## What is/are Three Dimensional Deformation?

Three Dimensional Deformation - In this paper, we investigate a method that infers local out-of-plane motions of the workpiece surface from the decorrelation of speckle patterns and is thus able to reconstruct three-dimensional deformation fields.^{[1]}In the end, we obtained the minimum deformation of the belt support, and simulate the three-dimensional deformation of the bottom surface.

^{[2]}In this work, a method aiming to measure the three-dimensional deformation speed was developed, which combines endoscopic tomography with three-dimensional optical flow algorithm.

^{[3]}We compare the relative impacts of different kinds of mechanical perturbations including in-plane strain, out-of-plane vibrations, inhomogeneous three-dimensional deformations, instabilities of membranes under compression like crumpling and wrinkling, and interlayer slip.

^{[4]}The MEMS-based inclinometer can measure the vertical tilt angle and horizontal torsion angle, which can realize the three-dimensional deformation monitoring in space.

^{[5]}Taking into account the tension–compression asymmetry, an asymmetric potential energy function is constructed, according to the three-dimensional deformation of the crystalline lattice.

^{[6]}The acquisition of information on fine surface three-dimensional deformation in a goaf is of great significance for the in-depth understanding of the law of mining subsidence and guiding the safe production and ecological restoration of the mining area.

^{[7]}We perform computational simulations of thin shell elastic dynamics to reveal propagating chemical and three-dimensional deformation patterns arising due to a sequence of buckling instabilities.

^{[8]}This paper presents a new model for three-dimensional deformation extraction of single-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) based on mining subsidence characteristics.

^{[9]}Fiber-based thermoelectric (TE) materials as energy suppliers for mobile or wearable electronic systems have received widespread attention in wearable electronic devices owing to their three-dimensional deformation, lightweight, and excellent electron transfer properties.

^{[10]}To address this gap, we first propose an algorithm that systematically accommodates surface forces and linearly viscoelastic three-dimensional deformation computed via Attard's model into the bimodal AFM framework.

^{[11]}Here we have loaded healthy, human, Achilles tendons to failure in an anatomically authentic fashion while studying the local three-dimensional deformation and strains in real time, with very high precision, using digital image correlation (DIC).

^{[12]}The three-dimensional deformation monitoring of landslides is very complex due to the uncertainty of movement direction and the difficulty in searching the corresponding points before and after deformation.

^{[13]}For laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a mainstream technology of metal additive manufacturing, a hybrid method for the online evaluation of stress fields during laser cladding is developed in this paper that combines the real-time measured temperature field, three-dimensional deformation field and finite element method.

^{[14]}Moreover, soft arms for lifting objects driven by natural sunlight and wearable smart ornaments that are combined with clothing and produce three-dimensional deformation under natural sunlight are also developed.

^{[15]}Compared with the traditional stretch-bending process, the three-dimensional deformation of the profile can be formed at one time, and the cost of the die is greatly reduced and the production efficiency is improved.

^{[16]}In the treatment session, the three-dimensional deformation vector field is derived according to the marker displacement, which is monitored by the real-time imaging system.

^{[17]}This work suggests that three-dimensional deformation of entropy spots upstream of the nozzle convergent is likely to play a key role in the sound generation process, and can be used for developing new models accounting for this phenomenon.

^{[18]}Consequently, the method in this paper completes the efficient calculation of match of the speckle image sub-regions in the three-dimensional deformation measurement.

^{[19]}Therefore, this work investigates a method that infers local out-of-plane motions of the workpiece surface from the decorrelation of speckle patterns and thus is able to reconstruct three-dimensional deformation fields.

^{[20]}It showed that with this treatment, in situ CT is suitable to properly observe the three-dimensional deformation behavior and to identify the failure modes.

^{[21]}We focused on the anisotropic bending stiffness of the metal sheet and realized a three-dimensional deformation structure; it can be driven only with rotary-driven input using both torsional and bending deformations of the sheet.

^{[22]}The results show that the average root mean square errors (RMSE) in the vertical and horizontal direction of the three-dimensional deformations are approximately 9.

^{[23]}This paper puts forward a new method for measuring the three-dimensional deformation of warp-knitted spacer fabrics under tensile stress.

^{[24]}The three-dimensional deformation of a thin strip clamped at both ends is computed with this novel method and compared with semi-analytic solutions of the boundary value problem of the incremental rod theory as well as with the finite element solution for an equivalent shell model.

^{[25]}Afterward, the vision-based method to estimate the three-dimensional deformation of the passive compliance is discussed.

^{[26]}The exceptional strain hardening is attributed to the smaller spacing and consequent interactions of the plastically-induced dislocations, including for MgO, the formation of nano-scale sessile dislocations accompanying the imposed three-dimensional deformation.

^{[27]}This paper presents the experimental results obtained with the non-contact three-dimensional deformation measuring system–ARAMIS and finite element analysis performed using ANSYS of three slabs made of high-performance concrete (HPC) and hybrid (steel/ST and polypropylene/PP) fibre reinforced high-performance concrete (FRHPC).

^{[28]}Lastly, three-dimensional deformation of metal foam sandwich panels into typical non-Euclidean shapes such as bowl and saddle shapes was explored.

^{[29]}Three-dimensional deformation of two bubbles and bubbles in a cluster in an ideal incompressible liquid in an acoustic field is investigated using the boundary element method for potential flows.

^{[30]}For example, field damage investigations and trench observations were used to define the affected distance of ground fissure; three-dimensional deformation was monitored to determine active characteristic of ground fissure.

^{[31]}, quantitatively, the maximum axial strut force was more than three times the minimum at the same level) due to spatial effect of inner support and the axial forces in some diagonal struts were 15% larger than designed value; and (4) the surrounding pipelines exhibited three-dimensional deformation pattern and noticeable settlement (i.

^{[32]}This allows both input and output of three-dimensional deformation of a soft material.

^{[33]}Owing to the structures and properties of the yarns and fabrics, the electrical resistance of the fabrics remains stable at a maximum strain of 425% in unidirectional tensile test and a maximum average membrane strain of 300% in three-dimensional deformation.

^{[34]}Speckle interferometers, which can measure three-dimensional deformations with the same sensitivity in each direction of a three-dimensional axis, have been employed in the industry.

^{[35]}By analyzing the extensive field data from a long and large excavation in soft clay, this study investigates the three-dimensional deformation behavior induced by excavation.

^{[36]}By means of these experimental measurements, we identified the material parameters of two viscoelastic material models applicable to large three-dimensional deformations, i.

^{[37]}Then a three-dimensional deformation simulation of the micro thin wall under different milling parameters is carried out by considering the micro-walled structure, material elasto-plastic constitutive model, the stiffness and geometric structure of micro milling tools in finite element method.

^{[38]}