## What is/are Three Dimensional Displacement?

Three Dimensional Displacement - The enclosed work describes the development and validation of an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS, commonly known as drone) with an onboard stereo-vision system capable of acquiring, storing and transmitting images for analysis to obtain full-field, three-dimensional displacement and strain measurements.^{[1]}Secondly, we use a strain model-based method and steepest descent method (SDM) to resolve the three-dimensional displacement components and to invert the coseismic slip distribution constrained by coseismic displacement fields, respectively.

^{[2]}The three-dimensional displacement field distribution nephogram of overlying strata in the process of coal mining is obtained.

^{[3]}We also digitally aligned the OCT volumes obtained from (2)-(4) to the primary gaze volume (1) before performing digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis to quantify IOP- and gaze-induced ONH tissues three-dimensional displacements and effective strain (a local measure of tissue deformation) for all scenarios.

^{[4]}State-of-the-art instrumentation was used to capture the three-dimensional displacement field of the wall surfaces using digital image correlation techniques.

^{[5]}To determine the reasons for the failure, a shroud-cutting model with a three-dimensional displacement harmony boundary was established.

^{[6]}Digital volume correlation of in situ synchrotron X-ray computed tomographs has been used to measure the three-dimensional displacement fields around quasi-static propagating cracks in neutron irradiated and unirradiated graphite in specimens of the double cleavage drilled compression geometry.

^{[7]}According to the relationship between the change of the marker pixel number in the image and the relative displacement, three-dimensional displacement measurement is performed.

^{[8]}The three-dimensional displacement of the ostia of the target vessels was calculated by subtracting the coordinates of CTA and ceCBCT from one another.

^{[9]}Therefore, we used weightbearing CT imaging to quantify three-dimensional displacement associated with subtalar joint instability.

^{[10]}A new combination between the modified higher-order shear deformation, also, quasi-three-dimensional displacement fields and the modified couple stress theory has been presented for simulating the mentioned micro-sheet under the transverse loading.

^{[11]}In the experiments, the contour data of the laser welding seam cutting surface are obtained by employing electrical discharge cutting and three-dimensional displacement scanning technology.

^{[12]}A mechanical indentation head and digital holographic set-ups permit a full-field, contact-less and single-shot measurement of the three-dimensional displacement fields at the surface of the tooth sample when subjected to load.

^{[13]}After removing these influences, the line-of-sight displacement vectors, measured by multiple ground-based radars, are decomposed into three-dimensional displacement components.

^{[14]}Three-dimensional displacements, calculated in the simulation, were sequentially used to update the positions of the randomly distributed scatterers.

^{[15]}However, three-dimensional displacement thickness increases due to more viscoelastic material like Maxwell fluid than viscous fluid.

^{[16]}Following initial calibration of the embedded sensors to ensure accurate detection of three-dimensional displacement, dedicated flume experiments were undertaken to assess instrumented shell movement metrics, for a range of flow conditions and shell orientations.

^{[17]}The three-dimensional displacements of the CoM, the muscular power sustaining the CoM motion with respect to the ground, and the efficiency of the pendulum-like transfer of the CoM were computed via the double integration of the ground reaction forces.

^{[18]}In this study, the three-dimensional displacement distributions for the facial surfaces of two android robots were measured for the analysis.

^{[19]}A series of fracturing cases in single- and multiple- fracture(s) are conducted based on the simplified three-dimensional displacement-discontinuity-method.

^{[20]}The three-dimensional displacement, strain, and stress fields are transformed in the time domain through a numerical inversion algorithm.

^{[21]}We propose an adaptive Eulerian-Lagrangian (E-L) proppant module and couple it with our simplified three-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (S3D DDM) hydraulic fracture model.

^{[22]}Each subseismic fault is modeled with a three-dimensional displacement field around the fault slip plane, enabling comparisons with the input displacement map along a horizon.

^{[23]}We estimated three-dimensional displacement velocities by applying the least-squares method to the results from PSI and Global Positioning System (GPS) data.

^{[24]}Three-dimensional displacements of hand and rod positions were submitted to Detrended Fluctuation Analysis to estimate trial-by-trial temporal correlations.

^{[25]}The stress states were calculated from three-dimensional displacements of the sinistral Obir fault conjugated to the dextral PAL fault, which also forms the upper DSGSD detachment plane.

^{[26]}This paper proposes a methodology, along with an experimental validation, of a large three-dimensional displacement field measurement approach that uses artificial vision techniques.

^{[27]}The “smart-sphere” is fitted with inertial sensors (MEMS, such as accelerometers and angular displacement sensors), which enable recording the particle's three-dimensional displacement.

^{[28]}To understand the geometrical distortion in the substrate, three-dimensional displacement mapping with digital image correlation was undertaken after refurbishment and postdeposition stress relief heat treatment.

^{[29]}The process of separation and subsequent elimination of these components is given by numerical post-processing of three-dimensional displacement fields.

^{[30]}The left ventricular segments and global longitudinal strain (GLS), left ventricular segments and global three-dimensional displacement (3DD) obtained by aCMQ and 3DQA techniques were compared and analyzed.

^{[31]}The results are promising and indicate that the method can be used in cases of either large, complex or three-dimensional displacements and rotations on any scale.

^{[32]}In this paper, a high-precision measuring method for the three-dimensional displacements is developed based on the low coherence interferometry.

^{[33]}The three-dimensional displacement of the sacrum was recorded from healthy subjects during walking and running at two speeds; one low speed close to the preferred walking speed and one high speed close to the preferred running speed.

^{[34]}This study aimed to clarify three-dimensional displacement patterns of intra-articular fragmentation in dorsally angulated, intra-articular distal radial fractures.

^{[35]}Known as “shape sensing”, real-time reconstruction of a structure's three-dimensional displacements using a network of in situ strain sensors and measured strains is a vital technology for structural health monitoring (SHM).

^{[36]}Then, the similar deformation modes are linearly superposed, and the three-dimensional displacement field is reduced to one-dimensional.

^{[37]}Its big advantage over the conventional methods like strain gauges or point based video-extensometers is the full field strain and displacement measurement and the ability to analyze three-dimensional displacements.

^{[38]}Accurate three-dimensional displacement measurements of bridges and other structures have received significant attention in recent years.

^{[39]}The three-dimensional displacement changes of the coordinates of the central node under different three-dimensional forces are obtained, and the output resistance of the force-sensitive conductive rubber array unit before and after the three-dimensional force action is calculated.

^{[40]}ABSTRACT An investigation is made to present analytical solutions provided by a three-dimensional displacement approach for analysis of bucket foundations subjected to vertical and lateral loads in cohesive soils.

^{[41]}This paper highlights a novel approach towards a three-dimensional displacement measurement sensor.

^{[42]}Such analysis is enabled by an efficient non-iterative approach to measuring the three-dimensional displacement field via a closed-form solution to a collection of the amplitude of complex correlation coefficients across multiple digitally shifted images.

^{[43]}In this work, we present experimental results that show the feasibility of measuring three-dimensional displacement in models of dry granular avalanches.

^{[44]}However, the estimated displacement is obtained only in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction, making it necessary to develop a method for measuring three-dimensional displacements by combining multidirectional observations.

^{[45]}In this paper, the three-dimensional displacement-based rigorous limit equilibrium method is proposed to study the displacements of seismically induced landslides.

^{[46]}By using phase retrieval, Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI) allows tracking of three-dimensional displacement fields inside individual nanocrystals.

^{[47]}