## What is/are Time Domain Approach?

Time Domain Approach - Although the time-domain fatigue damage is believed to be the most reliable method, it is computationally expensive; thus, in the present study, surrogate models including artificial neural network and kriging models are constructed for fatigue-damage prediction of the bimodal tension process to improve the accuracy and efficiency compared with the simple frequency- and time-domain approaches.^{[1]}Fourier-domain (FD) beamformers have been proposed to process the signals received into maps of the spatial localization of cavitation activity, with reduced computing times with respect to the time-domain approach, and to take advantage of frequency selectivity for cavitation regime characterization.

^{[2]}This requires more computation, but can be applied even to time-domain approaches.

^{[3]}The hydroelastoplastic response is calculated using a hybrid nonlinear time-domain approach, allowing for very fast computation of the nonlinear whipping response.

^{[4]}By modulating the intensity of a continuous-wave diode laser at 10 MHz, we have been able to provide accurate optical absorption images and surface reconstructions of phantom samples, comparing also the extracted results with standard time-domain approaches.

^{[5]}FindingsThe time-domain approach finds evidence of bidirectional causation between the variables.

^{[6]}The first technique time-domain approach models the forthcoming values as a function of previous and current values.

^{[7]}Through the use of the time series of wave forces and the undisturbed kinematics, drag, horizontal inertia, lift, and vertical inertia coefficients in the Morison and transverse semi-empirical schemes were calculated using time-domain approaches, adopting the WLS1 method for the minimization of the difference between the maximum forces and the linked phase shifts by comparing laboratory and calculated wave loads.

^{[8]}Compared with the conventional time-domain approaches, the proposed approach analyzes the ECG signal only in the frequency domain.

^{[9]}We demonstrate SPOD-based flow-field reconstruction using direct inversion of the SPOD algorithm (frequency-domain approach) and propose an alternative approach based on projection of the time series data onto the modes (time-domain approach).

^{[10]}We adopt the time-domain approach and build audio-visual speech separation networks with temporal convolutional neural networks block.

^{[11]}The electromagnetic field distributions and reflection spectra of the structure are obtained using the finite-difference time-domain approach for resonance mode analysis and sensing capability characterization.

^{[12]}We introduce a highly efficient time-domain approach that describes the quantum dynamics of the resistivity of this model with an at least 1000-fold better performance in comparison to existing time-evolution schemes.

^{[13]}Different dipole antenna designs were simulated using a finite-difference-time-domain approach.

^{[14]}Therefore, we employed a finite-difference time-domain approach to study two representative ENZ media, namely Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) and with ENZ frequency ν ε0 = 211 × 10 12 Hz and ν ε0 = 29.

^{[15]}Guided by system identification principles, we propose a parametric, time-domain approach that potentially offers greater statistical efficiency and noise resilience.

^{[16]}We analyzed the return and volatility spillover between the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the crude oil market, and the stock market by employing two empirical methods for connectedness: the time-domain approach developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) and the method based on frequency dynamics developed by Barunik and Krehlik (2018).

^{[17]}We discuss the mechanism of periodic structures formation based on the dependence of the surface morphology on the laser pulse number and fluence applied and the results of a simulation using the finite-difference time-domain approach.

^{[18]}Through analysis and experiments, a performance comparison using measured room impulse responses is conducted not only between the two proposed methods but also between the two proposed methods and the existing time-domain approach.

^{[19]}Time-domain approaches for power system protection must be tested in realistic and flexible platforms prior to their actual implementation.

^{[20]}The recently developed JWST Exoplanet Observation Simulator (JexoSim) simulates transit spectroscopic observations of exoplanets by JWST with each of its four instruments using a time-domain approach.

^{[21]}Two approaches are offered; a time domain approach performs sound synthesis followed by propagation, while a frequency domain approach performs propagation followed by sound synthesis.

^{[22]}The comparison between the time domain approach and the proposed approach in frequency domain certifies the extreme reliability of the latter as well as the advantages it offers to the designer in terms of computational times that results to be extremely reduced.

^{[23]}Our proposal exhibits an improvement of one order of magnitude on generic x86 computers related to the average computation time of the multipath channel, compared to the existing time domain approach in downlink and uplink transmissions.

^{[24]}A meta-data based semi-deterministic time domain approach is studied to reduce the clipping noise at the receiver.

^{[25]}Photonic based angular waveguide is employed in this communication to envisage a wide range of sensing application with the help of finite difference time domain approach, whereproposed photonic structure is realised by 11 × 11 airholes with elimination of series of holes pertaining to L type bending channel, which would be deployed for solving bending loss issues in photonic integrated circuits.

^{[26]}In this work, we present a novel time domain approach of extracting BR from a dual CW radar (10.

^{[27]}Finally, the soil-structure interaction of buildings close to the line is computed using a time domain approach.

^{[28]}In this paper, sloshing coupled ship motions are solved numerically in a time domain approach, in which the external flow and sloshing are computed respectively with linear diffraction-radiation theory and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method.

^{[29]}For the time domain approach, we propose two discrete schemes, namely, the Crank–Nicolson scheme and the leap-frog type scheme.

^{[30]}A recently-developed hybrid quantum/classical method (HQCM) is employed which uses time-dependent density functional theory and quasi-static finite difference time domain approach.

^{[31]}The role and importance of multirate feedforward control are also demonstrated by comparing it to a continuous-time domain approach with preactuation.

^{[32]}A ray tracing phenomenon was exploited to visualize the wave propagation for different transmitter and receiver antenna distances by using the time domain approach for both the horizontally and vertically polarized LCXs.

^{[33]}This paper discusses a finite element method, discontinuous Galerkin time domain approach that solves the 2-D acoustic wave equation in cylindrical coordinates.

^{[34]}The subject of the last chapter is the relationship between two possible approaches to the analysis of a system: the time domain approach (developed in the previous chapters) and the more traditional frequency domain approach based on the Laplace transform.

^{[35]}Time domain approaches have been developed to tackle the non-linearities and complex flow [4,10].

^{[36]}This paper has introduced a novel experimental system adopted a time domain approach for estimating through wall distance and recognizes buried objects behind the wall.

^{[37]}The major challenge in the time domain approach is the increase in acquisition time.

^{[38]}The time domain approach is proved to be feasible for Programmable Logic Controller implementation.

^{[39]}The proposed DNN setup uses a time domain approach of learning filters within the network.

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## frequency domain approach

We demonstrate SPOD-based flow-field reconstruction using direct inversion of the SPOD algorithm (frequency-domain approach) and propose an alternative approach based on projection of the time series data onto the modes (time-domain approach).^{[1]}

## Difference Time Domain Approach

Photonic based angular waveguide is employed in this communication to envisage a wide range of sensing application with the help of finite difference time domain approach, whereproposed photonic structure is realised by 11 × 11 airholes with elimination of series of holes pertaining to L type bending channel, which would be deployed for solving bending loss issues in photonic integrated circuits.^{[1]}A recently-developed hybrid quantum/classical method (HQCM) is employed which uses time-dependent density functional theory and quasi-static finite difference time domain approach.

^{[2]}