## What is/are Two Fluid Plasma?

Two Fluid Plasma - Nonetheless, the pure ion as well as $e^{-}$ plasmas exhibit corresponding rigid rotations around the plasma axis with different fluid velocities, as in a two-fluid plasma.^{[1]}Various versions of equations of two-fluid plasma called the equations of electromagnetic hydrodynamics are considered.

^{[2]}First, a sequence of asymptotic expansions in several small parameters, as formal limits of the non-dissipative and non-resistive two-fluid plasma equations, leads to five simplified plasma/magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) systems.

^{[3]}The electric field fluctuations may similarly be depressed by the (self-)helicities of the two-fluid plasma model, with the geometry lying in the relation between the electric and density fields in a Maxwell equation.

^{[4]}A number of physical processes in laser-plasma interaction can be described with the two-fluid plasma model.

^{[5]}In this work, we study the impact of an external magnetic field on electromagnetic soliton profile in nonrelativistic two-fluid plasma using IMEX scheme.

^{[6]}The propagation characteristics of these waves are studied within the framework of a two-fluid plasma in terms of the collisional strength between heavy particles for different degrees of ionisation.

^{[7]}This paper describes the main features of a pioneering unsteady solver for simulating ideal two-fluid plasmas on unstructured grids, taking profit of GPGPU (General-purpose computing on graphics processing units).

^{[8]}The application of numerical methods to the solution of two-fluid plasma flows requires the intentional application of methods to enforce the divergence conditions present in Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism.

^{[9]}Incorporating the radiation reaction force into two-fluid plasma in curved space, we get a set of one-fluid general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations with the Landau-Lifshitz radiation reaction force.

^{[10]}Both collisionless and collisional Landau fluid (LF) closure have been developed and implemented in two-fluid plasma simulation framework BOUT++, taking full advantage of the fast non-Fourier method (Dimits, 2014).

^{[11]}We developed a new numerical method to build a multidimensional hydrodynamic code solving the complex two-fluid plasma model equations.

^{[12]}Therefore, de can be made almost exactly the same as the diameter of a lithium ion plasma enabling the investigation of a two-fluid plasma state by using non-neutral plasmas.

^{[13]}The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) in a two-fluid plasma with a density interface produced by varying isotope mass is investigated with comparison to thermalinterface and hydrodynamic (neutral fluid) cases.

^{[14]}These include simulations of the Weibel instability that occurs in astrophysical and laser plasmas, two-fluid plasma instabilities in fusion concepts such as Z-pinches that occur beyond the well-known magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, the magneto–Rayleigh–Taylor instability that occurs in a range of plasmas from the laboratory to space, the Richtmeyer–Meshkov instability which is an important instability in astrophysical and fusion plasmas, and the gradient-drift instability which is known to occur in ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas.

^{[15]}Medium-frequency waves in the ion-electron two-fluid plasma with frequencies between the electron gyrofrequency and the ion gyrofrequency are studied.

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