## What is/are Impact Speed?

Impact Speed - In addition to experimental validation, the FEM model is validated by comparing the numerical solutions against the analytic solutions to the impact problem between a semi-infinite stationary workpiece and a rigid particle at the impact speeds of 25 and 12.^{[1]}In addition, other effective parameters such as the impact speed, acceleration and water entry process can be used for evaluating the performance of such crafts.

^{[2]}The results showed that the specific energy absorption of PSH can be improved by up to nearly twice than the regular circular honeycomb under the same impact speed.

^{[3]}In addition, to evaluate the influence of parameters, a detailed parametric study of impact speed, plate thickness, and notch tip radius was performed.

^{[4]}Three angles of incidence were tested (30°, 60° and 90°) under impact speed of 30 m/s.

^{[5]}Then the influences of impact speed, pedestrian age and car front shape parameters on the injury risk of skull fracture, focal brain injury and concussion were assessed using the logistic regression method, based on the sample of 184 AIS1+ cases where the primary head contact location was within the windscreen glass area.

^{[6]}The Ne8+–He and –H2 collision systems are examined at impact speeds ranging between 0.

^{[7]}A total of 704 fatal crashes with an impact speed of 12-159 km/h were investigated and the pedestrians with an average age of 58.

^{[8]}Sled tests were performed for recreating frontal impact situations with vector velocity changes at impact speeds of 13, 26, and 40km/h.

^{[9]}The impact speeds of a vehicle without AEB were compared to the estimated impact speeds of vehicles with a modeled pedestrian detecting AEB system.

^{[10]}The free surface profile (or the gas film profile) is then determined by the impact speed, namely the Weber number.

^{[11]}The results revealed that the predicted variables of the impact speed, pedestrian age and weight, the Lower bumper height (LBH) and the Bonnet leading edge height (BLEH) were statistically significant for AIS2+ lower extremity injuries.

^{[12]}45-cm aluminum projectiles at impact speeds of ~2.

^{[13]}2 m/s impact speed.

^{[14]}We employ a laboratory-based laser induced liquid beam ion desorption technique, proven to simulate accurately the impact ionization mass spectra of water ice grains over a wide range of impact speeds.

^{[15]}1-7 Depending on the impact speeds of the ice grains onto the metal target of a mass spectrometer, ionization conditions can vary substantially, resulting in changes to the appearance of the resulting mass spectra.

^{[16]}Assuming a normal error for our estimated flash brightness, educated priors for the luminous efficiency and object density, and using the GRT-computed probability distributions of impact speed and incoming directions, we calculate posterior probability distributions for the kinetic energy (median $K_{\rm med}$ = 0.

^{[17]}Finally, the influence of the impact speed on the mechanical behaviour has also been tested under three different values of speed (3.

^{[18]}Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based erosion calculation procedure is a powerful tool that can be used to track solid particles and determine their impact speed, angle and frequency.

^{[19]}Small cylindrical projectiles are launched at impact speeds from 190 to 250 m/s onto the edge of the MAX tiles, and a fragmentation process is developed in less than 20 μs, captured with an ultra-high-speed camera at 2 million frames per second.

^{[20]}, at an impact speed of 100 km/h (62.

^{[21]}A range of impact speeds was applied from 100 m s−1 to 230 m s−1.

^{[22]}$$t_p$$tp is similar to $$L/V_j$$L/Vj, where L and $$V_j$$Vj are, respectively, the penetration depth and the impact speed of the jet tip.

^{[23]}The results of modeling the maximum deflection for various values of the initial curvature and the pre-impact speed of the rod are obtained.

^{[24]}

## Initial Impact Speed

Our model predicts the evolution of the impactor’s speed and the final penetration depth given the initial impact speed, and the material and geometric parameters of the impactor and the impacted material.^{[1]}In addition, three important factors: initial impact speed acting on molecule (kinetic effect), substrate temperature (thermal effect) and initial molecular orientation (geometric effect) etc, are employed to analyze their influences on molecular decomposition.

^{[2]}An increase in the body mass leads to a more significant increase in the impact duration because at the same initial impact speed, body deformation and deformation time increase.

^{[3]}We propose that FGRs formed by the relatively high-speed interaction between dust and the object, where high initial impact speed produced abrasion and, possibly, microchondrules.

^{[4]}

## Variou Impact Speed

Next, normal mode summation is used to analyze the impact-induced vibration response, which is generated for various impact speeds, deadrise angles, end fixities, and axial loads, of the beam.^{[1]}Fracture behavior under various impact speed and temperature can be predicted by mean of the obtained master curves.

^{[2]}We investigate the impact and penetration of a solid sphere passing through gelatine at various impact speeds up to $143.

^{[3]}

## Different Impact Speed

By comparing dynamic behavior under different impact speeds, a threshold speed for a dislocation-dominant mechanism is proposed from the computations in this work at around 1000 m/s, beyond which effects of other defects such as stacking faults and twinning would be prominent.^{[1]}Using three different samples of intact (Series A), unfilled joint (Series B), and filled joint (Series C) interfaces, impact tests were performed under different impact speeds.

^{[2]}Powder was directed to the specimens (coatings and substrate) at nominal impingement angles of 90° and 20° with different impact speed (50, 75, 100 and 125 m/s at 90° and 100, 125, 150 and 175 m/s at 20°), at a nozzle-specimen distance of 10 mm.

^{[3]}

## High Impact Speed

At high impact speed, mechanical failure occurs at lower strain values in large unmyelinated bundles than in myelinated bundles or small unmyelinated bundles; signal propagation continues in large myelinated bundles during and after loading, although there is a large shift in baseline voltage during loading; a linear relationship is observed between the generated plastic strain in the nerve bundle models and the impact speed and nominal strains of the head model.^{[1]}However, the damage behavior and mechanism of the coating and substrate under high impact speed and multi-direction loading conditions has scarcely been investigated.

^{[2]}

## Low Impact Speed

The drop placement outcome investigated here occurs at relatively low impact speed, and the result of the collision may either be that the colliding drops coalesce into a single larger drop, or that the falling drop bounces off of the sessile drop.^{[1]}The presence of viscoelastic components in the helmet decreased strain and strain-rate for frontal impacts at low impact speeds.

^{[2]}

## Lower Impact Speed

However, motorcycle helmets today are tested at a single and much lower impact speed, i.^{[1]}MotivationThe advent of active safety systems calls for the development of appropriate testing methods that are able to assess their capabilities to avoid accidents or lower impact speeds and thus, to mitigate the injury severity.

^{[2]}

## Droplet Impact Speed

The droplet impact speed ranges from 0.^{[1]}, an order of magnitude higher than the droplet impact speed.

^{[2]}

## Higher Impact Speed

The droplets with higher impact speed resulted in lower cooling efficiency, especially at disc temperatures above the Leidenfrost temperature, likely due to more vigorous droplets bouncing.^{[1]}We observe that the distribution of pore sizes and the proximity of each produces a random topology with varying cell wall thicknesses that cause points of high strain creating irregularity in the shock wave at higher impact speeds.

^{[2]}