## What is/are Multiphase Materials?

Multiphase Materials - To blend and process different high molar mass polymers into multiphase materials, predicting/controlling their morphology and rheological behavior is paramount.^{[1]}Local magnification artifacts in atom probe tomography (APT) caused by multiphase materials with heterogeneous evaporation behavior are a well-known problem.

^{[2]}The current research explores the influence of multi-asperity abrasive particles engagement on multiphase materials.

^{[3]}It is also proposed that the sol-gel method is an effective way to prepare the multiphase materials with adjustable properties.

^{[4]}Ceramic matrix composites with strong structural characteristics, is a kind of multiphase materials.

^{[5]}The discussed results show how the hybrid technique inherits the generality of VEM and the modelling simplification and accuracy of BEM, ensuring high accuracy and fast convergence and providing a versatile tool for the analysis of multiphase materials, also including non-linear behaviour such as material degradation.

^{[6]}The dictionary indexing was successfully applied to differentiate between phases in multiphase materials where Hough-based indexing was difficult or impossible [2,3].

^{[7]}Based on X-ray attenuation, microCT provides three-dimensional visualization and characterization of internal features of multiphase materials with spatial resolution down to several microns that would otherwise only be revealed by physically sectioning the material.

^{[8]}The comparison between two preparation techniques may provide optimum conditions to be used in development of multiphase materials for various applications.

^{[9]}However, due to complexity of these multiphase materials, accurate modeling of their behavior in real loading cases is still ambiguous.

^{[10]}We identified that: (1) mulch films improve their mechanical properties through the formulation of multiphase materials, reaching international standards; (2) biodegradability of bio-composite mulch films can be adjusted according to crop season; (3) bio-composite mulch films provide high yields for different crops; and (4) they are promising for the management of pests and weeds.

^{[11]}Grid nanoindentation coupled with statistical analysis is effective to give an insight into multiphase materials just like cement paste, mortar and concrete.

^{[12]}This paper proposes a parallel topology optimization design method for dynamic and static characteristics of multiphase materials.

^{[13]}Engineering design of materials and structures has evolved radically from earliest employment of single phase materials with a focus on optimization of geometric shapes to recent multiphase materials with tactful integration and assembly in both geometric shapes and material domains.

^{[14]}This methodology is particularly useful in the case of multiphase materials and engineering systems with complex structures.

^{[15]}Furthermore, it was shown that the correction of the instrumental surface effects, which are intrinsic for surface neutron strain scanning, through neutron ray-tracing simulation is applicable to multiphase materials and yields reliable results.

^{[16]}However, this basic assumption in R-DVC analysis is often violated when measuring the deformation near the interface when dealing with multiphase materials (including porous materials) or contact problems.

^{[17]}Flow maps are delineated over a wide range of injection flow rates, and an original methodology based on periodic pattern analysis is developed to clarify relationships between interfacial dynamics and fluid properties of multiphase materials.

^{[18]}The proposed approach is tested using a special circular beam constructed with multiphase materials.

^{[19]}Composites are composed of multiphase materials, where each phase has specific properties that differ from those of the other phases which can effect on the whole properties of composite.

^{[20]}For multiphase materials such as aluminum–silicon alloys our work demonstrates how – in particular – three-dimensional geometric microstructure characteristics, such as particle sphericity, connectivity and contiguity can be measured accurately from 3D X-ray computed tomography scans.

^{[21]}Some application examples in multiphase materials with feature sizes down to 1 μm are presented, including Ti-6Al-4 V Titanium alloy, Rene 65 and additive manufactured Inconel 718 Nickel-base superalloys.

^{[22]}Composite resonant elements on a basis of multiphase materials with a high Q-factor and a ferrimagnetic film were developed.

^{[23]}Several analytical models for the thermal conductivity of multiphase materials are proposed in the literature.

^{[24]}A quite high figure-of-merit value of these multiphase materials was achieved, reaching up to 1.

^{[25]}Statistical evaluation of grid indentation data is a well-known method used for determination of mechanical properties of multiphase materials.

^{[26]}Details of the effects on physico-chemical observables of the nanostructure and the complex chemical nature (considering mono and multiphase materials with presence of several chemical elements) of typical photo-catalysts will be analyzed.

^{[27]}Ultrafine austenite-ferrite duplex medium Mn steels often show a discontinuous yielding phenomenon, which is not commonly observed in other composite-like multiphase materials.

^{[28]}, the parallel and series model) for describing the effective thermal conductivity of multiphase materials is clarified, and other useful fit relations are recalled (geometric weighted mean) or newly proposed (generalized sigmoidal mean).

^{[29]}Multiphase materials are widely applied in engineering due to desirable mechanical properties and are of interest to geoscience as rocks are multiphase.

^{[30]}It also proposed a method to prepare the multiphase materials by the facile sol-gel process, which is an effective way in adjusting electromagnetic parameters of as-prepared materials.

^{[31]}However, the present predictive models for thermal conductivity of multiphase materials are not suitable for the porous sintered Ag due to the model limitations of low porosity, i.

^{[32]}These results provide further evidence for the importance of structure in multiphase materials and the possibility of enhancing mechanical properties through the controlled alignment of microstructures.

^{[33]}Incorrect peak definitions for multiphase materials are difficult to avoid when a single peak range requires different definitions for each phase.

^{[34]}Strong interface bonding is a prerequisite for high performance of multiphase materials.

^{[35]}In this study, multiphase materials such as chloride-contaminated concrete are examined in detail.

^{[36]}It was found that the aforementioned technique has the capability to provide superior properties for single-phase and multiphase materials and even for the metal matrix composites.

^{[37]}This work addresses various mathematical solution strategies adapted for design optimization of multiphase materials.

^{[38]}These challenges are exacerbated in multiphase materials, such as Ti6Al4V, that are important for the biomedical, aerospace, and energy industries.

^{[39]}Multicomponent miktoarm stars (MMSs) comprising at least three kinds of chemically different arm segments are extremely important due to their great potential as multiphase materials to elucidate composition/topology-dependent properties and applications.

^{[40]}However, it induces a materials engineering challenge due to the difficulties in preparations of multiphase materials and technological complexities of processing.

^{[41]}

## Complex Multiphase Materials

The work provides a new insight of the role of bubbles on the bulk behaviour of complex multiphase materials, such as chocolates, and defines the mechanical properties which are important input parameters for the development of oral processing simulations.^{[1]}However, due to the limitation of empirical structural shape and design tools, these metamaterials are made by complex multiphase materials but possess a relatively narrow frequency range with double negativity, which is unsuitable for practical engineering applications.

^{[2]}On a wider perspective, we introduce a powerful tool to characterize transformations in complex multiphase materials.

^{[3]}

## Random Multiphase Materials

This method provides an economic, efficient and easy-to-use approach for reconstructing random multiphase materials in 2D which has potential to be extended to 3D structures.^{[1]}A common approach to modeling random multiphase materials is to develop so-called surrogate models approximating statistical features of the material.

^{[2]}