Xanthurenic Acid(크산투렌산)란 무엇입니까?Xanthurenic Acid 크산투렌산 - Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are induced by several immune factors, such as interferon-γ, and act as intracellular enzymes that catabolize essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine and other downstream metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), xanthurenic acid (XA) and so on.  Elimination of microbiota by antibiotics treatment leads to the accumulation of tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites, kynurenine (Kyn), 3‐hydroxykynurenine (3‐HK) and xanthurenic acid (XA).  Methods Fasting plasma levels of 11 peripheral metabolites were quantified: tryptophan, serotonin pathway (serotonin, its precursor 5-hydroxy-tryptophan and its metabolite the 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid), and kynurenine pathway (kynurenine and six of its metabolites including anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, nicotinamide, picolinic acid, xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid).  Exogenous glutamate increased firing, whereas reducing glutamate loading into SLVs by inhibition with xanthurenic acid (XA) or vGluT1 haploinsufficiency greatly reduced the ability of spindles to maintain firing during sustained stretch, often abolishing it.  clavata was xanthurenic acid.  96]), xanthurenic acid (0.  Levels of urinary metabolites, such as 1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, were significantly reduced in the mice treated with INH compared with those that did not receive INH.  01) were found for kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid and quinolinic acid (p < 0.  05) and Xanthurenic acid (2.  Xanthurenic acid (XA) is a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway (KP) synthetized in the brain from dietary or microbial tryptophan that crosses the blood-brain barrier through carrier-mediated transport.  Negative linear correlation was detected between the interictal levels of xanthurenic acid/melatonin and attack frequency.  RESULTS Tissue abundance of kynurenine pathway metabolites such as xanthurenic acid was significantly lower (P = 5.  Furthermore, metabolites like indoxyl and xanthurenic acid were still responsive at 0.  In addition, permeability of SZR-104 was significantly higher than that of kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid and 39B, a quinolone derivative/xanthurenic acid analogue.  A baseline separation of six upstream metabolites, namely tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (HKYN), kynurenic acid (KA), anthranilic acid (AA), and xanthurenic acid (XA), was possible at pH 9.  An electronic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to March 2021 was performed for papers reporting the effects of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), xanthurenic acid (XA), anthranilic acid (AA), and quinolinic acid (QA), focusing on their roles in carbohydrate metabolism and the cardiovascular system.  Also, AGP_AGG group altered various fecal metabolites such as uric acid, xanthurenic acid, acylcarnitine, 9,10-DHOME, 13-HDoHE, LysoPE15:0, LysoPC 16:0, LysoPI 18:0, and so on, that associated with immunometabolism or protective effect of gut barrier.  bovis sexual stages in vitro using xanthurenic acid and documented changes in morphology and gene expression.  In addition to already known bioactive molecules, for the first time, xanthurenic acid and oleanic acid were identified in wine in relatively high concentrations.  Plasma levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid were lower in young women and old men.  Recently, a functional marker of vitamin B-6 status, the ratio of 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK): xanthurenic acid (XA) in plasma (HK: XA), was proposed.  Additional biological testing applied the assay to samples collected from healthy control participants and two groups diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (one group treated with the anti-inflammatory 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and one group untreated), with results showing significant differences in the concentrations of picolinic acid, kynurenine, and xanthurenic acid.  The metabolomics analyses of sera showed a decrease in the levels of kynurenic acid, daidzein, adenosine, xanthurenic acid and hypoxanthine from Dec 602-exposed animals.  One of the main targets of the kynurenine detoxification pathway in mosquitoes is the enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) into xanthurenic acid (XA).  Urinary metabolomics revealed that celastrol can affect the excretion of intestinal bacteria-related endogenous metabolites,including hippuric acid,phenylacetylglycine,5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid,urocanic acid,cinnamoylglycine,phenylproplonylglycine and xanthurenic acid.  The construct HK:(kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3'-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid), termed HK ratio (HKr), was related to plasma PLP with standardized regression coefficients (95% CIs) of -0.  0008), xanthurenic acid (XANU, p = 1.  Moreover, MIP+sIL-1RA+IL-10 was significantly associated with elevations in picolinic acid, xanthurenic acid and 3-OH-kynurenine.  Additionally, MF decreased the levels of fumarate, cAMP, xanthurenic acid and d-glucurone-6,3-lactone, and increased the levels of hippuric acid and phenylacetylglycine, and then adjusted the changes of phenylalanine metabolism, TCA cycle and ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathways.  ovata tick stages using the chemical inducers: xanthurenic acid (XA), dithiothreitol (DTT) and tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) at 27 °C or 37 °C conditions.  RESULTS We identified 33 potentially bioactive banana metabolites, of which 5 metabolites, methoxyeugenol glucuronide (MEUG-GLUC), dopamine sulfate (DOP-S), salsolinol sulfate, xanthurenic acid, and 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline sulfate, were confirmed as candidate intake biomarkers.  Gold nanoparticles (NPs) and the conductive poly(xanthurenic acid) p(XA) were assembled on the Cu-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) surface by electrodeposition and cyclic voltammetry (CV) method, which greatly improved the electrocatalytic performance of the Cu-MOF modified electrode.  The comparison of the volatile profiles of two of these active strains with those of two phylogenetically closely related, inactive strains led to the identification of molecules possibly involved in the observed volatile-mediated pathogen growth inhibition, including trimethylpyrazine, dihydrochalcone, and L-dihydroxanthurenic acid.  Citric acid, oxalosuccinic acid, creatine, proline, cyclic AMP, L‐dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), phenylacetylglycine, 5‐hydroxyindole acetaldehyde, succinylcholine, deoxyuridine, 3‐hydroxyhippuric acid, glutamine, and 5‐hydroxytryptophan levels were significantly reduced, whereas indole‐3‐acetaldehyde, xanthurenic acid, taurine, kynurenic acid, hippuric acid, 5‐hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 2‐phenylethanol glucuronide, 2‐isopropyl‐3‐oxosuccinate, and adrenaline levels were elevated significantly in model group. 
인돌아민 2,3-디옥시게나제(IDO) 및 트립토판-2,3-디옥시게나제(TDO)는 인터페론-γ와 같은 여러 면역 인자에 의해 유도되며 필수 아미노산 트립토판을 키누레닌 및 기타 다운스트림 대사 산물로 분해하는 세포 내 효소로 작용합니다. , 키누렌산(KYNA), 크산투렌산(XA) 등을 포함합니다.  항생제 치료로 미생물을 제거하면 트립토판(Trp)과 그 대사산물인 키누레닌(Kyn), 3-하이드록시키누레닌(3-HK) 및 크산투렌산(XA)이 축적됩니다.  방법 트립토판, 세로토닌 경로(세로토닌, 전구체 5-하이드록시-트립토판 및 그 대사물 5-하이드록시-인돌 아세트산) 및 키누레닌 경로(키누레닌 및 안트라닐산을 포함한 6개의 대사 산물)의 11가지 말초 대사 산물의 공복 혈장 수준을 정량화했습니다. 산, 키누렌산, 니코틴아미드, 피콜린산, 크산투렌산 및 3-히드록시-안트라닐산).  외인성 글루타메이트는 발화를 증가시킨 반면, 크산투렌산(XA) 또는 vGluT1 반수체 부족으로 억제하여 SLV로의 글루타메이트 로딩을 감소시키면 지속적인 신장 동안 발화를 유지하는 방추의 능력이 크게 감소하여 종종 이를 폐지합니다.  클라바타는 크산투렌산이었다.  96]), 크산투렌산(0.  1-메틸-2-피리돈-5-카복사미드, 키누렌산 및 크산투렌산과 같은 요 대사산물의 수준은 INH를 투여받지 않은 쥐에 비해 INH로 처리한 쥐에서 유의하게 감소했습니다.  01) 키누렌산, 크산투렌산 및 퀴놀린산에 대해 발견되었다(p < 0.