## What is/are Dynamics Model?

Dynamics Model - Based on the mechanical structure model of the helicopter system, the dynamics model of this control system in the pitch and yaw directions is established.^{[1]}The effect of various parameters including initial pH, TC concentration, and temperature on the adsorption performance of TC to the adsorbent was evaluated with considering kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics models.

^{[2]}The dynamics model of the drill string is established and the vibration anti-friction characteristics of the drill string are studied.

^{[3]}In addition, the space environmental perturbation of the thermal effect is considered in the dynamics modeling to improve accuracy.

^{[4]}This paper describes the results of dynamic tests performed to study the robustness of a dynamics model of an industrial manipulator.

^{[5]}According to the dynamics model of the vehicle, teh wheel-rail three-dimensional steady-state rolling contact model, and the Archard wear model, a new fast calculation method of wheel wear rate was proposed.

^{[6]}Due to their heterogeneity, and as such a lack of dynamics models, Reinforcement Learning (RL) is often used to exploit this flexibility.

^{[7]}The comparison and analysis of the simulation results of kinematics and dynamics modeling with theoretical results prove the feasibility of this flying mechanism.

^{[8]}The focus of the present study is on the assessment of the detection of hotspots at the mesoscale through analysis of the mesoscale thermo-electro-mechanical response via a multiphysics peridynamics modeling framework.

^{[9]}Numerical simulations of two spacecraft formations demonstrate that the proposed adaptive navigation algorithms are appreciably more robust to filter initialization errors, dynamics modelling deficiencies, and measurement noises than the standard Kalman filter.

^{[10]}In this letter, we propose to perform few-shot adaptation of dynamics models in noisy conditions using an uncertainty-aware Kalman filter-based neural network architecture.

^{[11]}Based on potential field-source surface and magnetohydrodynamics models, for each of the events we roughly estimate the radial size and the lower limit of the vertical size (i.

^{[12]}We performed forward modeling with a series of global stellar magnetohydrodynamics models to investigate the possibility of extending this method to other late-type stars.

^{[13]}Its kinematics model and dynamics model are established.

^{[14]}The research on variation rules of flow and swirl characteristics in different intake/exhaust port circulation cross-sectional area by aerodynamics modeling and simulating approach to optimizing the matching degree between the cylinder and the intake/exhaust port of a marine dual fuel engine was presented.

^{[15]}Bacterial killing of meropenem was described using an empirical pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics model that was developed using Hill functions.

^{[16]}Model-based algorithms, which first learn a dynamics model using the offline dataset and then conservatively learn a policy under the model, have demonstrated great potential in offline RL.

^{[17]}In the meantime, the navigation continues in dead reckoning mode, based on other sensors and the user’s dynamics model.

^{[18]}To improve the vibration and power of the engine, a sensitivity analysis of the operating parameters as well as the eccentricity between crankshaft centre and cylinder centre of the slider-crank-mechanism (SCM) are proposed and researched based on the SCM’s dynamics model and the experimental data of the cylinder pressure in the internal combustion engine.

^{[19]}To bridge this gap, this paper reviews, analysis and classifies the BESSs applications, based on their time constants, by merging of which helps researchers to develop joint economy-dynamics models that would be the future trend in the field.

^{[20]}Firstly, the whole process motion and dynamics model for the lunar surface emergency rescue with four stages are established.

^{[21]}It has been observed that the mechanism of the dye adsorption is focused on kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics models, which depend on the chemical nature of the materials and various physicochemical experimental conditions such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature of the system.

^{[22]}The compensation control is designed for the current and historical state deviations, and a state control method based on dynamics model of the controlled object is constructed.

^{[23]}Motivated by the novel significance and research in this direction, a mathematical hemodynamics model is developed to mimic the hemodynamic features of blood flow under the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles through an inclined artery with mild stenosis in the existence of dominating electromagnetic field force, Hall currents, heat source, and porous substance.

^{[24]}A first-principles based dynamics model is derived and identified from flight data.

^{[25]}To bridge this gap, this paper reviews, analysis and classifies the BESSs applications, based on their time constants, by merging of which helps researchers to develop joint economy-dynamics models that would be the future trend in the field.

^{[26]}We develop an approach to the theory of relativistic geometric flows and emergent gravity defined by entropy functionals and related statistical thermodynamics models.

^{[27]}With our preliminary experimental setup, however, we can verify that the reflected mass obtained by the dynamics model only differs 1.

^{[28]}The dynamics model of a flexible satellite is firstly established by using the Newton–Euler methodology, and the dynamics model of the flywheel is also developed.

^{[29]}The main part of the paper comprises a description of the implementation of the dynamics models of the attitude control actuators and spacecraft, followed by a description of the implemented high-level control laws and control allocation methods.

^{[30]}The majority of centralized methodsare represented by a " leader-follower" approach, taking into account the robot’s dynamics models.

^{[31]}Considering the characteristics and pollution features of Wuxing Lake, this paper develops a eutrophication template suitable for the lake based on the MIKE ECO Lab powered by DHI and establishes an eco-dynamics model of the lake.

^{[32]}Secondly, the kinematics and dynamics models are established, and on this basis, the strategy of wheel-legged compound gait crossing gully landform is designed.

^{[33]}Kinematics and dynamics models are developed in this paper.

^{[34]}1 sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics model with common spatial resolution of 0.

^{[35]}ferrooxidans bioinformation database (Af-info) and the database for dynamics model of bioleaching (DDMB).

^{[36]}Dynamics modeling in outdoor and unstructured environments is difficult because different elements in the environment interact with the robot in ways that can be hard to predict.

^{[37]}At the end, the analytical kinematics and dynamics models obtained are compared, via simulations, with the corresponding models computed using commercial software; the results allow to validate the approach.

^{[38]}Second, applying this framework to the population-dynamics model, we find a phase transition in its extinction behavior.

^{[39]}Simultaneous use of data repeated levelling measurements and continuous GNSS observations allows increasing the spatial resolution of geodynamics models.

^{[40]}Therefore, in our research, we developed a parallel robot leg using a brushless direct current motor combined with a harmonic driver, without extra force or torque sensor feedback, which uses virtual model control (VMC) to realize active compliance on the leg, and a whole-leg control system with dynamics modeling and parameter optimization for continuous vertical hopping at a desired height.

^{[41]}

## three dimensional computational

For the noncircular cross-sections, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models that consider species gases convection inside the channel bulk flow region, and reaction and diffusion of species inside the washcoat layer(s) are utilized to simulate the performance of one channel of the monolithic catalytic converters.^{[1]}This paper presents the results of fluid flow and convection heat transfer in concentric and eccentric annuli between two cylinders using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model.

^{[2]}In this study, firstly, the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models are calibrated against the experiment data such as in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate evolutions, indicated thermal efficiency and NOx emissions, and the boundaries of similarity ratio determined by the limits of piston speed, engine speed and fuel injection pressure are clarified.

^{[3]}Mean and fluctuating fields obtained by three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling are compared to experimental data.

^{[4]}In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models of single-inlet and multi-inlet systems were established to investigate geysering induced by rapid filling and assess the effectiveness of potential mitigation methods.

^{[5]}A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was developed using Ansys R19.

^{[6]}Time-dependent three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were developed and used to compare optical and thermal performances of unglazed tubular, evacuated tubular, and open-aperture evacuated receivers for air heating applications.

^{[7]}We use a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to examine the liquid saturation, KOH concentration, and gas crossover in an alkaline diaphragm water electrolysis device.

^{[8]}A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was developed to investigate the performance of the NPTR.

^{[9]}

## coarse grained molecular

An improved coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of magnetosensitive polymersome is presented.^{[1]}To elucidate the driving force of Xic pairing, we developed a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of intranuclear chromosomes in ES cells and in cells 2 days after the onset of differentiation (2-days cells) by considering intrachromosome epigenetic-structural feature-dependent mechanics.

^{[2]}This work presents a three-dimensional (3D) physics-based model coupling electrochemistry and mechanics, using as input electrode microstructures obtained from manufacturing-related Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics models.

^{[3]}This model was coupled to a pre-existing Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics model describing the slurry equilibration and its drying and a 4D-resolved Finite Element Method model for predicting electrochemical performance.

^{[4]}The popular MARTINI coarse-grained model is used as a test case to analyze the adherence of top-down coarse-grained molecular dynamics models (i.

^{[5]}Therefore, this work assesses the effects of fiber geometry and in-plane topology on the elastic and failure behaviors of neat CNC thin films using an atomistically informed coarse-grained molecular dynamics model.

^{[6]}

## model predictive control

Based on such decomposed rewards, we further learn a dynamics model and use Model Predictive Control (MPC) to obtain a policy.^{[1]}Effective planning in model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) and model-predictive control (MPC) relies on the accuracy of the learned dynamics model.

^{[2]}In this article, we introduce a mobile manipulation framework based on model predictive control using learned dynamics models of objects.

^{[3]}Using the nonlinear vehicle dynamics model as the prediction model, using the recursive least squares method to identify the road adhesion coefficient, considering the road adhesion coefficient to plan and adjust in the obstacle avoidance path as well as limit constraint conditions of the model predictive control controller, using model predictive control method for the expectation of intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking, travels tremendously guarantee the security and stability of driving.

^{[4]}Once this latent space is learned, we plan over continuous latent actions in a model-predictive control fashion, using a learned high-level dynamics model.

^{[5]}This paper proposes a framework of hybrid crowd dynamics modeling and model predictive control to ease the pressure of pedestrian road networks.

^{[6]}

## isospin dependent quantum

Using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the peak intermediate mass fragments production and corresponding center-of-mass energy in various mass asymmetric reactions.^{[1]}The effects of pre-equilibrium emission and secondary decay on the determination of the freeze-out volume are investigated using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model accompanied by the statistical decay model GEMINI.

^{[2]}The input cross section data are not only taken from the TEDNL-2017 library but are also calculated by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model.

^{[3]}A systematic study of the nuclear temperature isospin effect is presented for heavy-ion collisions at moderate energy via the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the statistical decay model (GEMINI).

^{[4]}The influence of sequential decay on isospin dependence of isotope yield ratio temperatures is studied and a systematic study of isotope temperatures is presented for heavy-ion collisions at 600 MeV/nucleon via the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the statistical decay model (GEMINI).

^{[5]}Based on an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the caloric curve of reaction Pd + Be with the apparent temperature determined through the charge multiplicity distribution.

^{[6]}

## two dimensional computational

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is judiciously developed and employed to conduct a comparative study which evaluates the performance of the conventional indirect evaporative cooler vis-a-vis both novel type 1 and novel type 2 configurations.^{[1]}A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is established to verify the correlation between periodic material flow and tool eccentricity during friction stir welding (FSW) process.

^{[2]}In this study, a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is developed to study the influence of nitrogen mole fraction in the secondary flow on the ejector’s performance.

^{[3]}The underlying numerical model is based on a transient, reduced-order, quasi-two dimensional computational fluid dynamics model at a fixed operating condition.

^{[4]}Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models are presented to show that the dip and age of subducting slabs are crucial parameters to modulate the extensional versus compressional deformations.

^{[5]}

## rigid flexible coupling

And confirmed by a case study: In the process of numerical solution of rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system dynamics model, the improved GILL method has small truncation error, fast integration speed and small computation amount.^{[1]}For analyzing the influence of the clearance between trunnion and bearing on vibration characteristics of a tracked armored vehicle during marching firing, the rigid-flexible coupling multibody dynamics model of a tracked armored vehicle is established according to the transfer matrix method for multibody systems, in which the clearance trunnion-bearing is considered.

^{[2]}Compared with the multi Rigid body dynamics model, the simulation results of the rigid flexible coupling model are more consistent with the experimental results, in addition to the polygon effect, other factors such as transmission gap and so on are also the causes of the fluctuation of the chain head speed of the ammunition conveyer.

^{[3]}The rigid-flexible coupling dynamics model of the human body and the seat is established through the flexible processing of the seat cushion.

^{[4]}Firstly, a systematic methodology is proposed to establish the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics model (RFDM) of mechanical system possessing a modular feature, which can reduce the modeling effort.

^{[5]}

## age structured population

We incorporate this into sPop, formerly an age-structured population dynamics model.^{[1]}We developed an age-structured population dynamics model to predict how these three beneficial attributes are affected by four recreational management parameters: minimum size limit; bag limit; inter-season quota transfer limits; and in-season adjustment of season duration.

^{[2]}In this paper, we investigate the global asymptotic stability of an age-structured population dynamics model with a Ricker's type of birth function.

^{[3]}The biological submodel was parameterized with age-structured population parameters for the five target stocks in the WM MAP (European hake, red mullet, deep-water rose shrimp, Nephrops and red shrimp) with a sixth stock combining the remaining commercial by catch and following a biomass dynamics model.

^{[4]}Stock assessments based on fitting age-structured population dynamics models using the integrated approach usually require data on the length-/age-structure of fishery removals and age-length data to estimate key population parameters such as growth rates, recruitment, natural mortality rates and selectivity.

^{[5]}

## mental health care

Method: A system dynamics model of pathways between psychological distress, the mental health care system, suicidal behaviour and their drivers was developed, tested, and validated for a large, geographically diverse region of New South Wales; the Hunter New England and Central Coast Primary Health Network (PHN).^{[1]}A system dynamics model of pathways between psychological distress, the mental health care system, suicidal behaviour and their drivers was developed, tested, and validated for a large, geographically diverse region of New South Wales; the Hunter New England and Central Coast Primary Health Network (PHN).

^{[2]}Methods A system dynamics model for the regional population catchment of North Coast New South Wales, Australia, was developed that incorporated defined pathways from social determinants of mental health to psychological distress, mental health care, and suicidal behavior.

^{[3]}

## spur gear pair

A nonlinear dynamics model of the spur gear pair considered multi-state meshing is introduced.^{[1]}The nonlinear dynamics model of spur gear pair with pitch deviations under multi-state meshing is established.

^{[2]}Dynamics model of the spur gear pair with the pitch deviation considering time-varying contact ratio under multi-state meshing is proposed.

^{[3]}

## dimensional computational fluid

A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling was conducted on a flat plate heat sink equipped with four perforated fins.^{[1]}Personalized, 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were developed from computed tomography images of six patients who underwent TMVR with anterior leaflet laceration.

^{[2]}A one-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software has been used and suitably coupled to a vehicle dynamics model in a user function framework integrated within a Simulink® environment.

^{[3]}

## validated computational fluid

Cross-ventilation in highly-dense urban configurations is studied using validated computational fluid dynamics models using the large eddy simulation approach.^{[1]}In the present work, it was developed an intelligent software-based on adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems in order to predict the emission and performance values of reactivity-controlled compression ignition engine fueled with natural gas and diesel under different operating conditions through an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics model with the four cases generated in the study for intelligent software-based on neural-fuzzy systems simulation considering different input and output parameters.

^{[2]}In this contribution, we present a thoroughly validated computational fluid dynamics model applicable to solution of the conjugate heat-transfer problem in plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers.

^{[3]}

## life cycle assessment

This study integrated system dynamics modeling with life cycle assessment to investigate the peak load reduction, life cycle cost, as well as life cycle climate change, water depletion, and fossil fuel depletion effects of residential grid-connected PV-battery systems under a TOU rate design.^{[1]}Over sixty percent of the studies identified in this review have proceeded to using a rigorous mathematical evaluation of the system, namely, a system dynamics model in combination with life cycle assessment.

^{[2]}We use system dynamics modelling by combining the concept of material flow analysis and social life cycle assessment.

^{[3]}

## system dynamics method

This paper uses the system dynamics method to construct a system dynamics model of three submodules: innovation direct interaction within the direct subject, innovation direct subject and innovation indirect subject interaction, and innovation direct subject and innovation environment interaction.^{[1]}To further explore the development of construction waste recycling enterprises and promote the recycling of construction waste resources in China, a system dynamics model of the economic benefits of construction waste recycling enterprises is established using the system dynamics method and taking the tax incentive of the Guangzhou Municipal Government as an example.

^{[2]}Based on self-organization theory, this study clarified the self-organization evolution logic of the green low-carbon development of coal enterprises and constructed a system dynamics model following a system dynamics method.

^{[3]}

## finite element method

Focusing on the safe operation of rail transit during earthquakes, the finite element method is used to construct a wheel-track-subgrade dynamics model in this study.^{[1]}The nonlinear dynamics model of the composite plate is established based on a finite element method, and the exterior acoustic fluid is modeled using a time-domain boundary element method.

^{[2]}Our finite element method-based computational-fluid-dynamics model can accurately describe the opening and closing cycles of the two valves.

^{[3]}

## tracking error model

Firstly, the spacecraft attitude and position coupling kinematics and dynamics model are established on the Lie group SE(3), and the coupled relative motion tracking error model is derived by exponential coordinates.^{[1]}Firstly, the vehicle dynamics tracking error model is built by using the two degree of freedom vehicle dynamics model, then the feedforward controller, predictive controller and LQR controller are designed separately based on the path tracking error model, and the lateral control system is built.

^{[2]}

## sliding mode control

Considering that the nominal dynamics model or numerous parameters of robotics are usually unsuitable for real applications, a model-free adaptive sliding mode control with an adjustable funnel boundary is proposed for robot manipulators with uncertainties.^{[1]}First, a nonlinear dynamics model of quadrotor is established based on Euler-Lagrangian method, and some basic theories of fractional-order calculus are introduced; then, a fractional-order terminal sliding mode control method (FO-TSMC) is designed for the quadrotor’s position subsystem, a new fractional-order nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode control method (FO-NFTSMC) is designed for the attitude subsystem.

^{[2]}

## liquid carbon dioxide

Then, the peridynamics model of rock fracturing under liquid carbon dioxide blasting was established, and the crack propagation in liquid carbon dioxide blasting and the influence of explosion pressure and numbers and radii of releasing holes on the liquid carbon dioxide blasting effects were analyzed.^{[1]}

## container port congestion

The design of this study is to firstly develop a container port congestion evaluation model to measure the governance effect; secondly to undertake the triangle analysis in the dynamic system balance: demand of hinterland transport, container port congestion, and container port congestion governance; thirdly to describe four congestion governance options with a detailed description of feedback loops generated by the system dynamics model; finally to propose a policy framework aiming at the advantages and disadvantages of these four options.^{[1]}

## soybean slag enzyme

Conclusion: In this paper, the soybean slag enzyme solution process was optimized by using the response surface method and the genetic algorithm-neural network model, and the soybean slag enzyme solution dynamics model was established, which could provide theoretical reference for the soybean slag enzyme solution process.^{[1]}

## ultra low altitude

Aiming at the requirements of the weapon system of UAV when it flies over the sea at ultra-low altitude, the research on ultra-low altitude flight dynamics modeling, ultra-low altitude information fusion technology and flight mission profile was carried out for a certain UAV, and the semi-physical simulation and flight verification were carried out.^{[1]}

## System Dynamics Model

In the context of disparities in children’s cumulative exposure to neurodevelopmental stressors, we describe potential policy insights about the structure and behavior of the system and the types of system dynamics modeling that would be appropriate, from visual depiction (i.^{[1]}By means of a system dynamics model, and a survey conducted among a sample of 244 producers, we describe and outline the major interactions between agricultural, ecological and socio-economic dimensions of the tomato production systems.

^{[2]}We build a system dynamics model based on a conceptual model originally proposed by safety scientist Jens Rasmussen to explore the dynamics of a safety system subject to pressures for performance improvement.

^{[3]}Method: A system dynamics model of pathways between psychological distress, the mental health care system, suicidal behaviour and their drivers was developed, tested, and validated for a large, geographically diverse region of New South Wales; the Hunter New England and Central Coast Primary Health Network (PHN).

^{[4]}Limits presents system dynamics model simulations of exponential economic and population growth and some of the possible consequences of this, such as resource depletion, food shortages, waste mountains, and ultimate collapse.

^{[5]}These findings could help to generate and fine-tune an ad hoc system dynamics model to evaluate the impact of key action levers through more specific scenarios.

^{[6]}In the present work, a set of simple system dynamics models are proposed with the aim of helping help the understanding and the teaching of Sustainability and sustainable dynamics to young people and non-specialist.

^{[7]}This paper builds the system dynamics model of embedded system based on artificial intelligence (AI).

^{[8]}This framework consists mainly of five steps to qualitatively and quantitatively assess FEW system relationships, identify important external drivers, integrate FEW systems using system dynamics models, develop FEW and HWB performance indices, and develop a resilience monitoring criterion using a threshold-based approach that integrates these indices.

^{[9]}For this purpose, a system dynamics modelling tool of Causal loop analysis is used to visualise the co-evolutionary dynamics.

^{[10]}Design/methodology/approach To this aim, a qualitative system dynamics model was provided to visualize how various factors interact with one another.

^{[11]}By analysing the relationship among government, enterprises, and consumers, this paper develops a system dynamics model based on the evolutionary game theory to explore the quantity change pattern of environment-friendly products in a sharing industry.

^{[12]}It consists of: (1) meteorological and vegetation-status dependent fire spread simulation (cellular automata model); (2) agency-level and agency-to-residents communication simulation (system dynamics model); and (3) dynamic traffic assignment (spatial-queue model).

^{[13]}To evaluate its impact and anticipate its effects, a tailor-made system dynamics model of a Darkhan district has been created, with the focus on the education process in order to simulate the different options of the proposed policies.

^{[14]}Hence a system dynamics model was established and a series of experiments were conducted to simulate how the hazard perception evolves under different group environment.

^{[15]}On this basis, construct a system dynamics model, select the main constraints of environmental factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, set three different development scenarios, and observe their impact on CODcr And determine the range of ecological safety thresholds.

^{[16]}By combining system dynamics modelling literature and hydrogen transition modelling literature a customized methodology is developed for modelling hydrogen transitions with system dynamics modelling.

^{[17]}Based on the causality of the factors in China’s Power Grid Planning, a System dynamics model is constructed to quantitative carrying capacity of power grid development dynamically.

^{[18]}We built a system dynamics model to simulate L.

^{[19]}In this paper, we evaluate the United States’ potential to supply Li from geothermal brines using Systems Dynamics modeling.

^{[20]}To achieve this objective, first, various system dynamics modelling methods including document model building (DMB), individual model building (IMB), group model building (GMB), community model building (CoMB) and crowd model building (CMB) were compared and contrasted through a systematic literature review.

^{[21]}Design/methodology/approachBased on empirical results from the New Zealand dairy industry, a system dynamics model is established to explore the underlying relationships among variables.

^{[22]}System dynamics modeling facilitates the integrated and sustainable management of soil and water resources by enhancing the understanding of watershed systems.

^{[23]}A system dynamics model is developed to parameterize a population model for this species.

^{[24]}Using a participatory approach, and informed by a range of national, state, and local datasets, a system dynamics model was developed, tested, and validated for a regional population catchment.

^{[25]}In addition, the evaluation system also constructs a system dynamics model to evaluate the education system of the four countries, and uses the linear regression method to calculate different variables, and then simulates and forecasts the data changes in the next ten years.

^{[26]}This peculiarity can be provided by system dynamics modelling.

^{[27]}By combining a conceptual narrative of socially sustainable energy systems with system dynamics modelling, theoretical work on sustainable energy system development is bridged with the energy system modelling practice.