## What is/are Graded Sand?

Graded Sand - Hence, the aim of this numerical study was to develop new, easy-to-build, non-expensive, graded sandwich panel with ‘unconnected’ corrugated layers that can be used as a multipurpose sacrificial protective structure against wide range of blast threats.^{[1]}The experimental and numerical results show that all the layered-gradient core sandwich panels have a weaker blast resistance capability than the ungraded sandwich panels because of the reduction in structural integrity of the specimens.

^{[2]}The thermal eigenvalue responses of the graded sandwich shell structure are evaluated numerically under the variable thermal loadings considering the temperature-dependent properties.

^{[3]}Investigate the soil microbial characteristics under different restoration modes, and the degraded sandy soil properties under different vegetation restoration modes.

^{[4]}The current study aims to assess the influence of EPS beads inclusion on the strength properties of stabilized poorly-graded sands.

^{[5]}Furthermore, in the case of well-graded sand, there was no significant difference in liquefaction resistance between specimens of 10 and 4 layers; however, the liquefaction properties of a 1 layer specimen were significantly different from those of other compaction layers.

^{[6]}Revegetation on moving sand dunes is a widely used approach for restoring the degraded sandy land in northeastern China.

^{[7]}The results showed that the slope materials are mainly comprised of well-graded sands, gravelly sands, with little or no plasticity and display no clay activity along with moderate cohesion (19.

^{[8]}We used homogenized anaerobic granule biofilms from an existing upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and mixed it with sand to test the strength of a poorly-graded sand in a wide range of saturations, S (between 0.

^{[9]}In this study, thermal characteristics of the subgrade soils (well-graded sandy soil, low-plasticity clayey soil and low-plasticity silty soil) were tested by a KD2-Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer.

^{[10]}It was found that the degraded sandwich beams having woven CFRP facesheets have slightly higher stiffness and peak load level as compared to the sandwich beam having cross ply GFRP facesheets.

^{[11]}This loading condition is representative of a sewer pipe embedded in a well-graded sandy gravel and subjected to neutral horizontal earth pressure.

^{[12]}However, the degraded sandy grasslands that were chosen as controls in this study should also be recognised as important habitats with conservation values due to the high species richness, suggesting that a mosaic pattern of the different successional stages is desirable.

^{[13]}The physical characteristic was determined, and it is considered as well-graded sand.

^{[14]}The total area of forage lands in the region is about 1 870 000 ha, 35–40% of which are moderately degraded pastures, 30–40% are strongly degraded pastures, and 15–20% are lands excluded from agricultural use (degraded sands or abandoned lands).

^{[15]}In the desertified Horqin sandy land in northern China, sand-fixing plantations covering a large area have been gradually established by planting native shrubs or semi-shrubs on moving sand dunes to improve the degraded sandy ecosystem.

^{[16]}The results of analysis showed that, with increasing relative density, SW(Well-graded sand) samples had higher liquefaction strength than SP(Poor-graded sand) samples.

^{[17]}Compared to the pristine swamp soil, edaphic parameters including water content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, available nitrogen, available phosphorous and potential denitrification rate were significantly decreased in the moderately degraded meadow soil and in severely degraded sandy soil.

^{[18]}Furthermore, the comparisons of blast performance between ungraded sandwich panel and graded panels were made.

^{[19]}Graded sandwich specimens with six different core-layer arrangements and three different face-sheet thickness arrangements were examined, respectively, compared to those ungraded sandwich panels with an equivalent nominally mass.

^{[20]}Most terrestrial insects were preserved in the laminated, normally graded siltstone, claystone and tuff facies that form many thin intervals with deposits of graded sandstone, siltstone and tuff in between.

^{[21]}Specifically, degraded sandy land, gully land, hollowed construction land, and barren hilly land are transformed into productive land by improving the land structure.

^{[22]}Multi-layers filter consists of basic layers represented in graded sand and supporting gravel layers.

^{[23]}Six poorly-graded sand (SP) samples with various Cu are collected from a depth from 20 cm to 120 cm in the active layer.

^{[24]}Many coastal areas are dominated by fine, poorly-graded sands, and in many cases, the upper portion of the nearshore sand bed is unsaturated before tsunami attack.

^{[25]}Results indicate that poorly-graded sand with Dmax of 4.

^{[26]}This paper presents results obtained from tests to analyze the behavior of the base material on which the turbines are installed (degraded sands).

^{[27]}It is shown that there is a great difference between the contributions of the principal stresses along and perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, especially for the well-graded sands having irregular in shape particles.

^{[28]}Poorly graded and well-graded sands are selected as the in-situ soil adjacent to the CLSM.

^{[29]}4 m in size with an artificially formed upper part of the profile of degraded sandy sod-podzolic soil.

^{[30]}The study revealed four facies associations (FAs), including massive to ripple-laminated sandstone (FA1), gray massive sandstone (FA2), diamictites (FA3), and partially deformed, massive-graded sandstone (FA4), interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial, glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine delta, and subglacial outwash environments, respectively.

^{[31]}This study investigated the effects of four organic amendments (OAs) (Mushroom Compost, MC; PAS-100 compost, PAS; Anaerobic Digestate Solid Waste, AD_SW; and Poultry Manure, PM), applied at 10 t ha-1 and 30 t ha-1 on the physical, chemical and biological Soil Quality Indicators (SQIs) of a degraded sandy loam soil.

^{[32]}Based on the vertical variations of grain size, the studied Al-Shuaiba Lagoon soil profile was subdivide into three zones A: saline sandy gravels, B: calcareous sandy silts and C: well-graded sands.

^{[33]}Aims Enclosure is one of the important measures for vegetation restoration of degraded sandy land.

^{[34]}

## shear deformation theory

This paper introduces a comprehensive investigation of bi-directional functionally graded sandwich plates using higher-order shear deformation theory and finite element method for the first time.^{[1]}This study focusses on establishing the finite element model based on a new hyperbolic shear deformation theory to investigate the static bending, free vibration, and buckling of the functionally graded sandwich plates with porosity.

^{[2]}In the present paper, a simple and efficient shear deformation theory is formulated for the free vibration response of functionally graded sandwich shells.

^{[3]}In this study, the bending, free vibration and buckling analysis of a novel bi-functionally graded sandwich nanobeam are investigated for the first time via a nonlocal refined simple shear deformation theory.

^{[4]}In this article, the analytical solutions for static of bending analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates using four-variable high order shear-deformation theory is presented.

^{[5]}In this paper, a refined quasi-three-dimensional shear deformation theory for thermo-mechanical analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates resting on a two-parameter (Pasternak model) elastic foundation is developed.

^{[6]}On the basis of the new shear deformation theory, novel shear deformable mixed beam elements with independent internal force fields and displacement fields are developed for accurate analysis of the functionally graded sandwich beams.

^{[7]}A unified five-degree-of-freedom shear deformation theory is developed for the bending analysis of softcore and hardcore functionally graded sandwich beams and plates.

^{[8]}

## Functionally Graded Sand

This paper introduces a comprehensive investigation of bi-directional functionally graded sandwich plates using higher-order shear deformation theory and finite element method for the first time.^{[1]}This paper carries out the static bending analysis of symmetric three-layer functionally graded sandwich beams, in which each layer is made from different functionally graded materials, and they are connected by shear connectors due to sliding movement.

^{[2]}The results reveal that the distribution shape of the porosity, the gradient index, loading type and functionally graded layers thickness have significant influence on the buckling response of functionally graded sandwich plates.

^{[3]}This study investigates the effects of fluid–structure and soil–structure interaction on the free vibration response of functionally graded sandwich plates.

^{[4]}Free vibration and buckling of three-phase bidirectional functionally graded sandwich (BFGSW) plates are studied in this paper for the first time by using an efficient nine-node quadrilateral (Q9) element.

^{[5]}This paper, for the first time, investigates both deterministic and stochastic dynamics of functionally graded sandwich plates with four different layering configurations under thermomechanical loads.

^{[6]}The paper aims at introducing an analysis of thin-walled functionally graded sandwich beams for general nonuniform quadrilateral cross-sections.

^{[7]}Herein, we propose a general yield criterion for functionally graded sandwich structures that accounts for the continuously varying yield strength distribution and the interaction of plastic bending and stretching in large deflection regime.

^{[8]}In this paper, fundamental frequencies of a bidirectional functionally graded sandwich (BFGSW) beam partially supported by an elastic foundation are evaluated using various beam theories.

^{[9]}The current work presents a free vibration analysis of a simply supported rectangular functionally graded sandwich plate using a new analytical model.

^{[10]}This study focusses on establishing the finite element model based on a new hyperbolic shear deformation theory to investigate the static bending, free vibration, and buckling of the functionally graded sandwich plates with porosity.

^{[11]}Results show the effects of varying gradients, thickness to length ratios, effects of the porosity parameters and porosity types on free vibration of functionally graded sandwich beams for simply supported boundary conditions.

^{[12]}The present theory provides an accurate parabolic distribution of transverse shear stress across the thickness and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the functionally graded sandwich beam without using any shear correction factors.

^{[13]}In the porosity effect, four different porosity types are used for functionally graded sandwich layers.

^{[14]}The effects of changing gradient index, elastic parameters, porosity distribution, slenderness ratio, boundary conditions, and core materials on buckling stresses and dynamic response of functionally graded sandwich plates are presented.

^{[15]}In the present paper, a simple and efficient shear deformation theory is formulated for the free vibration response of functionally graded sandwich shells.

^{[16]}Three-phase bidirectional functionally graded sandwich (BFGSW) beams are particular type of composite beams whose properties are tailored to vary continuously in both the longitudinal and transverse directions, depending on the constituent composition distribution.

^{[17]}This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of functionally graded sandwich plates under multiple moving loads.

^{[18]}In this study, the bending, free vibration and buckling analysis of a novel bi-functionally graded sandwich nanobeam are investigated for the first time via a nonlocal refined simple shear deformation theory.

^{[19]}The role of the spatial variation of the nonlocal parameter on the free vibration of functionally graded sandwich nanoplates is investigated in this study.

^{[20]}The onset of yielding in Functionally Graded Sandwich Plates (FGSP) with ceramic core and Functionally Graded (FG) face sheets is presented in this paper.

^{[21]}In this article, the analytical solutions for static of bending analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates using four-variable high order shear-deformation theory is presented.

^{[22]}In this investigation, an exact method based on the first-order shear deformation shallow shell theory (FSDSST) is performed for the free vibration of functionally graded sandwich shallow shells (FGSSS) on Winkler and Pasternak foundations with general boundary restraints.

^{[23]}The three-dimensional vibration of a functionally graded sandwich rectangular plate on an elastic foundation with normal boundary conditions was analyzed using a semi-analytical method based on three-dimensional elasticity theory.

^{[24]}This work is the first application of the method to functionally graded sandwich shells in thermal environments.

^{[25]}A detailed numerical study is carried out to examine the influence of the critical buckling loads, deflections, stresses, natural frequencies and sandwich plate type on the bending, buckling and free vibration responses of functionally graded sandwich plates.

^{[26]}In this paper, a refined quasi-three-dimensional shear deformation theory for thermo-mechanical analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates resting on a two-parameter (Pasternak model) elastic foundation is developed.

^{[27]}The paper proposes a Ritz-type solution for free vibration and buckling analysis thin-walled composite and functionally graded sandwich I-beams.

^{[28]}An investigation of geometrical ratio effects on failure mechanisms of functionally graded sandwiches with multi-layered cores (FGSMLC) is presented in this paper.

^{[29]}On the basis of the new shear deformation theory, novel shear deformable mixed beam elements with independent internal force fields and displacement fields are developed for accurate analysis of the functionally graded sandwich beams.

^{[30]}In this study, the static analysis of a simply supported square functionally graded sandwich plate is performed.

^{[31]}The purpose of this study is to provide an exhaustive review of the literature on the vibration and buckling of functionally graded materials (FGMs), functionally graded conical shells (FGCSs), functionally graded layered conical shells (FGLCSs), and functionally graded sandwich-conical shells (FGSCSs).

^{[32]}Theoretical closed-form solutions and numerical results for nonlinear stability of the moderately thick functionally graded sandwich shells subjected to thermomechanical loadings are presented in this study.

^{[33]}Elastostatic bending behavior of a two-directional functionally graded sandwich (2DFGSW) beam under various types of nonuniform distributed load is studied.

^{[34]}The present study contributes many new results on the bending analysis of functionally graded sandwich beams curved in elevation for the reference of future research in this area.

^{[35]}Buckling of functionally graded sandwich cylindrical microshell under axial load is investigated.

^{[36]}This paper investigates analytically nonlinear buckling and postbuckling of functionally graded sandwich circular thick cylindrical shells filled inside by Pasternak two-parameter elastic foundations under thermal loads and axial compression loads.

^{[37]}As a useful tool for designing wings and tail fins of aircrafts, this paper presents an optimization for flutter characteristics of cantilevered functionally graded sandwich plates.

^{[38]}A unified five-degree-of-freedom shear deformation theory is developed for the bending analysis of softcore and hardcore functionally graded sandwich beams and plates.

^{[39]}Dynamic analysis of an inclined functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) beam traveled by a moving mass is studied.

^{[40]}Resume The fundamental frequencies and nonlinear dynamic responses of functionally graded sandwich shells with double curvature under the influence of thermomechanical loadings and porosities are investigated in this study.

^{[41]}

## Poorly Graded Sand

The laboratory investigations were carried out on low plastic illite clay and poorly graded sand.^{[1]}The material of the stone column is poorly graded sand has an angle of internal friction (48.

^{[2]}90 km2 of the area consists of poorly graded sand.

^{[3]}In order to investigate this behavior, monotonic and multistage pullout tests have been conducted on PET geogrid in poorly graded sand.

^{[4]}Except sample 7, soil categorization (as poorly graded sand) was a good graded sand soil.

^{[5]}The experimental results showed that although the poorly graded sands used in this study were classified as frost insusceptible, both mechanical properties (stiffness and ultimate bearing pressure) of the sands were reduced up to 20% after five F–T cycles.

^{[6]}Protocols for microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) have been extensively studied in the literature to optimise the process with regard to the amount of injected chemicals, the ratio of urea to calcium chloride, the method of injection and injection intervals, and the population of the bacteria, usually using fine- to medium-grained poorly graded sands.

^{[7]}The soil used in experiments is poorly graded sand, SP, in the Unified Soil Classification System.

^{[8]}Current research evaluates the potential of pozzolanic wastes studied herein (coal bottom ash - BA, rice husk ash - RHA, ground glass - GG, ground clay brick - GCB), and carbide lime (CL), as possible hydraulic cements (substituting Portland cement) to enhance behaviour of poorly graded sand.

^{[9]}The backfill material of columns is poorly graded sand having a relative density of 65%.

^{[10]}This study explores the possibility of using guar gum-stabilized soil (GGSS) as a landfill liner by improving the hydromechanical behaviour and heavy metal attenuation capacity of the poorly graded sand–clay mixture.

^{[11]}The aim of this research is to study the effect of two types of nanoparticles, namely, nano silica and nano aluminum oxide, on the compressive strength of poorly graded sand.

^{[12]}The study results stated that the soil in the area had the criteria of GP (poorly graded gravel) and SP (poorly graded sand).

^{[13]}The studied samples were natural dune sand (poorly graded on the poorly graded sand (SP) index) as well as its three extracted fractions as follows: 2.

^{[14]}They are classified by USCS as clayey sand/silty clay, while one sample is a poorly graded sand (SP).

^{[15]}Modified compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), direct shear, and potential collapse tests are conducted experimentally on the soil, with the obtained results indicating that Sabkha soil is poorly graded sand and contains high concentrations of salts, causing a corrosive environment.

^{[16]}The first step for this research was to classify the soil through a Granulometry test, according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), the result was considered as a poorly graded sand with gravel also considered by The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) as “A-1-b”.

^{[17]}55 is suggested in the poorly graded sand.

^{[18]}Loose to medium poorly graded sands, and silty sands extended from ground level to a depth ranging from 5m to 9m.

^{[19]}In this paper, a series of 10 × 10 cm direct shear tests were carried out on four different poorly graded sands with different particle size distributions to determine their shear behaviors.

^{[20]}This technical note aims to investigate the effects of biotreatment on the response of a concrete model pile embedded in poorly graded sand through lateral loading tests.

^{[21]}The main objective of the study is to evaluate the angle of shearing resistance (ϕ) of the poorly graded sand (SP) reinforced with the untreated tyre fibres (UTTFs) and cement coated tyre fibres (CCTFs).

^{[22]}The study barchans are mainly composed of poorly graded sands and consist of fine sand, medium sand and a negligible amount of coarse sand, silts and clays.

^{[23]}Samples of poorly graded sand (63) and well-graded sandy gravel (131) were included in the calibration procedure.

^{[24]}In order to investigate the mechanical and the physical properties of poorly graded sands (SP) and poorly graded sands with silt (SP-SM), triaxial compression tests (CK0D) were performed on undisturbed samples.

^{[25]}The samples of sandy soil were obtained from Karbala city and then classified as poorly graded sand (SP) with relative density Dr (30%) according to the system of (USCS).

^{[26]}In the present study, various experimental and physico-chemical studies have been carried out to characterize the materials used and to understand the potential of marble dust in improving the physical behavior of poorly graded sand (SP).

^{[27]}However, most literature examples of cement additions are in poorly graded sands, either to mimic the behaviour of sandstones or to accentuate the mechanical differences between cemented and uncemented soils.

^{[28]}The effects of this hypersaline water on the retention behavior of compacted MX80 and MX80/ poorly graded sand mixtures as well as MX80 amounts and distributions of soluble and exchangeable cations, and their valences were investigated.

^{[29]}This paper presents an experimental procedure for testing self-supported, unconfined-drained specimens to investigate the shear strength of a poorly graded sand with the inferred unsaturated behaviour from typical effective stress expressions.

^{[30]}In the present study, the effect of kerosene contamination on two types of poorly graded sand (S1 and S2) was investigated.

^{[31]}Evaluation of liquefaction susceptibility of poorly graded sand at the southwest of Baghdad, Iraq was studied considering the last earthquake.

^{[32]}The samples were classified as “poorly graded sand.

^{[33]}

## Uniformly Graded Sand

All test specimens were prepared with uniformly graded sand, passing sieve #4, and retained sieve #8.^{[1]}A series of laboratory tests on three types of uniformly graded sands with average particle size (D50) of 0.

^{[2]}The geogrid prototypes were used to reinforce uniformly graded sand and were tested under three different values of overburden pressures.

^{[3]}In this research, shear (Vs) and compression wave velocity (Vp) measurements have been undertaken on three kinds of uniformly graded sands during drained triaxial compression by keeping minor principal stress constant.

^{[4]}The comparison of treated soils suggests that the fine content in slope soil increased number of particle contacts, facilitated effective packing, and promoted the effectiveness of MICP compared to that of uniformly graded sands.

^{[5]}

## Normally Graded Sand

The C interval is composed of normally graded sand, formed in the surfing zone.^{[1]}Six lithofacies were sedimentologically described based mainly on the lithological composition, textural characteristics, sedimentary structures, sediment concentration, particle cohesion and particle support mechanisms namely coarse-grained clast-supported sandstones, medium-grained normally graded sandstones, parallel laminated sandstones, cross to convolute laminated sandstones, mud-rich heterolithic and massive mudstones.

^{[2]}

## Well Graded Sand

Klasifikasi tanah yang dilakukan pada pengujian ini adalah well graded sand with gravel.^{[1]}A composite liner, subject to 20 kPa overburden load, over a well graded sand was subjected to a thermal gradient.

^{[2]}

## graded sand specimen

Later on, the groutability of various graded sand specimens were tested with the neat UFC and BA mixed grouts.^{[1]}This note describes preliminary evaluation approaches used to compare two identically graded sand specimens; one with an unaltered, smooth surface texture, and the other chemically etched to create a rougher surface texture.

^{[2]}

## graded sand mixture

These methods are the cement blocks, the Ferrocement and the graded sand mixture.^{[1]}The effects of this hypersaline water on the retention behavior of compacted MX80 and MX80/ poorly graded sand mixtures as well as MX80 amounts and distributions of soluble and exchangeable cations, and their valences were investigated.

^{[2]}

## graded sand sample

In this study, it was aimed at investigating the injection performance of sodium silicate-sodium dihydrogen phosphate grouts into different graded sand samples, the time-dependent strength, and the permeability properties of injected specimens under different curing conditions.^{[1]}Based on the obtained results, a simple constitutive modelling framework is proposed to capture the shear strength of degraded carbonate sand in reference to the undegraded sand sample while accounting for the initial grain size distributions and packing.

^{[2]}