## What is/are Multiphase Flows?

Multiphase Flows - 2D Rectangular columns, formed within a thin gap between two enclosed parallel plates, are often used in visualisation and CFD studies of multiphase flows.^{[1]}In addition, the pumps must be able to cope with multiphase flows to a certain extent.

^{[2]}A numerical method for the simulation of multiphase flows with phase change on unstructured grids is presented.

^{[3]}Such a phenomenon has crucial consequences for multiphase flows in which confined nano- and/or picolitre droplets are considered.

^{[4]}In this talk, we will present recent efforts to develop and apply a range of laser-based and other combined diagnostic techniques to a number of multiphase flows, both isothermal and in the presence of heat transfer, and extending to phase change processes (boiling and freezing).

^{[5]}The influence of the fractional composition of mechanical impurities contained in oil on erosion–corrosion processes in infield pipelines was investigated taking into account the hydrodynamics of multiphase flows.

^{[6]}This discovery has broad relevance in areas such as froth flotation, liquid-infused surfaces, multiphase flows and microfluidics.

^{[7]}A crucial parameter for studying erosion in multiphase flows is the flow pattern.

^{[8]}The technique exhibits uncertainties of ±2K in temperature and 2% in capturing the correct scattering profile, showing its potential utility for probing liquid temperature distributions in multiphase flows.

^{[9]}Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) methods have attracted great attentions in predicting single-phase and multiphase flows under steady-state or transient conditions in the field of nuclear reactor engineering.

^{[10]}Phase-isolation is a novel ever-increasing multiphase separation technology, which can facilitate the multiphase fluid flowing concurrently with a substantially clear interface between two phases, and the phenomenon is promisingly employed for the separation and measurement of multiphase flows.

^{[11]}Multiphase flows have been an attractive choice of fluid system to mitigate the temperature rise in electronic devices.

^{[12]}The CPI approach has been purposely extended here for the first time to the case of multiphase flows.

^{[13]}The solution of the volume fraction equations in multiphase flows has to satisfy geometric conservation, that is, the volume fraction fields at each control volume sum to 1.

^{[14]}The device allows for testing of multiphase flows as well as air bubbles in air-lift reactors.

^{[15]}One of the unit operations involved in the production of olive oil is the separation of liquid–liquid systems (and other multiphase flows) in their fundamental phases.

^{[16]}Diffusion in shales plays more important role than in conventional reservoirs, however low reservoir properties are the reasons for emerging issues in understanding and modelling of multiphase flows.

^{[17]}The requirement of high-fidelity experimental data of microscopic properties of sprays motivates the continuous development of optical tools, since they are determinant in the understanding of atomization and evaporation process in a variety of multiphase flows.

^{[18]}Multiphase flows are characterized by sharp moving interfaces, separating different fluids or phases.

^{[19]}Beyond fundamental aspects, such gas-induced line tension modifications could be used in numerous practical applications where multiphase flows are involved.

^{[20]}This article aims to address lubrication effects on multiphase flows.

^{[21]}Bubbles dispersed in thin liquid layers are ubiquitous and play important roles in the heat and mass transfer in nature and industrial processes including the energy, chemical, and biology engineering; thus, understanding the dynamics of bubbles confined in a liquid layer remains an important topic in multiphase flows.

^{[22]}Moreover, it was shown that in stark contrast with the pure gas case above the critical Reynolds number in the supersonic regime, where no flow instability was observed, in the multiphase flows, adding particles produced flow instability.

^{[23]}Paris (PArallel, Robust, Interface Simulator) is a finite volume code for simulations of immiscible multifluid or multiphase flows.

^{[24]}The use of X-ray flow visualization has brought a powerful new tool to the study of multiphase flows.

^{[25]}In this paper, we extend the decomposed pressure correction method to intrusive uncertainty quantification of multiphase flows.

^{[26]}Real-time monitoring of water volume fraction in multiphase flows is an important problem for a number of industrial applications.

^{[27]}A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) is a widely used instrument to visualize and estimate derived parameters of multiphase flows, e.

^{[28]}The current communication is a comparative analysis of multiphase flows through a steep channel.

^{[29]}This paper is devoted to deriving several fractional-order models for multiphase flows in porous media, focusing on some special cases of the two-phase flow.

^{[30]}For multiphase flows, fractal dimension can be used to help predict the types of instabilities that will occur within the flow.

^{[31]}The proposed closure model is used to construct a five-equation model for the simulation of multifluid and multiphase flows.

^{[32]}The pseudo-potential model with the Peng–Robinson equation of state is used to simulate large density ratios of multiphase flows.

^{[33]}In this research, a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) code was developed and coupled with the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software MFiX to simulate granular and multiphase flows.

^{[34]}In this paper a fully Eulerian solver for the study of multiphase flows for simulating the propagation of surface gravity waves over submerged bodies is presented.

^{[35]}Multiphase flows are of paramount importance in the oil and gas industry, considering that most petroleum industries produce and transport oil and gas simultaneously.

^{[36]}Multiphase flows are found in several industrial processes encompassing power generation, pharmaceutical and chemical industry and agriculture [.

^{[37]}Phase separation in multiphase flows in space systems is a challenging task due to the absence of buoyancy.

^{[38]}At present, in normative documents and literature sources, unlike monophasic flows, there are almost no correct methods for estimating and calculating oil and gas spills for multiphase flows.

^{[39]}Multiphase flows are widely used in process industries.

^{[40]}Applications of multiphase flows in microchannels as chemical and biological reactors and cooling systems for microelectronic devices typically present liquid slugs alternated with bubbles of elongated shape, the Taylor bubbles.

^{[41]}

## high density ratio

In this work we present a family of variable preconditioners designed for the effective solution of variable Poisson equation with extreme contrasts in the coefficients, which represents a particularly challenging case as it translates into a variable and extremely ill-conditioned system arising in many situations such as with multiphase flows presenting high density ratios or in the presence of highly-stretched adaptive mesh refinements.^{[1]}In this paper, a weakly compressible updated Lagrangian particle hydrodynamics (ULPH) model [1] has been developed for multiphase flows with high density ratios and viscosity ratios.

^{[2]}In this paper we present a robust immersed boundary (IB) method for high density ratio multiphase flows that is capable of modeling complex wave-structure interaction (WSI) problems arising in marine and coastal engineering applications.

^{[3]}This paper presents a robust, adaptive numerical scheme for simulating high density ratio and high shear multiphase flows on locally refined staggered Cartesian grids that adapt to the evolving interfaces and track regions of high vorticity.

^{[4]}A consistent transport scheme is employed to advect mass and momentum in the domain, which ensures numerical stability of high density ratio multiphase flows involved in practical marine engineering applications.

^{[5]}The conservative Allen-Cahn-based lattce Boltzmann equation which has good numerical stability in simulating multiphase flows at high density ratio is employed to capture the phase interface.

^{[6]}

## Complex Multiphase Flows

Traditionally, numerous compromises or simplifications must be made when simulating complex multiphase flows and their transitions within production and separation systems using CFD.^{[1]}This provides an alternative approach for detecting solid particle features in water flow and lays the foundation for future work with solid detection in more complex multiphase flows with multisensory fusion methods.

^{[2]}A specific mesh handling technique allows us to manage the topological changes of the domain ensuring the numerical stability of the simulation and the correct calculation of the complex multiphase flows that take place in gearboxes.

^{[3]}By performing Large Eddy Simulations we demonstrate, in the present work, that it is possible to predict complex multiphase flows by combining promising methodologies like LES and Immersed Boundary Methodology.

^{[4]}In particular, turbulent sprays are complex multiphase flows in which liquid evaporating droplets are dispersed within a turbulent gaseous phase.

^{[5]}

## Turbulent Multiphase Flows

The aim of this paper is to review the developments and limitations of the existing experimental techniques and different calculating methods and identify the future directions in successfully estimating turbulent dissipation rate in turbulent multiphase flows.^{[1]}In this preliminary work, the feasibility of the combination of a volumetric velocimetry technique such as Defocusing Particle Image Velocimetry and a particle phase-discrimination methodology based on ridge detection algorithm for the analysis of turbulent multiphase flows with non-spherical fiber-like particles is discussed.

^{[2]}Naturally, the numerical resolution of all the scales of the problem, which span about eight to nine orders of magnitude, is not possible, with the consequence that numerical simulations of turbulent multiphase flows impose challenges and require methods able to capture the multiscale nature of the flow.

^{[3]}Pelton turbine buckets are subject to complex turbulent multiphase flows with free surfaces, thus received lot of attention from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) researchers to visualise the flow patterns.

^{[4]}Specifically, important thermal-energy processes take place during flow boiling, flow condensation and thermal-energy storage, which are highly complex, multi-scale and multi-physics in nature, and which involve phase-change, unsteady and turbulent multiphase flows in the presence of conjugate heat transfer.

^{[5]}

## Ratio Multiphase Flows

Moreover, the pseudopotential model is employed in this paper to present the improvement of numerical stability in simulating the large-density-ratio multiphase flows at high Reynolds (Re) and Weber (We) numbers.^{[1]}In this paper we present a robust immersed boundary (IB) method for high density ratio multiphase flows that is capable of modeling complex wave-structure interaction (WSI) problems arising in marine and coastal engineering applications.

^{[2]}A consistent transport scheme is employed to advect mass and momentum in the domain, which ensures numerical stability of high density ratio multiphase flows involved in practical marine engineering applications.

^{[3]}

## Compressible Multiphase Flows

In this study, an accurate shock- and interface-capturing method using curvilinear body-fitted structured grids is introduced to simulate compressible multiphase flows with shockwaves.^{[1]}This adaptive mesh refinement method is then applied to compressible multiphase flows in the framework of diffuse-interface methods.

^{[2]}The proposed model describes compressible multiphase flows with separate phases and non-equilibrium interfacial phase change.

^{[3]}

## Simulating Multiphase Flows

The conservative Allen-Cahn-based lattce Boltzmann equation which has good numerical stability in simulating multiphase flows at high density ratio is employed to capture the phase interface.^{[1]}This paper presents a scalable parallelization of an Eulerian–Lagrangian method, namely the three-dimensional front tracking method, for simulating multiphase flows.

^{[2]}The pseudopotential multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a very popular model in the LB community for simulating multiphase flows.

^{[3]}

## Parallel Multiphase Flows

In the field of microfluidics, utilizing parallel multiphase flows with immiscible liquid/liquid or gas/liquid interfaces along a microchannel has achieved the integration of various chemical processes for analyses and syntheses.^{[1]}For parallel multiphase flows, the core procedure is solving linear systems using preconditioned iterative methods, and the iterative convergence rate is crucial to the overall efficiency.

^{[2]}

## Studying Multiphase Flows

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a valuable tool for experimentally studying multiphase flows.^{[1]}This framework helps to reduce the reconstruction uncertainty for experiments studying multiphase flows that use a limited number of cameras, non-ideal camera positions, or the combination of both.

^{[2]}

## Understanding Multiphase Flows

Understanding multiphase flows near the wellbore is an alternative to improve production efficiency.^{[1]}These data are crucial for understanding multiphase flows.

^{[2]}

## Handle Multiphase Flows

The aim of the present research is to develop a 1D-3D coupled model with the capability to handle multiphase flows.^{[1]}The framework is built upon a Cartesian grid solver for low-Mach, turbulent flows which has been modified to handle multiphase flows with large density ratios.

^{[2]}

## Involving Multiphase Flows

Problems involving multiphase flows require a physical understanding of how the phenomena develop and the specific interactions they manifest.^{[1]}Therefore, it is possible to increase the performance of microfluidic systems involving multiphase flows via modifying the surface.

^{[2]}

## Dispersed Multiphase Flows

In turbulent dispersed multiphase flows, the interaction between the particle wake and the ambient turbulent fluctuation can be crucial for the change of the multiphase system.^{[1]}They also demonstrate how environmental flows can be used to investigate dispersed multiphase flows at Reynolds numbers not accessible in laboratory experiments or numerical simulations.

^{[2]}

## Liquid Multiphase Flows

The predictive simulation of gas–liquid multiphase flows at industrial scales reveals the challenging task to consider turbulence and interfacial structures, which span a large range of length scales.^{[1]}multiUQ is a novel tool that simulates gas-liquid multiphase flows and quantifies uncertainty in results due to variability about fluid properties and initial/boundary conditions.

^{[2]}

## Dominated Multiphase Flows

The effect of ECT on erosion for a 90-degree standard elbow in the annular flow has been investigated because erosion is more severe in gas dominated multiphase flows such as annular and mist flows than liquid dominated bubbly and slug flows.^{[1]}Small particle erosion is more severe in gas dominated multiphase flows such as annular and mist flows than liquid dominated bubbly and slug flows.

^{[2]}

## Challenging Multiphase Flows

(2021) systematically review industrial, geophysical and biophysical applications of SPH modelling, predicting very complex processes such as free surface hydrodynamics, fluidstructure interactions, challenging multiphase flows, and flows involving reactions and phase change.^{[1]}All the numerical analyses are carefully validated, and various challenging multiphase flows are simulated.

^{[2]}

## multiphase flows occur

Phase change in multiphase flows occurs in many natural and industrial applications, e.^{[1]}3D modeling of the elbow and T-junction was performed in the linear part of the gas main, in particular, in places where a complex movement of multiphase flows occurs and changes its direction.

^{[2]}

## multiphase flows require

Problems involving multiphase flows require a physical understanding of how the phenomena develop and the specific interactions they manifest.^{[1]}Simulation of multiphase flows require coupled capturing or tracking of the interfaces in conjunction with the solution of fluid motion often occurring at multiple scales.

^{[2]}

## multiphase flows movement

The purpose of this work is to ensuring the strength of main gas pipelines bends by studying the peculiarities of single-phase and multiphase flows movement through the internal cavity, the processes of erosion wear and the wall stress state.^{[1]}The purpose of this work is to ensuring the strength of main gas pipelines bends by studying the peculiarities of single-phase and multiphase flows movement through the internal cavity, the processes of erosion wear and the wall stress state.

^{[2]}