model.

^{[45]}We discuss inverse magnetic catalysis effect on conserved charge fluctuations and correlations along the chemical freezeout curve in hadron resonance gas model.

^{[46]}As an application to hot QCD, we demonstrate the fluctuations and correlations involving baryon number in hot hadronic matter with modified masses of negative-parity baryons, in the context of the hadron resonance gas.

^{[47]}The chemical freeze-out parameters in central nucleus-nucleus collisions are extracted consistently from hadron yield data within the quantum van der Waals (QvdW) hadron resonance gas model.

^{[48]}We apply our findings to an in-medium Hadron Resonance Gas model.

^{[49]}We further investigate the fluctuations and correlations involving baryon number in hot hadronic matter with modified masses of negative-parity baryons, in the context of the hadron resonance gas.

^{[50]}

## resonance gas model

We adopt the hadron resonance gas model as an approach free from fitting parameters.^{[1]}We also discuss the results of the thermal model in explaining the measured particle yield ratios in heavy-ion collisions and comparison of the different variants of hardon resonance gas model calculation to the data on higher moments of net-proton distributions.

^{[2]}The increase in strangeness production with charged particle multiplicity, as seen by the ALICE collaboration at CERN in $p\text{\ensuremath{-}}p$, $p$-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions, is investigated in the hadron resonance gas model taking into account interactions among hadrons using $S$-matrix corrections based on known phase shift analyses.

^{[3]}The recently developed hadron resonance gas model with multicomponent hard-core repulsion is used to address and resolve the long standing problem to describe the light nuclear cluster multiplicities including the hyper-triton measured by the STAR Collaboration, known as the hyper-triton chemical freeze-out puzzle.

^{[4]}We discuss the construction of the equation of state with net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness using the results of lattice QCD simulations and hadron resonance gas models.

^{[5]}By comparing the electric charge-related fluctuations and correlations with hadron resonance gas model calculations and ideal gas limits we find that the changes in degrees of freedom start at lower temperatures in stronger magnetic fields.

^{[6]}A hadron resonance gas model with pion interactions, based on first-principle lattice QCD simulations at nonzero isospin density, is used to evaluate cosmic trajectories at various values of electron, muon, and tau lepton asymmetries that satisfy the available constraints on the total lepton asymmetry.

^{[7]}All these data are then confronted with the ideal Hadron Resonance Gas Model.

^{[8]}Compared to the predictions based on the hadron resonance gas model or Skellam distribution a clear suppression of fluctuations is observed due to exact baryon-number conservation.

^{[9]}A noninteracting hadron resonance gas model is used often to study the hadronic phase formed in heavy ion collisions.

^{[10]}Using the moments of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state of-the-art hadron resonance gas model compared to experimental data from STAR's Beam Energy Scan, we find that the extracted strange freeze-out temperature is incompatible with the light one extracted from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations.

^{[11]}These measurements will help map the QCD phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[12]}We construct the QCD equation of state at finite chemical potentials including net baryon, electric charge, and strangeness, based on the conserved charge susceptibilities determined from lattice QCD simulations and the equation of state of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[13]}We also compare our results with RHIC measurements and hadron resonance gas model calculations.

^{[14]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[15]}The calculation is performed for hadronic matter modeled by the hadron resonance gas model with hadrons and resonance states up to a cutoff in the mass as 2.

^{[16]}We introduce a new prescription for obtaining the chemical freeze-out parameters in the heavy ion collision experiments using the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[17]}The explicit calculation is performed within the ambit of the hadron resonance gas model.

^{[18]}We study the baryonic fluctuations of electric charge, baryon number and strangeness, by considering a realization of the Hadron Resonance Gas model in the light flavor sector of QCD.

^{[19]}In this paper, we discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model in the presence of a constant external magnetic field.

^{[20]}These measurements will help map the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, constrain hadron resonance gas model calculations and provide new insights on the energy dependence of baryon-strangeness correlations.

^{[21]}We compare the mean-over-variance ratio of the net-kaon distribution calculated within a state-of-the-art hadron resonance gas model to the latest experimental data from the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

^{[22]}We discuss the interacting hadron resonance gas model to describe the thermodynamics of hadronic matter.

^{[23]}Explicit calculations are done for the hadronic matter in the ambit of hadron resonance gas model.

^{[24]}The calculations are done within the framework of an $S$-matrix based interacting hadron resonance gas model.

^{[25]}We discuss inverse magnetic catalysis effect on conserved charge fluctuations and correlations along the chemical freezeout curve in hadron resonance gas model.

^{[26]}The chemical freeze-out parameters in central nucleus-nucleus collisions are extracted consistently from hadron yield data within the quantum van der Waals (QvdW) hadron resonance gas model.

^{[27]}We apply our findings to an in-medium Hadron Resonance Gas model.

^{[28]}The full phase-space yields, mass and width of $K^{*}(892)^0$ mesons are compared with Hadron Resonance Gas models as well as with world data on p+p and nucleus-nucleus collisions.

^{[29]}