## What is/are Approach Modeling?

Approach Modeling - In this paper, we propose an optimal control approach modeling the evolution from pre-diabetes to diabetes with and without complications and the effect of living environment.^{[1]}A local approach modeling in order to explain the crack behavior has thus been performed, using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlemann (GTN) model.

^{[2]}This procedure is based on a two-fluid Euler-Euler approach modeling a fluidized bed with the determination of the velocities field of gas and particulates in two-phase, granular flows, analog to the kinetic theory of gases.

^{[3]}An alternative and more accurate approach modeling ionizations at low energies is provided by the Geant4-DNA Package [1].

^{[4]}The approach consists of the development of an agent-based simulation using a bottom-up approach modeling patients, doctors, hospitals, and their interactions.

^{[5]}This chapter reports the recent progresses in (1) the development of a modified hyperbolic sine law able to depict the minimum creep strain rate over a wider range of stress levels; (2) the development of the creep fracture criterion and model based on the cavity area fraction along grain boundary calibrated with the most representative and comprehensive cavitation data obtained from X-ray synchrotron investigation; and (3) the development of mesoscopic composite approach modeling of creep deformation and creep damage.

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