## What is/are Real Surfaces?

Real Surfaces - Surface topography strongly modifies adhesion of hard-material contacts, yet roughness of real surfaces typically exists over many length scales, and it is not clear which of these scales has the strongest effect.^{[1]}Substrate surface defects such as vacancies or step-edges, which cannot be completely ruled out on real surfaces on the mesoscopic scale, can act as preferred nucleation sites for molecules that leads to parasitic film growth competing with their intrinsic alignment prevailing on an ideal surface.

^{[2]}The results comprise the evaluation of six differently manufactured (turned, coated, and pressed) real surfaces.

^{[3]}This indicates that the chemical adsorption on real surfaces plays the dominant role in the adsorption of IMI by [email protected] and BC.

^{[4]}Clinician-reported tools are divided broadly into multi-item global estimates or precise calculators that also weigh affected corporeal surfaces.

^{[5]}We study the totally real surfaces M of constant Gaussian curvature K for which the second fundamental form $h(x, y) \in JTM$, and we show that $K = 1$ (that is, $M$ is totally geodesic).

^{[6]}Due to production deviations in real surfaces of the component, each measurement generates mutually different coordinate systems, which is well proven by the experiment on measuring with a coordinate measuring machine DEA Global Performance 12.

^{[7]}We list up to M\"obius equivalence all possible degrees and embedding dimensions of real surfaces that are covered by at least two pencils of circles, together with the number of such pencils.

^{[8]}Real surfaces are composed of many asperities; therefore, it is important to study the fatigue damage of a single asperity.

^{[9]}The introduction of a topological dimension in the equations yields a unified model that covers normal wetting (perfectly bonded liquids on smooth surfaces) but also the onset of Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states on real surfaces.

^{[10]}More reliable measures of surface finish quality that could be used to assess the effectiveness of vegetable oils as cutting fluids are proposed and demonstrated using simulated and real surfaces produced by finish turning.

^{[11]}Subsequently, we developed and validated a disinfection procedure on real surfaces inside the cleanrooms intentionally contaminated with microorganisms, using approximately 107–108 total colony forming units per coupon.

^{[12]}0 capabilities by modelling both numerically generated surfaces as well as real surfaces, generated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of reference tungsten samples.

^{[13]}The paper concludes with a case study on filtering and extracting manufactured surface topographical characteristics from real surfaces.

^{[14]}However, it has recently been shown that the bi-Gaussian stratified nature of real surfaces should be accounted for when modeling mechanisms of lubrication, sealing, contact, friction, acoustic emission, and manufacture.

^{[15]}The paper also presents some modeling results for various types of real surfaces.

^{[16]}This is a complex challenge since real surfaces are rough and the contact area depends on several factors.

^{[17]}A semi-analytical model of elastic contact which takes into account the morphology of real surfaces is used to compute the contact pressure.

^{[18]}Both vision and touch contribute to the perception of real surfaces.

^{[19]}The plastic deformations of real surfaces were determined in simulations.

^{[20]}The proposed method has been tested on-site on real surfaces of parabolic solar trough collectors in an operating solar thermal plant.

^{[21]}Real surfaces have been scanned in and mapped on two opposite arranged solids which are separated by a lubrication layer.

^{[22]}Such studies typically focus on the pristine surface, free of the point defects and surface hydroxyls present in real surfaces.

^{[23]}By applying them as bicomplex extensions, we describe the correspondence between fold singularities and type-changing of zero mean curvature real surfaces in R 2 , 1 and R 2 , 2.

^{[24]}Furthermore, by utilizing the speckle patterns premade on the two mirrors, the 3D shapes of real surfaces can be estimated from the reconstructed virtual surfaces.

^{[25]}The goal is to seamlessly merge physical and virtual worlds by superimposing computer generated graphics onto real surfaces.

^{[26]}To achieve the most realistic thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication simulation and stress calculation possible, measured real surfaces and elastic-plastic material properties of the area close to the surface are used.

^{[27]}The experimental results show a high quality reconstructed $3D$ model which validates the correctness of the real surfaces.

^{[28]}Real surfaces, especially the rather soft biomolecular surfaces, are covered by highly curved micro- and nanostructures, which induce more complex wetting geometries, such as films, droplets, and filaments.

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