Epiphytic Bromeliads(착생 브로멜리아드)란 무엇입니까?Epiphytic Bromeliads 착생 브로멜리아드 - The distributions of CAM and C3 epiphytic bromeliads across an altitudinal gradient in western Panama were identified from carbon isotope (δ13C) signals, and epiphyte water balance was investigated via oxygen isotopes (δ18O) across wet and dry seasons.  Specifically, roots of epiphytic bromeliads had more endophytic fungi and dark septate endophytes and fewer mycorrhizal fungi than terrestrials and lithophytes.  Therefore, this study investigated the wind-epiphyte mechanical interactions by quantifying the drag forces on epiphytic bromeliads when subjected to increasing wind speeds (5–22 m s-1) in a wind tunnel.  astartea consists of: (1) deposition of aquatic eggs in leaf-tanks of terrestrial or epiphytic bromeliads located on or over the banks of temporary or permanent streams; (2) exotrophic tadpoles remain in the leaf-tanks during initial stages of development (until Gosner stage 26), after which they presumably jump or are transported to streams after heavy rains that flood their bromeliad tanks; and (3) tadpole development completes in streams.  They were located in a macadamia tree crown, under epiphytic bromeliads, and under hanging fern and Euphorbia pots.  They also inhabit anchihaline caves, inland freshwater ecosystems including endorheic lakes, and terrestrial habitats such as desert saltpans, epiphytic bromeliads in mountain forests, and rocky plateaus of coastal and oceanic islands (reviews e.  Tillandsia usneoides in epiphytic bromeliads takes up water through the absorptive trichomes on the shoot surface under extreme environmental conditions.  To better understand the combined effects of detritus quality and precipitation regime on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems we manipulated litter quality, by modifying N:P stoichiometry and rainfall amount on tropical natural aquatic microcosms (water‐holding epiphytic bromeliads).  METHODS We used microsatellite markers to assess geographic patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in two epiphytic bromeliads, Catopsis nitida and Werauhia tonduziana, in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica.  To identify areas of endemism (AEs) in the Mexican cloud forests based on the distribution of endemic epiphytic bromeliads and orchids species and to propose a hypothesis about the current biogeographical relationship of the Mexican cloud forests.  Dew can represent an alternate water source in epiphytic bromeliads.  Our results reinforce the ability of epiphytic bromeliads to deal with stressful habitats by a higher efficiency of RuBisCO during the transition to CAM, another feature that may allow their evolution in the epiphytic environment.  Overall, this study provides the first evidence of an endophytic fungal community in both the seeds and seedlings of two epiphytic bromeliads species that subsequently benefit plant growth.  Most epiphytic bromeliads, especially those in the genus Tillandsia, lack functional roots and rely on the absorption of water and nutrients by large, multicellular trichomes on the epidermal surfaces of leaves and stems.  Epiphytic bromeliads frequently present a structure formed by the overlapping of leaf bases where water and nutrients can be accumulated and absorbed, called tank. 
서부 파나마의 고도 기울기에 걸친 CAM 및 C3 착생 브로멜리아드의 분포는 탄소 동위원소(δ13C) 신호에서 확인되었으며 착생 물 균형은 우기 및 건기에 걸쳐 산소 동위원소(δ18O)를 통해 조사되었습니다.  구체적으로, 착생 브로멜리아드의 뿌리는 육상 및 암석식물에 비해 더 많은 내생 균류 및 어두운 격벽 내생식물 및 균근 균류를 더 적게 가졌다.  따라서, 이 연구는 풍동에서 증가하는 풍속(5-22 m s-1)을 받을 때 착생 브로멜리아드에 대한 항력을 정량화하여 풍- 착생 기계적 상호작용을 조사했습니다.  astartea는 다음으로 구성됩니다: (1) 임시 또는 영구 하천의 둑 위나 위에 위치한 육상 또는 착생 브로멜리아드의 잎 탱크에 수중 알의 퇴적; (2) 외영양 올챙이는 발달 초기 단계(Gosner 단계 26까지) 동안 잎사귀 수조에 남아 있으며, 그 후에 아마도 점프하거나 bromeliad 탱크를 범람시키는 폭우 후에 개울로 운반됩니다. (3) 올챙이 발달은 하천에서 완료됩니다.  그들은 마카다미아 나무 왕관, 착생 브로멜리아드, 매달린 고사리 및 유포르비아 화분 아래에 있었습니다.  그들은 또한 anchihaline 동굴, endorheic 호수를 포함한 내륙 담수 생태계, 사막 염전, 산림의 착생 bromeliads, 해안 및 해양 섬의 암석 고원과 같은 육상 서식지에 서식합니다.  착생 브로멜리아드의 Tillandsia usneoides는 극한의 환경 조건에서 싹 표면의 흡수성 트리홈을 통해 물을 흡수합니다.  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  nan  METHODS We used microsatellite markers to assess geographic patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in two epiphytic bromeliads, Catopsis nitida and Werauhia tonduziana, in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica.  Overall, this study provides the first evidence of an endophytic fungal community in both the seeds and seedlings of two epiphytic bromeliads species that subsequently benefit plant growth.