## What is/are Quantitative Imaging?

Quantitative Imaging - Our study illustrates the importance of quantitative imaging in diagnostic neuroradiology.^{[1]}Our standard showed homogeneous mercury concentration and good linearity between concentration and signal intensity, and met the qualifications for quantitative imaging by LA-ICP-MS.

^{[2]}After external validation of this model, it was used for quantitative imaging of the thickness distribution in PEDOT:PSS layers.

^{[3]}Quantitative Imaging in Medicine: Background and Basics presents the foundations and theoretical building blocks of a topic that is rapidly emerging as one of the most important in medical research and clinical imaging.

^{[4]}Recent advances in quantitative imaging with handcrafted radiomics and unsupervised deep learning have resulted in a plethora of validated imaging biomarkers in the field of head and neck oncology.

^{[5]}In this article, we review strategies commonly employed for dosimetry-guided RPT - including quantitative imaging, dose calculation methods, and modeling of dose across time-points.

^{[6]}3T-magnetic resonance (MR) systems may have a novel role in quantitative imaging and early csPCa prediction, accordingly.

^{[7]}Future studies in more diverse samples, however, with quantitative imaging of neurochemical markers of excitation and inhibition, are necessary to further assess neural responses to escitalopram.

^{[8]}Tracers-based nanoparticles are promising candidates, since they combine synergistic advantages for non-invasive, highly sensitive, high-resolution, and quantitative imaging on different modalities.

^{[9]}Based on prior work showing a relationship between quantitative imaging and gene expression, we hypothesize that quantitative imaging (radiomics) can provide an alternative surrogate for PD-L1 expression status in clinical decision support.

^{[10]}We anticipate that quantitative imaging of fast photoreceptor-IOS will provide objective ORG measurement to advance the study and diagnosis of AMD, IRDs, and other retinal diseases that can cause photoreceptor dysfunctions.

^{[11]}PURPOSE Patient-specific dosimetry in MRT relies on quantitative imaging, pharmacokinetic assessment and absorbed dose calculation.

^{[12]}This surge of available imaging data coincides with increasing research in quantitative imaging, particularly in the domain of imaging features.

^{[13]}Finally, we focus on the applications of FLAPs as genetically encoded RNA-based fluorescent biosensors in biosensing and bioimaging, including RNA, non-nucleic acid molecules, metal ions imaging and quantitative imaging.

^{[14]}In contrast, quantitative imaging using the MP2RAGE sequence, for example, allows direct characterization of the brain based on the tissue property of interest.

^{[15]}Quantitative imaging of peripheral nerve semi-thins analysed to date showed no significant difference in the number of myelin rings present in the fascicles between different genotypes.

^{[16]}The detected PG ray signals were used to test both direct mapping and CT techniques for quantitative imaging.

^{[17]}Here, we uncover a distinct scaling relationship with cell length rather than volume, revealed by mathematical modeling and quantitative imaging of yeast actin cables.

^{[18]}elegans genetics with quantitative imaging and thin film, chiral active fluid theory to show that, while Non-Muscle Myosin II activity drives cortical actomyosin flows, it is permissive for chiral counter-rotation and dispensable for chiral symmetry breaking of cortical flows.

^{[19]}Moreover, despite the huge progress made in the field of radiation dose reduction, chest magnetic resonance (MR), and quantitative imaging, very little research has focused on their application in sarcoidosis.

^{[20]}elegans genetics with quantitative imaging and thin film, chiral active fluid theory to show that, while Non-Muscle Myosin II activity drives cortical actomyosin flows, it is permissive for chiral counterrotation and dispensable for chiral symmetry breaking of cortical flows.

^{[21]}Quantitative imaging of retinal neurovascular abnormalities may promise a new method for early diagnosis and treatment assessment of AD.

^{[22]}To better understand this, we performed Seahorse metabolic flux assays and quantitative imaging of mitochondrial networks in both cell types.

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## magnetic resonance imaging

Editorial for “Convolutional neural network for accelerating the computation of the extended Tofts model in dynamic contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging” Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a valuable tool for quantifying blood–brain barrier leakage and can also be used to derive quantitative imaging biomarkers in the field of oncology.^{[1]}Facilitating clinical translation of quantitative imaging techniques has been suggested as means of improving interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate.

^{[2]}Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with machine learning offers the possibility to collect qualitative and quantitative imaging features which can be used to predict patient prognosis and relevant tumor markers which can aid in selecting the right treatment.

^{[3]}Magnetic resonance-based electric properties tomography (EPT) is a quantitative imaging strategy based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that provides non-invasively an estimate of the distribution of the electric properties (EPs), conductivity σ and permittivity ε, within the human body.

^{[4]}ABSTRACT In this review article, we present the latest developments in quantitative imaging biomarkers based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), applied to the diagnosis, assessment of response to therapy, and assessment of prognosis of Crohn disease.

^{[5]}19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI) is an emerging technique for quantitative imaging of novel therapies, such as cellular therapies and theranostic nanocarriers.

^{[6]}Quantitative imaging biomarkers such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy (MRS) and elastography (MRE) present robust, powerful tools with which to probe NAFLD metabolism and fibrogenesis non-invasively, in real time.

^{[7]}Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans performed at term-equivalent age in preterm infants provide quantitative imaging parameters that differ with respect to the degree of prematurity, related to brain maturation.

^{[8]}Due to the capability of fast multi-parametric quantitative imaging, magnetic resonance fingerprinting has become a promising quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) approach.

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## positron emission tomography

Simple Summary In this study, we assessed the potential of simultaneously acquired 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and magnetic resonance imaging-derived quantitative imaging parameters to predict the tumor grade, metastatic status, and response to neoadjuvant therapy of primary soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities.^{[1]}Background: Micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET), a small-animal dedicated PET system, is used in biomedical studies and has the quantitative imaging capabilities of radiotracers.

^{[2]}Positron emission tomography (PET) remains the gold standard for quantitative imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2); however, it is an invasive and complex procedure that requires accounting for recirculating [15O]H2O (RW) and the cerebral blood volume (CBV).

^{[3]}The aim of this study was to correlate endogenous tissue biomarkers of hypoxia with quantitative imaging parameters derived from 18F-fluoro-misonidazole (F-MISO) and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and clinical outcomes in locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

^{[4]}Objective: This prospective observational study of positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI findings in 16 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with a plasma cell dyscrasia describes and compares MRI-detected myeloma lesions with 18F-fludeoxyglucose PET-avid myeloma lesions, and correlates quantitative imaging findings to a range of biochemical and prognostic parameters.

^{[5]}

## atomic force microscopy

In this study, the adhesion force mapping of a single Tol 5 cell in liquid using the quantitative imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the adhesion of Tol 5 was near 2 nN, which was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of other adhesive bacteria.^{[1]}EXPERIMENTS Droplets of water on cleaved calcite under decane were imaged using quantitative imaging QI atomic force microscopy where a force-distance curve is obtained at every pixel.

^{[2]}In this study, the adhesion force mapping of a single Tol 5 cell in liquid using the quantitative imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the strong adhesion of Tol 5 was several nanonewtons, which was outstanding compared with other adhesive bacteria.

^{[3]}coli, are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) quantitative imaging.

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## optical coherence tomography

Quantitative imaging using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could provide objective tools for the detection and characterization of diabetic retinopathy (DR).^{[1]}Quantitative imaging using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could provide objective tools for the detection and characterization of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

^{[2]}PURPOSE To evaluate the predictive utility of quantitative imaging biomarkers, acquired automatically from optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, of cross-sectional and future visual outcomes of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) starting anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.

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## Throughput Quantitative Imaging

Here, to identify novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis we used high-throughput quantitative imaging of MCF10A cells to identify proteins that, when depleted, increase the percentage of nuclei with ≥5 nucleoli.^{[1]}The potential advantages as well as limitations of artificial intelligence and radiomics as tools providing high throughput quantitative imaging features is described.

^{[2]}Light microscopy combined with well-established protocols of two-dimensional cell culture facilitates high-throughput quantitative imaging to study biological phenomena.

^{[3]}The introduction of radiomics as a high throughput quantitative imaging technique that allows for improved diagnostic, prognostic and predictive indices has created more interest for such techniques in cancer research and especially in neurooncology (MRI-based classification of LGGs, predicting Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations and predicting LGG associated seizures).

^{[4]}We developed high‐throughput quantitative imaging of stomatal closure, a response of plant guard cells, and performed a reverse genetic screen in a group of Arabidopsis mutants to five stimuli.

^{[5]}

## Multimodal Quantitative Imaging

Here, we describe a label-free multimodal quantitative imaging flow assay that combines rotating optical coherent scattering (ROCS) microscopy and quantitative phase microscopy (QPM).^{[1]}We measured the longitudinal development of cortex from newborns to six-months-old infants using multimodal quantitative imaging of cortical microstructure.

^{[2]}We propose a multimodal quantitative imaging technique by integrating off-axis interferometric phase microscopy (IPM) and fluorescence microscopy, for measuring morphological changes of cells induced by hyper-osmotic pressure.

^{[3]}Voxel Forecast can be extended to predict spatially variant response on multimodal quantitative imaging and may eventually guide optimized spatial–temporal dose distributions for precision cancer therapy.

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## 3d Quantitative Imaging

We propose that the future of IOL selection will be guided by 3D quantitative imaging of the crystalline lens to map lens opacities, anticipate IOL position, and develop fully customized eye models for ray-tracing-based IOL selection.^{[1]}For the first time, we have achieved 3D quantitative imaging of bacterial LPS fluorescent signals deep in gliomas in a contamination-free manner, which was founded mostly localized near nuclear membranes or in the intercellular space.

^{[2]}Tomographic deconvolution phase microscopy (TDPM) is a promising approach for 3D quantitative imaging of phase objects such as biological cells and optical fibers.

^{[3]}Our 3D quantitative imaging approach revealed that the bacterial colonization of crypts is organized in a spatial pattern that consists of clusters of adjacent colonized crypts that are surrounded by unoccupied crypts, and that this spatial pattern was resistant to the elimination of Muribaculaceae or of all Bacteroidetes by ciprofloxacin.

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## Cell Quantitative Imaging

METHOD To examine the relationship between CIN and HGSOC, we employed single-cell quantitative imaging microscopy approaches capable of capturing the cell-to-cell heterogeneity associated with CIN, to assess the prevalence and dynamics of CIN within individual and patient-matched HGSOC ascites and solid tumour samples.^{[1]}Results Single-cell quantitative imaging microscopy approaches revealed changes in CIN-associated phenotypes and chromosome numbers and increased Cyclin E1 in response to diminished SKP1 or CUL1 expression.

^{[2]}We have used live and fixed single-cell quantitative imaging, with inducible degradation systems, to address the roles of p21 and p27 in the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors.

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## Free Quantitative Imaging

Therefore, here we discuss the advantages derived from combining microfluidics and label-free quantitative imaging, to access the full three-dimensional (3D) information of a biological specimen by performing the tomographic reconstruction at single-cell level in high throughput modality.^{[1]}Simultaneous microfluidic cell manipulations and long‐term cell monitoring needs further investigations due to the lack of label‐free quantitative imaging techniques and systems.

^{[2]}We present an imaging platform for stain-free quantitative imaging of biological cells using a simultaneous dual-wavelength holographic module.

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## Using Quantitative Imaging

Using quantitative imaging, we uncover when during oogenesis these histones accumulate, and which step of accumulation is LD-dependent.^{[1]}Using quantitative imaging, we uncover when during oogenesis these histones accumulate, and which step of accumulation is LD dependent.

^{[2]}Using quantitative imaging and biochemical approaches, we show that only a small population of neuronal SVs contain different VTs to accomplish corelease.

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## Robust Quantitative Imaging

By incorporating a motion-state dimension into the parameter dimensions and introducing unsupervised motion-state binning and outlier motion reweighting mechanisms, the brain motion can be readily resolved for motion-robust quantitative imaging.^{[1]}Here we discuss the development of robust quantitative imaging biomarkers and how they can personalize therapy towards meaningful clinical endpoints.

^{[2]}To help accelerate the development of robust quantitative imaging algorithms and tools, it is critical that CT imaging is obtained following best practices of the quantitative lung CT imaging community.

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## Correlate Quantitative Imaging

The aim of this prospective observational study was to correlate quantitative imaging parameters derived from pre-treatment biological imaging such as FDG-PET/CT, F-MISO-PET/CT, and DW-MRI with each other andì with clinical outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy.^{[1]}Objective: This prospective observational study of positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI findings in 16 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with a plasma cell dyscrasia describes and compares MRI-detected myeloma lesions with 18F-fludeoxyglucose PET-avid myeloma lesions, and correlates quantitative imaging findings to a range of biochemical and prognostic parameters.

^{[2]}

## Vivo Quantitative Imaging

The in vivo quantitative imaging of the TG’s vasculature using ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) combined with ex-vivo (DiI) staining reveals particular features of the vascularization of the area containing the sensory neurons, that is likely the origin of this strong vaso-trigeminal response and due to the nature of this structure at the interface between the peripheral and central nervous systems.^{[1]}In agreement, by in vivo quantitative imaging, we observed that treatment increased the number of LysM-EGFP cells traveling in tumor blood vessels and doubled the densities of both infiltrated LysM-EGFP monocytes and double-labeled EGFP/EYFP moDC.

^{[2]}

## New Quantitative Imaging

Study results indicated that from CAD-generated false-positives, we enabled to generate a new quantitative imaging marker to predict higher risk cases being positive and cue a case-based warning sign.^{[1]}Using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method, a support vector machine model was developed to produce a new quantitative imaging marker to predict the likelihood of a woman having mammography-detectable cancer in the next subsequent (“current”) screening.

^{[2]}

## Advanced Quantitative Imaging

Both societies share a vision to develop radiologic and medical imaging techniques through advanced quantitative imaging biomarkers and artificial intelligence.^{[1]}In this study, we use a recently-developed murine model of physiologic Mtb infection coupled with advanced quantitative imaging to demonstrate that IFNγ production by Mtb-specific T cells is rapidly extinguished within the granuloma, but not in unaffected areas of the lung.

^{[2]}

## Multispectral Quantitative Imaging

METHODS We employed multispectral quantitative imaging on the lung adenocarcinoma TME in 153 patients with resected tumors.^{[1]}Methods We employed multispectral quantitative imaging on the lung adenocarcinoma TME in 153 patients with resected tumors.

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## Background Quantitative Imaging

Background Quantitative imaging of epithelial tissues prompts for bioimage analysis tools that are widely applicable and accurate.^{[1]}Background Quantitative imaging of epithelial tissues requires bioimage analysis tools that are widely applicable and accurate.

^{[2]}

## Potential Quantitative Imaging

We present simultaneous and consistent measurements of metabolic scaling exponents from clinical images of lung cancer, serving as a first-of-its-kind test of metabolic scaling theory, and identifying potential quantitative imaging biomarkers indicative of tumor growth.^{[1]}Conclusions The study shows that IVIM derived f tumor and CT perfusion derived BF tumor similarly reflect vascularity of PDAC and seem to be comparably applicable for the evaluation of tumor perfusion for tumor characterization and as potential quantitative imaging biomarker.

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## Derived Quantitative Imaging

Computer-derived quantitative imaging or “radiomic” features may serve as non-invasive surrogates for underlying biological factors and heterogeneity that characterize pancreatic tumors from African Americans, yet studies are lacking in this area.^{[1]}Simple Summary In this study, we assessed the potential of simultaneously acquired 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and magnetic resonance imaging-derived quantitative imaging parameters to predict the tumor grade, metastatic status, and response to neoadjuvant therapy of primary soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities.

^{[2]}

## My Quantitative Imaging

Our quantitative imaging strategy will be of high value for characterizing the dynamics and function of MCSs between various organelles in living cells.^{[1]}Our quantitative imaging results suggest that the depolymerization of cytoplasmic actin may compromise BER efficiency in mammals not only due to elevated levels of nuclear actin, but also of tubulin.

^{[2]}

## Provide Quantitative Imaging

Tomoelastography provides quantitative imaging markers for the detection of PNET and the prediction of greater tumor aggressiveness by increased stiffness.^{[1]}Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans performed at term-equivalent age in preterm infants provide quantitative imaging parameters that differ with respect to the degree of prematurity, related to brain maturation.

^{[2]}

## Fast Quantitative Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a promising technique for fast quantitative imaging of human tissue.^{[1]}Three-dimensional MRF obtains highly repeatable and reproducible estimations of T1 and T2, supporting the translation of MRF-based fast quantitative imaging into clinical applications.

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## Accurate Quantitative Imaging

Our approach facilitates the generation of knock-in lines in zebrafish, opening the way for accurate quantitative imaging studies.^{[1]}Our approach facilitates the generation of knock-in lines in zebrafish, opening the way for accurate quantitative imaging studies.

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## Additional Quantitative Imaging

Compared with FPD-CBCT images acquired at the same dose level, PCD-CT images demonstrated a 53% reduction in noise variance and additional quantitative imaging capability.^{[1]}R2* might act as additional quantitative imaging marker for tumor characterization of rectal cancer.

^{[2]}