## What is/are Model Data Comparison?

Model Data Comparison - Hence, the coarse ocean resolution of typical palaeo-GCMs lead to a challenge for model-data comparison in past climates.^{[1]}Suggestions for improving standard DIC algorithms to enable quantitative model-data comparison are discussed.

^{[2]}We developed new methods for model-data comparison which help to objectively compare the stochastic results to the observations.

^{[3]}Parameters estimated with data from the 5 cm soil depth had better model-data comparisons than parameters estimated with data from the 10 cm soil depth.

^{[4]}Models’improvement relies on model-data comparisons for past periods.

^{[5]}These simulations extend the pool of current ESM simulations into the 1st millennium CE and represent an important basis to assess the models’ response to external forcing and improved model-data comparison.

^{[6]}Our aim is that the documentation of the large-scale features and model-data comparison presented herein will pave the way to further studies that explore aspects of the model simulations in more detail, for example the ocean circulation, hydrological cycle, and modes of variability, and encourage sensitivity studies to aspects such as paleogeography, orbital configuration, and aerosols.

^{[7]}Model-data comparison shows that if that latter effect exists, it has small consequences for the observed case.

^{[8]}Proper knowledge of the dating uncertainties in paleoclimatic ice core records is important for a rigorous propagation to further analyses; for example for identification and dating of stadial-interstadial transitions during glacial intervals, for model-data comparisons in general, or to provide a complete uncertainty quantification of early warning signals.

^{[9]}Model-data comparisons show that the developed model here is potentially useful and efficient for investigating the inevitable wave-current-structure interaction problems in aquaculture technologies.

^{[10]}Our aim is that the documentation of the large scale features and model-data comparison presented herein will pave the way to further studies that explore aspects of the model simulations in more detail, for example the ocean circulation, hydrological cycle, and modes of variability; and encourage sensitivity studies to aspects such as paleogeography, orbital configuration, and aerosols .

^{[11]}The documented distribution of facies and sequence-stratigraphic framework combined with a virtual outcrop model were used as a reference to perform geometric (quantitative) and architectural and stacking pattern (qualitative) research by model-data comparison.

^{[12]}The adjustable parameters are fixed from the comprehensive model-data comparison.

^{[13]}Results of this model-data comparison were used to assess the likely boundary conditions for the MCO and MMCT, and inferred TAM elevations of 300-500 m lower than present-day, modelled CO2 concentrations up to 780 ppm during periods of peak warmth, and a transition to lower CO2 across the MMCT.

^{[14]}The results 25 point to possible improvements in future model-data comparison studies utilizing historical written records.

^{[15]}Fay and coauthors aim to improve the global net air-sea CO2 flux estimate and ease model-data comparisons by making a diversity of pCO2 data products (n=6) with methodological differences more consistent and releasing the results as a new data product: SeaFlux.

^{[16]}Comparing these two data sources over a period with changing background conditions requires new methods for model-data comparison that incorporate multiple types and sources of uncertainty.

^{[17]}The common boundary conditions should enable consistent multi model and model-data comparisons.

^{[18]}Sea surface temperature and pseudo-δ18O are used in model-data comparisons to assess the potential influence of hydroclimate change on records.

^{[19]}Model performance was assessed based on the model-data comparisons.

^{[20]}Extensive model-data comparison demonstrated that the model could satisfactorily reproduce the oceanic structure and 137Cs concentrations in the seawater and seabed sediment.

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