## What is/are Graded Solid?

Graded Solid - Such a unified solving framework offers a simple solution approach to more complex elastic problems such as thermoelasticity in functionally graded solids.^{[1]}Graded solid elements with continuous property distribution at different Gauss points were implemented by a user material subroutine (UMAT) in ABAQUS Finite Element (FE) software.

^{[2]}Specifically, we (i) gain insight into the crack growth resistance of FGMs by conducting numerical experiments over a wide range of material gradation profiles and orientations, (ii) accurately reproduce the crack trajectories observed in graded photodegradable copolymers and glass-filled epoxy FGMs, (iii) benchmark our predictions with results from alternative numerical methodologies, and (iv) model complex crack paths and failure in three dimensional functionally graded solids.

^{[3]}A singular integral equation (SIE) approach and a finite element method are developed for the solution of the frictional sliding contact problem between a finite-thickness laterally graded solid and a rigid stamp of an arbitrary tip-shape considering the plane strain assumption.

^{[4]}The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method for the analysis of elastic wave propagation in functionally graded solids with axial symmetry and the material composition variation has an important effect on structural wave propagation behavior.

^{[5]}

## Functionally Graded Solid

Such a unified solving framework offers a simple solution approach to more complex elastic problems such as thermoelasticity in functionally graded solids.^{[1]}Specifically, we (i) gain insight into the crack growth resistance of FGMs by conducting numerical experiments over a wide range of material gradation profiles and orientations, (ii) accurately reproduce the crack trajectories observed in graded photodegradable copolymers and glass-filled epoxy FGMs, (iii) benchmark our predictions with results from alternative numerical methodologies, and (iv) model complex crack paths and failure in three dimensional functionally graded solids.

^{[2]}The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method for the analysis of elastic wave propagation in functionally graded solids with axial symmetry and the material composition variation has an important effect on structural wave propagation behavior.

^{[3]}