## What is/are Kinetic Energy?

Kinetic Energy - Moreover, soft constraints on speed limits (kinetic energy) have been considered in the problem by enforcing sharp penalties in the objective.^{[1]}The aims of this study were to 1) describe and quantify flow patterns in the aortic root using blood speckle tracking and 2) quantitatively compare flow parameters (energy loss, vorticity, kinetic energy) between paediatric patients with BAVs and those with normal aortic valves.

^{[2]}The top level is solved online, optimizing a nonlinear dynamic program with travel time, kinetic energy and acceleration as state variables.

^{[3]}The software was also used to monitor the variations in the kinetic energy of rolling, bouncing or falling rocks.

^{[4]}Kinetic energy is stored in the springs when reciprocating and the frequency of vibration is attenuated by dampers only to dissipate all the energy in the form of heat.

^{[5]}The results show that the sandwich structure porous shield has excellent performance against kinetic energy, and the protective performance is better than the holeless shield plate structure under the same surface density condition.

^{[6]}A new finding was that all cases showed an increase in kinetic energy from the first time point to the second, and this change in kinetic energy seems correlated to the change in aneurysm volume.

^{[7]}The bumper beam absorbs the kinetic energy during an accidental collision by deflection in low speed impact and by deformation in high speed impact.

^{[8]}The paper briefly presents an original theoretical method that aims to obtain nuclear energy by forcing a good efficiency of the reaction between lithium and hydrogen by accelerating hydrogen nuclei to energies high enough to cover the kinetic energy of an accelerated proton so that it to overcome the potential nuclear energy barrier of rejection between the charges of the same kind of lithium nucleus and proton, considering the most unfavorable situation possible when the proton approaches the lithium nucleus to its positively charged part through its three protons.

^{[9]}The results showed that: (1) as the impedance of a rock specimen was smaller than that of the ground material, the specimen was thrown up and a certain amount of kinetic energy was brought with such a bounce.

^{[10]}Yet it is a model which describes the competition between the kinetic energy and the Coulomb interaction in the simplest way.

^{[11]}When an MSTE is used as initial conditions for a 2D simulation, we find that Nu quickly equilibrates without the burst of turbulence often induced by purely conductive initial conditions, but we also find that the kinetic energy is too large and viscously attenuates on a long viscous time scale.

^{[12]}ABSTRACT Hydrokinetic turbines (HKT’s) are used to produce power from the kinetic energy of the river current.

^{[13]}In this study, the effect of kinetic energy of the shot peening process on microstructure, mechanical properties, residual stress, fatigue behavior and residual stress relaxation under fatigue loading of AISI 316L stainless steel were investigated to figure out the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and failure.

^{[14]}Under unloading condition, the variable energy of rock increases with increasing H/W and initial stress level, and the kinetic energy of rock particles increases with increasing H/W.

^{[15]}Nile River is considered as an auspicious area; in particular along with Upper Egypt, to produce electrical energy from the water current which called hydrokinetic energy.

^{[16]}While delocalization lowers the energy of the carrier through its kinetic energy, localization creates a polarization around the carrier that traps it in a potential energy minimum.

^{[17]}The output power of wind turbines is determined by aerodynamic forces created by the interaction between the wind and the rotor blades to convert the kinetic energy of the wind into useful mechanical energy.

^{[18]}In the inviscid limit, the solutions of the set predict that, if the swirling velocity of the flow exceeds a certain threshold, the jet bends against gravity and rises until the initial supply of the liquid's kinetic energy is used up.

^{[19]}The movement of the water mass can be converted into power density, by optimizing potential energy (sea level) and kinetic energy (tidal currents).

^{[20]}Thus, there is an exponential change in the kinetic energy of the gas molecules in the volume where the centrally symmetric intensity tensor acts.

^{[21]}The transfer of kinetic energy from the region above the farm is dominated by the turbulent flux of momentum together with the displacement of kinetic energy operated by the mean vertical velocity: these two have comparable magnitude along the farm opposite to the infinite-farm case.

^{[22]}However, the ratio of kinetic energy over released potential energy exhibits an almost steady state after the initial exponential growth, with values around 0.

^{[23]}In strongly correlated systems the strength of Coulomb interactions between electrons, relative to their kinetic energy, plays a central role in determining their emergent quantum mechanical phases.

^{[24]}The kinetic energy of sprinkler irrigation drops is a major factor degrading the soil surface.

^{[25]}This minireview highlights recent advances in solid-state [2+2] cycloaddition in crystals to induce macroscale mechanical motion and thereby transduction of light into kinetic energy.

^{[26]}We find that the kinetic energy and enstrophy of collective cell flows in both epithelial and non-epithelial cell monolayers collapse to a family of probability density functions, which follow the q -Gaussian distribution rather than the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.

^{[27]}Notably, we observe an exchange between the kinetic energy of the atoms and the atom-ion interaction energy for all eigenstates, which is both interaction and mobility induced.

^{[28]}Thermodynamically consistent higher order micropolar continua having non-local positive defined elastic and kinetic energy are obtained.

^{[29]}From the BCG and SCG signals, maximal velocities (V Max ), integral of kinetic energy ( i K), and maximal power (P Max ) can be computed as scalar parameters, both in linear and rotational dimensions.

^{[30]}High velocity projectile BABT causes immediate and severe hypoxia by increased venous admixture (Q’s/Q’t), but it is not known whether the level of hypoxia correlates to the kinetic energy (Ek) of the projectile.

^{[31]}The design of rotor is the Banki wind turbine, which includes multiple blades to harvest the maximum amount of kinetic energy.

^{[32]}A decrease in efficiency is associated with a decrease in the amount of kinetic energy of the rotating parts compared to the amount of electromagnetic energy.

^{[33]}Using this setup, the impact of varying physical parameters like gas flow, gas pressure, kinetic energy of fission products upon entering the reaction chamber and temperature of the reaction chamber on the formation and transport yields of MCCs was investigated.

^{[34]}Oleo-pneumatic landing gear is a complex mechanical system conceived to efficiently absorb and dissipate an aircraft’s kinetic energy at touchdown, thus reducing the impact load and acceleration transmitted to the airframe.

^{[35]}

## available potential energy

The LCE shedding period and diameter (LCE metrics) and kinetic energy, eddy kinetic energy, available potential energy, eddy available potential energy, and the energy Burger number (energy metrics) are analyzed.^{[1]}Over the entire sub-ice-shelf cavity, mean available potential energy (MAPE) is the largest energy reservoir (112 TJ), followed by the mean kinetic energy (MKE, 70 TJ) and eddy available potential energy (EAPE, 10 TJ).

^{[2]}Before that, the energy supply in the upper layer is mainly via a strong upper layer-limited baroclinic instability; the available potential energy thus-gained is then converted into the TC-scale kinetic energy, with a portion to fuel Lekima’s upper part, another portion carried downward via pressure work flux to maintain the cyclone’s lower part.

^{[3]}When the pycnocline thickness on both sides of the sill increases, the total barotropic kinetic energy, total baroclinic energy and ratio of baroclinic kinetic energy (KE) to available potential energy (APE) decrease, whilst the depth of isopycnal undergoing maximum displacement and ratio of baroclinic energy to barotropic energy increase.

^{[4]}The geographical variation of vertical anomalies induced by eddies is because of the combination effect of the ocean stratification, the background energy (available potential energy and barotropic kinetic energy), and the energy conversion rate.

^{[5]}We then analyze the available potential energy (APE) and kinetic energy (KE) distributions for each simulation.

^{[6]}We also show that the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times larger than kinetic energy.

^{[7]}The dominance of Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) over the Available Potential Energy (APE) in the core depth and the diameter (120 km) of the observed eddy being wider than the Rossby Radius of Deformation (RRD, 55 km), it is suggested that the baroclinic instability is a possible mechanism for the eddy formation.

^{[8]}The available potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy to drive atmospheric circulation and the related weather and climate (3-6, 16, 17).

^{[9]}The mixing coefficient $\varGamma =\epsilon _P/\epsilon$, where $\epsilon$ is the dissipation rate of kinetic energy and $\epsilon _P$ is that of available potential energy, is always greater than 0.

^{[10]}We also show that 14 the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times 15 larger than kinetic energy.

^{[11]}The mean current kinetic energy MKE, the eddy kinetic energy EKE, the mean available potential energy MPE, the eddy available potential energy EPE and the rates of energy conversion, generation and dissipation were considered in detail.

^{[12]}

## gravitational potential energy

The forces on the deposited droplet are analyzed by the trend of surface energy, the gravitational potential energy, the kinetic energy, and the viscous dissipation.^{[1]}The kinematic model of a single C-leg system is obtained and used to determine the system’s energy consumption associated with gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE) variations.

^{[2]}This enables an energy breakdown to be completed, in terms of mechanical energy from fuel, gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.

^{[3]}An equilibrium shape occurs when the gravitational potential energy and the rotational kinetic energy at the surface of the body balance each other out.

^{[4]}Rotational/ revolving speed, angular momentum and rotational inertia kinetic energy; gravitational potential energy of the Earth at equator and at 45 degrees were computed to show how rotational speed triggering plates.

^{[5]}We found that during both unloaded and loaded locomotion, the kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of the ant center of mass are in phase, which is in agreement with what has been described by other authors as a grounded-running gait.

^{[6]}The test results indicated that the change in surface curvature of the structure resulting from deformation during a severe earthquake transformed gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy and caused chord members to impact and fracture, thereby inducing progressive collapse of the structure.

^{[7]}In the proposed method, gravitational potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy via an analysis of energy distribution of water particles in the basin.

^{[8]}We investigate different morphology classification schemes and uncover that the ratio of the gravitational potential energy density of the companion to the kinetic energy density of the AGB outflow yields a robust classification parameter for the models presented in this paper.

^{[9]}

## density functional theory

Like the bare atomic fragment approach, the new method is an ab initio, parameter-free, orbital-free implementation of density functional theory based on the bifunctional formalism that treats the potential and the electron density as two separate variables, and provides access to the Kohn–Sham Pauli kinetic energy for an appropriately chosen Pauli potential.^{[1]}We apply the generalization of the kinetic energy, τ, with the paramagnetic current density to all magnetic properties and the excitation energies from time-dependent density functional theory.

^{[2]}Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the superior catalytic activity for Mo2N compared to MoN stemmed from a large reduction of kinetic energy barriers of dehydrogenation and nitrogen desorption.

^{[3]}The predictive power of density functional theory for materials properties can be improved without increasing the overall computational complexity by extending the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for electronic exchange and correlation to density functionals depending on the electronic kinetic energy density in addition to the charge density and its gradient, resulting in a meta‐GGA.

^{[4]}Density functional theory calculations illustrate that alloying Mo can optimize the electronic structure around Pd and significantly reduce the kinetic energy barrier, thus improving the migration ability of CO* and enhance the anti-poisoning performance of the electrode to achieve more stable CO2 electroreduction.

^{[5]}Modeling the Pauli energy, the contribution to the kinetic energy caused by Pauli statistics, without using orbitals is the open problem of orbital-free density functional theory.

^{[6]}Using first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we studied the role of eleven solutes in tailoring kinetics and energetics of adatoms and clusters on Al {111} surface, stable and unstable stacking fault energies, and kinetic energy barriers for the migration of defects.

^{[7]}Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest constructing the MoS2/MoN interface can optimize the hydrogen adsorption kinetic energy, thus accelerating the electrochemical HER.

^{[8]}

## direct numerical simulation

Velocity dilatation and total, solenoidal, and dilatational dissipation rates of the total flow kinetic energy are extracted from three different direct numerical simulation databases obtained by three independent research groups using different numerical codes and methods (e.^{[1]}In this study, we investigate interscale kinetic energy transfer and subgrid-scale (SGS) backscatter using data from direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of premixed isotropic turbulent flames.

^{[2]}We present the results of direct numerical simulations of power spectral densities for kinetic energy, convective entropy, and heat flux for unsteady Rayleigh–Benard magnetoconvection in the frequency space.

^{[3]}We investigate properties of the scale dependence and cross-scale transfer of kinetic energy in compressible three-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence, by means of two direct numerical simulations of decaying turbulence with initial Mach numbers M = 1/3 and M = 1, and with moderate Reynolds numbers, Rλ ∼ 100.

^{[4]}The Approximate Deconvolution Method with Relaxation Term (ADM-RT) approach is also assessed and the present LES data are compared with reference Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) data for first and second order moments as well as for the turbulent kinetic energy budget.

^{[5]}However, compared with the previous direct numerical simulation studies, which showed two peaks in the turbulent kinetic energy profile, the \( {\text{k}}\,{-}\,\upomega \) SST model fails to predict the proper turbulent kinetic energy profile in the near wall region, which showed only one peak or no peak for the turbulent kinetic energy in the whole flow region.

^{[6]}

## turbulence dissipation rate

The discretization of turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and energy equations as well as the spatial momentum equation have been done by a second-order upwind scheme.^{[1]}Turbulence production and turbulence dissipation rate demonstrate a local imbalance where turbulence is mainly produced by flow shear correlated with recirculation patterns, while turbulent kinetic energy is predominantly dissipated near the no-slip bottom boundary.

^{[2]}Another advantage of the ASDEIPS is its ability to improve the flow field of the elbow under any working condition and to reduce the pressure drop, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulence dissipation rate of the elbow.

^{[3]}Besides, TPHS shows similar distributions of turbulence intensity I, turbulence kinetic energy k, and turbulence dissipation rate ε; i.

^{[4]}In a system with the 3-way regulating valve, low energy consumption high efficiency based on fluid dynamics CFD software, for the 3-way regulating valve of the 3 d simulation for internal flow property research, obtained the pressure within the valve flow turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate etc.

^{[5]}The spatial discretization of mass, momentum, turbulence dissipation rate, and turbulence kinetic energy equations has been achieved by a second-order upwind scheme.

^{[6]}

## turbulent dissipation rate

First, the kinetic energy equation and turbulent dissipation rate equation in the k-Sε model are established based on the modeling theory and single-Green-function two-scale direct interaction approximation ( SGF-TSDIA ) theory.^{[1]}The investigation comprises the following hydraulic variables, like eddy viscosity, turbulent intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent dissipation rate, flow velocity profile, static pressure and pressure coefficient.

^{[2]}The continuity, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, turbulent kinetic energy (k), turbulent dissipation rate (ε) and energy equations are solved using the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element (FE) Method.

^{[3]}The optimized flow rate of acetylene gas and the injector inclination is found by analyzing the flow contours of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate.

^{[4]}Iso-volumes of excess-air ratio based on biogas, diethyl ether and other variables such as the density, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent dissipation rate of air-fuel mixture influencing the homogeneity and equivalence ratio are studied for better in-cylinder distribution under the port injection mode.

^{[5]}The aerodynamic aspect with respect to stream function, mean, axial, and transverse velocities, dynamic pressure, turbulent dissipation rate, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulent viscosity, and turbulence intensity fields was included in this research.

^{[6]}

## large eddy simulation

At low Karlovitz numbers, where heat-release effects dominate turbulent kinetic energy budgets, their relative significance scales with the integral Damkohler number in a priori Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) statistics and the filter Damkohler number in Large Eddy Simulation (LES).^{[1]}A mesh adaptation methodology for wall-modeled turbomachinery Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is proposed, simultaneously taking into account two quantities of interest: the average kinetic energy dissipation rate and the normalized wall distance y +.

^{[2]}First, the instantaneous turbulent velocity field is obtained from the real-time video using an optical flow method, and based on the velocity field information, the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate are calculated using large eddy simulation and sub-grid scale (SGS) models.

^{[3]}The mean value of the global turbulent kinetic energy obtained through the analysis based on the large-eddy simulation is consistent with that obtained through the present direct simulation.

^{[4]}The existing WRF-large eddy simulation (WRF-LES) modeling system was modified by coupling an additional transport equation for the plume gas mixture and by accounting for the buoyant production term in the turbulence kinetic energy equation.

^{[5]}Comparison of the results from the SST-k–ω model with experiments and large eddy simulation (LES) (carried out using star-ccm+) were also made, which reveal that all the commercial CFD codes demonstrate either a higher or slower rate of spatial turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) decay.

^{[6]}

## wind energy conversion

Here the wind energy conversion system; consist of turbine which transforms the kinetic energy available in the wind into the mechanical energy, then the mechanical energy is boosted up with the help of gearbox and then generators are used to transform the rotational mechanical energy into the electrical energy.^{[1]}A wind energy conversion system captures kinetic energy of wind and converts it into electrical energy.

^{[2]}The kinetic energy present in the wind is converted into electrical energy by the principle of Wind Energy Conversion System.

^{[3]}Hence, this paper proposes a kinetic energy based power smoothing control strategy for the permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion system (PMSG-WECS).

^{[4]}Therefore, this paper proposes an advanced control strategy that allows of the DFIG based wind energy conversion system to provide, at the event of frequency excursion, an inertial support for the power system through a simultaneous use of the kinetic energy reserved in the turbine rotating masses and a portion of the energy reserved in the DC-link capacitor.

^{[5]}

## specific movement –

The purpose of the article is to deduce the formula of kinetic energy of a specific movement – the movement of subjective rights and legal obligations in legal relations, and to show the relationship of rights and obligations in the legal system in the form of a scalar equation.^{[1]}The purpose of the article is to deduce the formula of kinetic energy of a specific movement – the movement of subjective rights and legal obligations in legal relations, and to show the relationship of rights and obligations in the legal system in the form of a scalar equation.

^{[2]}The purpose of the article is to deduce the formula of kinetic energy of a specific movement – the movement of subjective rights and legal obligations in legal relations, and to show the relationship of rights and obligations in the legal system in the form of a scalar equation.

^{[3]}The purpose of the article is to deduce the formula of kinetic energy of a specific movement – the movement of subjective rights and legal obligations in legal relations, and to show the relationship of rights and obligations in the legal system in the form of a scalar equation.

^{[4]}The purpose of the article is to deduce the formula of kinetic energy of a specific movement – the movement of subjective rights and legal obligations in legal relations, and to show the relationship of rights and obligations in the legal system in the form of a scalar equation.

^{[5]}

## velocity map imaging

Velocity map imaging (VMI) studies reveal a bimodal total kinetic energy release (TKER) distribution for the O (1D) + H2CO (X 1A1) products with the major and minor components accounting for ca.^{[1]}We also have measured the kinetic energy and angular distribution of selected fragments using a velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer.

^{[2]}The kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) in the vibrational autodetachment (VAD) from sulfur hexafluoride anion SF6 - has been measured in a velocity map imaging spectrometer for delays in the range of a few tens of microseconds.

^{[3]}They are pulsed-filed-ionization zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE), mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI), and low-energy photoelectron velocity-map imaging (PEVMI) spectroscopies.

^{[4]}

## near wall region

It was furtherly found that this energy loss can be decomposed into the energy loss due to dissipation caused by molecular viscosity and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, and that its density distribution falls mainly into the near-wall region.^{[1]}The scale flux reveals evidence of the inverse turbulent kinetic energy transfer, from small to large scales, occurring at the near-wall region, whereby for the scale flux of the Reynolds shear stress transport, the inverse transfer extends across the entire boundary layer.

^{[2]}Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation based on the Reynolds averaging hypothesis was approximated in the near wall region of turbulent channel flows and an analytical solution for TKE was proposed by Absi for $$y^{ + } < 20$$ (R.

^{[3]}Due to the high kinetic energy transferred to the near-wall region for the CSH and RCSH cases, there is h enhancement on the surface, however.

^{[4]}

## elastic strain energy

A part of the elastic strain energy stored in Class II rock will be converted into kinetic energy, which results in rock ejection after the peak stress.^{[1]}The kinetic energy, contact friction energy, and contact damping energy of particles in the ballast bed decrease and then increase slowly with the increase of sand content, while the elastic strain energy in the ballast bed decreases gradually.

^{[2]}For the bandgap mechanism, the local resonance features of LRPWBs result in the energy conversion between kinetic energy and elastic strain energy, thus the elastic wave energy is localized in resonance unit and then the locally resonant bandgap is created.

^{[3]}The intrusion of sand particles mainly affects the elastic strain energy and damping energy in ballast beds but has less effect on friction energy and kinetic energy.

^{[4]}

## total potential energy

This method defines the liquidvapor interface at the location where the kinetic energy of the molecules first exceeds the total potential energy imposed by all neighboring (liquid, vapor, and solid) atoms.^{[1]}The total potential energy and kinetic energy of the circular stiffened plate are obtained according to the compatibility condition between the flat circular plate and stiffeners.

^{[2]}Finally, we find that the total integrated binding energy supplements the well-known trio consisting of total kinetic energy, total potential energy, and total energy on an equal footing.

^{[3]}An enhanced Q1 leads to an increase in the conversion of the total potential energy to non-divergent wind kinetic energy via the divergent wind velocity.

^{[4]}

## root mean square

The comparison of root mean square velocity profile shows turbulent kinetic energy is augmented on a heating wall.^{[1]}Instantaneous velocity measurements, obtained using two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry, are used to study the effect boundary permeability has on the root mean square of fluctuating velocity components, the vertical flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and conditional turbulent statistics associated with events in which intercomponent energy transfer is concentrated.

^{[2]}In particular, the upwash component of the root-mean-square of the velocity fluctuations turns out to be significantly attenuated in a porous airfoil in contrast to a solid one, resulting in a strong decrease of the turbulent kinetic energy in the stagnation region.

^{[3]}When the data set is filtered to retain only simulations with magnetic to kinetic energy ratios greater than at least two we find that the internal field together with the root-mean-square and dipole CMB fields exhibit power-law behaviour that is compatible with both scalings within uncertainties arising from different heating modes and boundary conditions.

^{[4]}

## magnetic field strength

However, the magnetic field strength in weak-field cases could be significantly overestimated by the DCF method when the turbulent magnetic energy is smaller than the turbulent kinetic energy.^{[1]}We show that it can amplify the magnetic field strength and spatial scale by orders of magnitude, leading to large-scale plasma cavities with strong magnetic field and to very efficient conversion of the beam kinetic energy into magnetic energy.

^{[2]}The magnetic field strength in interstellar clouds can be estimated indirectly from measurements of dust polarization by assuming that turbulent kinetic energy is comparable to the fluctuating magnetic energy, and using the spread of polarization angles to estimate the latter.

^{[3]}In the ideal MHD, the differential rotation of the remnant neutron star amplifies the magnetic-field strength by the winding in the presence of a seed poloidal field until the electromagnetic energy reaches $\ensuremath{\sim}10%$ of the rotational kinetic energy, ${E}_{\mathrm{kin}}$, of the neutron star.

^{[4]}

## turbulent boundary layer

The amplifications of turbulent kinetic energy on logarithmic layer and outer layer are further strengthened with shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction.^{[1]}The experimental results are analyzed using a simple phenomenological model, taking into account the dissipation of kinetic energy in the turbulent boundary layer, convective heat transfer due to gas injection, and heat transfer between the boundary layer and the porous wall.

^{[2]}The positive shear of the LLJ contributed to the enhancement of energy entrainment in the wake compared with a standard turbulent boundary layer profile by increasing the mean kinetic energy advection into the wake in the single and a pair of counter-rotating VAWTs.

^{[3]}The effect of wall temperature on the transfer of kinetic energy in a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer for different Mach numbers and wall temperature ratios is studied by direct numerical simulation.

^{[4]}

## baroclinic energy conversion

The energetic analysis suggests that the baroclinic energy conversion acts as an important energy source to balance the available potential energy loss caused by transient eddies and diabatic heating and acts as a kinetic energy (KE) source for the WP pattern.^{[1]}Energetics calculations for the atmosphere suggest that the baroclinic energy conversion from the basic flow is the chief source of increased eddy available potential energy, which is subsequently converted to eddy kinetic energy, providing for the growth of transient baroclinic waves.

^{[2]}The baroclinic energy conversion acts to overcome the available potential energy (APE) loss caused by the heat flux of transient eddies and at the same time acts as a major kinetic energy (KE) source to maintain the ZNPO pattern.

^{[3]}The kinetic energy significantly grows from the baroclinic energy conversion below 250 hPa over the NPSTF and from the barotropic energy conversion north of the NPSTF at the upper levels.

^{[4]}

## near wall flow

Analysis of turbulence intensity and turbulence kinetic energy shows that the near-wall flow field of grooved airfoil is more stable compared with that of the smooth airfoil.^{[1]}In addition, this coupling can restrain the air turbulent kinetic energy in the near-wall flow zone.

^{[2]}The study focuses on the influence of these three parameters (Re, Ma, and upstream turbulence) on different flow characteristics: pressure distribution around the blade, near-wall flow behavior, loss generation, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget.

^{[3]}

## power spectral density

Hot-wire measurements complement the PIV results by providing the power spectral density of the turbulent kinetic energy at several locations.^{[1]}Based on the analysis of turbulent kinetic energy, power spectral density, and the spectral entropy of stream-wise velocity fluctuations, it was shown that eddies are formed after the dissipation of jet flow downstream of the stenosis.

^{[2]}While the RIOPSv2 grid resolution is 3 times higher than GIOPS, the power spectral density of surface kinetic energy provides an indication that the effective resolution of RIOPSv2 is roughly double that of the global system (35 km compared to 66 km).

^{[3]}

## shear stress transport

The shear stress transport (SST) model for turbulence kinetic energy and specific rate of dissipation, tailored for transition boundary layer, is considered for closing the momentum equations.^{[1]}ABSTRACT For simulation of hypersonic turbulent and transitional flows at high Reynolds numbers, a gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) strongly coupled with the turbulent kinetic energy equation in shear stress transport (SST) k−ω turbulence model is developed.

^{[2]}The new model provides an attractive choice in terms of quick implementation of a transition model in existing turbulent flow solvers with Menter’s shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence model, as it only introduces three extra source terms in the transport equation of turbulent kinetic energy.

^{[3]}