## What is/are Real Parameters?

Real Parameters - In this paper a perturbed system of exponents with a piecewise linear phase depending on two real parameters is considered.^{[1]}The thickness of the nitride layer, the microhardness and the length of the nitride diffusion zone and surface areal parameters like surface roughness, skewness, grain diameter and area were measured and correlated with the screen hole size and open area ratio.

^{[2]}It is shown that calculations performed with the help of the fundamental harmonic method are in good agreement with real parameters of a dc–dc converter of LCL-T type.

^{[3]}We consider the nonlinear eigenvalue problem $Lx + \varepsilon N(x) = \lambda Cx$, $\|x\|=1$, where $\varepsilon,\lambda$ are real parameters, $L, C\colon G \to H$ are bounded linear operators between separable real Hilbert spaces, and $N\colon S \to H$ is a continuous map defined on the unit sphere of $G$.

^{[4]}The simple conclusion derived based on this model is presented, and its real parameters for popular ferrimagnets, amorphous alloys of iron, and rare earth elements, are discussed.

^{[5]}Topography analysis of rock surfaces from a stream identifies three descriptive areal parameters (Smr, Sv, and Sa) that correlate with the presence of natural periphyton community.

^{[6]}We study the existence of positive solutions for the nonlinear Kirchhoff-type equation − a + b ∫ Ω | ∇ u | 2 d x Δ u = α u + β u 3 with Dirichlet boundary condition, where α , β ∈ R are two real parameters.

^{[7]}These rogue solutions are given as Gram determinants with $2N-2$ free irreducible real parameters, where $N$ is the order of the rogue wave.

^{[8]}Based on the implementation schemes for preparing arbitrary two- and three-qubit states with real parameters, we have derived the controlled remote state preparation protocols for arbitrary real-parameter multi-qubit states.

^{[9]}An order-k univariate B-spline is a parametric curve defined over a set S of at least \(k+2\) real parameters, called knots.

^{[10]}The corresponding dynamics is described by the real solutions of $\sigma$-Painleve IV equation with two real parameters.

^{[11]}Its streamfunction is represented by an exact solution to the modified Liouville equation, ∇TR,r2ψ=c edψ+(8/d)κ, where ∇TR,r2 and κ denote the Laplace–Beltrami operator and the Gauss curvature of the toroidal surface respectively, and c, d are real parameters with cd < 0.

^{[12]}The theoretical model assumes considerations that do not fully replicate the phenomenon, the experimental method provides real parameters for the design and implies high costs, and finally, computational fluid dynamics predicts the behaviors of thermal and hydraulic machine flows, in addition to recreating the phenomena almost exactly and complement the theoretical and experimental methods.

^{[13]}D 33(8):2253–2261, 1986), the most general dichotomic POVMs are characterized by two real parameters known as sharpness and biasedness of measurements.

^{[14]}In addition, the use of 3D areal parameters that are standardised and could be obtained readily with any state-of-the-art surface characterisation system are discussed for monitoring the surfaces' functional response.

^{[15]}Solutions to the focusing nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLS) of order $N$ depending on $2N-2$ real parameters in terms of wronskians and Fredholm determinants are given.

^{[16]}We systematically consider the full set of 56 real parameters that characterize the flavor-changing neutral interactions of the top quark, which can be tested at the CEPC by the single top production channel.

^{[17]}This allowed the quantifcation and the performance analysis of tree species in reducing urban runoff; the arboreal parameters correlated with the ﬂow capacity reduction; and examined whether there is reduction and delay in the peak ﬂows.

^{[18]}We study the phase portraits on the Poincare disc for all the linear type centers of polynomial Hamiltonian systems of degree \begin{document} $5$ \end{document} with Hamiltonian function \begin{document} $H(x,y) = H_1(x)+H_2(y)$ \end{document} , where \begin{document} $H_1(x) = \frac{1}{2} x^2+\frac{a_3}{3}x^3+ \frac{a_4}{4}x^4+ \frac{a_5}{5}x^5$ \end{document} and \begin{document} $H_2(y) = \frac{1}{2} y^2+ \frac{b_3}{3}y^3+ \frac{b_4}{4}y^4+ \frac{b_5}{5}y^5$ \end{document} as function of the six real parameters \begin{document} $a_3, a_4, a_5, b_3, b_4$ \end{document} and \begin{document} $b_5$ \end{document} with \begin{document} $a_5 b_5≠ 0$ \end{document}.

^{[19]}These optimization algorithms are used to solve optimization problems with real parameters having real parametric functions.

^{[20]}The models with only left-handed FCNCs of Z′ involve beyond $$ {g}_{Z^{\prime }} $$ and $$ {M}_{Z^{\prime }} $$ two real parameters characterizing the charges of all fermions under the U(1)′ gauge symmetry and the CKM and PMNS ones in the quark and lepton sectors, respectively.

^{[21]}Regression analysis of the relationship between values of areal parameters was also carried out.

^{[22]}The features of the matrix converter are investigated with this type of sliding mode in the system with real parameters of the electrical circuit.

^{[23]}In the synthesis of CPAA, an amplitude distribution was chosen that depends on two real parameters p and γ, which allows adjusting of the side lobes level and the width of the main radiating beam.

^{[24]}In the course of the research, a solar module with a parabolic trough concentrator and a line photodetector with a triangular profile, which is supplied with the heat carrier channel system, is developed for the first time and the physical and mathematical models are developed, based on which, the following aspects are developed: the design data of the module; distribution of sunlight concentration across the width of the photodetector; dependences of the thermodynamic values of heat conductivity, the viscosity of the heat carrier (water) on temperature and their ratio from the distribution of the heating of the heat carrier across the profile of the photodetector; distribution of the temperature of the heating of the heat carrier; distribution of the heating energy of the heat carrier; the time of the heat carrier’s heating; and the heating of the heat carrier’s mass per unit of time; the thermal power of the heat carrier and the thermal efficiency of the module (coefficient of efficient use of power of solar radiation), which adequately reflect real parameters of the functioning of the manufactured SB solar modules.

^{[25]}In this paper we consider a special case of BVP for higher-order ODE, where, the linear part consists of only even-order derivatives and depends on a set of real parameters.

^{[26]}The areal parameters of the surface texture are described in the standard ISO 25178-2.

^{[27]}In this paper, we are concernedwith the following fractional p-Kirchhoff systemwith sign-changing nonlinearities:M(∫ R2n (|u(x)− u(y)|p/|x−y|n+ps)dxdy)(−Δ)spu = λa(x)|u|q−2u+(α/(α+β))f(x)|u|α−2u|V|β, in Ω,M(∫R2n (|V(x)−V(y)|p/|x−y|n+ps)dxdy)(−Δ)spV = μb(x)|V|q−2V + (β/(α + β))f(x)|u|α|V|β−2V, in Ω, and u = V = 0, in R \ Ω, where Ω is a smooth bounded domain in R, n > ps, s ∈ (0, 1), λ, μ are two real parameters, 1 < q < p < p(h + 1) < α + β < p∗ s = np/(n − ps), M is a continuous function, given by M(t) = k + lth, k > 0, l > 0, h ≥ 1, a(x), b(x) ∈ L(α+β)/(α+β−q)(Ω) are sign changing and either a± = max{±a, 0} ̸ ≡ 0 or b± = max{±b, 0} ̸ ≡ 0, f ∈ L(Ω) with ‖f‖∞ = 1, and f ≥ 0.

^{[28]}Formation of the structure and topography of the coronary arteries during the fetal and early neonatal periods of human ontogenesis is an essential constituent while making perinatal diagnosis and understanding real parameters of the norm and pathology.

^{[29]}Focused on the sensitivity of backscatter from the scatterometer measurement and advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to cereal parameters of rice, nine acquisitions, including rice parameters related eco-physiological variables and scattering coefficients, have been carried over the paddy field corresponding to rice growth stages.

^{[30]}We consider a class of plane orthotropic deformations of the form ε x = σ x + a 12 σ y , γ xy = 2( p − a 12 ) T xy , ε y = a 12 σ x + σ y , where σ x , T xy , σ y and ε x γ xy 2 , ε Y $$ {\upvarepsilon}_x\frac{\upgamma_{xy}}{2},{\upvarepsilon}_Y $$ are components of the stress tensor and the deformation tensor, respectively, real parameters p and a 12 satisfy the inequalities: - 1 < p < 1, - 1 < a 12 < p.

^{[31]}Based on the research done so it can be concluded that treatment fertilizer herbafarm granule with the SRI give impact on the real parameters, for observation age flowering ( 77.

^{[32]}The features of the functioning of an alternative energy source with this type of sliding mode in a system with real parameters of electric circuits are investigated.

^{[33]}This class depends on three real parameters and various relationships between these parameters give special subclasses.

^{[34]}In this paper, we have used variational methods to study existence of solutions for the following critical nonlocal fractional Hardy elliptic equation \begin{equation*} (- \Delta)^s u - \gamma \frac{u}{|x|^{2 s}} = \frac{|u|^{2_s^*(b) - 2} u}{|x|^{b}} + \lambda f (x, u ),\quad \text{in } \mathbb{R}^N, \end{equation*} where $N > 2 s $, $ 0< s< 1 $, $ \gamma, \lambda $ are real parameters, $(- \Delta)^s$ is the fractional Laplace operator, $2_s^*(b) = {2 (N - b)}/(N - 2s)$ is a critical Hardy-Sobolev exponent with $b \in [0, 2s)$ and $ f \in C(\mathbb{R^{N}} \times \mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R})$.

^{[35]}The number of real parameters used to specify a point packing may be chosen.

^{[36]}The rationality of the algorithm is verified by comparing between the estimated parameters and real parameters in the simulation system of double closed loop control system and identification model.

^{[37]}They are expressed relying on two independent real parameters accounting respectively the size and the shape so that all possible Delaunay surfaces are represented in a unified way.

^{[38]}A simulation was performed for a constant force loading the switch point and for real parameters of the switch point with R = 1200 m.

^{[39]}In this paper we study the existence of (weak) solutions for some Kirchhoff-type problems whose simple prototype is given by − a + b ∫ B | ∇ H u ( σ ) | 2 d μ Δ H u = λ f ( u ) in B R u = 0 on ∂ B R , where Δ H denotes the Laplace–Beltrami operator on the ball model of the Hyperbolic space B N (with N ≥ 3 ), a , b and λ are real parameters, B R ⊂ B N is a geodesic ball centered in zero of radius R and f is a subcritical continuous function.

^{[40]}We present doubly periodic solutions of the infinitely extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an arbitrary number of higher-order terms and corresponding free real parameters.

^{[41]}The results show that the data fusion algorithm proposed can effectively connect redundant information and complementary information in multiple data, and estimate the real parameters of the measured object.

^{[42]}A mathematical model based on acoustic radiation forces and real parameters is proposed to describe the dynamics of the sphere movement and its stability.

^{[43]}We have shown that the influence of surface tension in yield stress materials is less significant and can be negligible when real parameters are input in the model.

^{[44]}In the present article, we propose the new class positive linear operators, which discrete type depending on a real parameters.

^{[45]}With suitable conditions on real parameters, it is shown that the sequences generated our algorithms converge to a common solution in norm, which is a unique solution of a hierarchical variational inequality (HVI).

^{[46]}As for chaotic nonlinear systems with real parameters, many studies about tracking control have been carried out using fixed control strength.

^{[47]}According to this method, the growing process stability is being defined by comparing real parameters values of seedling condition with normative ones.

^{[48]}An experimental technique to detect the crack formation in particle may be helpful to obtain the real parameters for modelling.

^{[49]}We define a scale of mappings that depends on two real parameters p and q , and a weight function θ.

^{[50]}

## Two Real Parameters

In this paper a perturbed system of exponents with a piecewise linear phase depending on two real parameters is considered.^{[1]}We study the existence of positive solutions for the nonlinear Kirchhoff-type equation − a + b ∫ Ω | ∇ u | 2 d x Δ u = α u + β u 3 with Dirichlet boundary condition, where α , β ∈ R are two real parameters.

^{[2]}The corresponding dynamics is described by the real solutions of $\sigma$-Painleve IV equation with two real parameters.

^{[3]}D 33(8):2253–2261, 1986), the most general dichotomic POVMs are characterized by two real parameters known as sharpness and biasedness of measurements.

^{[4]}The models with only left-handed FCNCs of Z′ involve beyond $$ {g}_{Z^{\prime }} $$ and $$ {M}_{Z^{\prime }} $$ two real parameters characterizing the charges of all fermions under the U(1)′ gauge symmetry and the CKM and PMNS ones in the quark and lepton sectors, respectively.

^{[5]}In the synthesis of CPAA, an amplitude distribution was chosen that depends on two real parameters p and γ, which allows adjusting of the side lobes level and the width of the main radiating beam.

^{[6]}In this paper, we are concernedwith the following fractional p-Kirchhoff systemwith sign-changing nonlinearities:M(∫ R2n (|u(x)− u(y)|p/|x−y|n+ps)dxdy)(−Δ)spu = λa(x)|u|q−2u+(α/(α+β))f(x)|u|α−2u|V|β, in Ω,M(∫R2n (|V(x)−V(y)|p/|x−y|n+ps)dxdy)(−Δ)spV = μb(x)|V|q−2V + (β/(α + β))f(x)|u|α|V|β−2V, in Ω, and u = V = 0, in R \ Ω, where Ω is a smooth bounded domain in R, n > ps, s ∈ (0, 1), λ, μ are two real parameters, 1 < q < p < p(h + 1) < α + β < p∗ s = np/(n − ps), M is a continuous function, given by M(t) = k + lth, k > 0, l > 0, h ≥ 1, a(x), b(x) ∈ L(α+β)/(α+β−q)(Ω) are sign changing and either a± = max{±a, 0} ̸ ≡ 0 or b± = max{±b, 0} ̸ ≡ 0, f ∈ L(Ω) with ‖f‖∞ = 1, and f ≥ 0.

^{[7]}We define a scale of mappings that depends on two real parameters p and q , and a weight function θ.

^{[8]}We have used three kinds of noisy input signals: Sinusoidal noise given by Here and are two real parameters.

^{[9]}This equation depends on two real parameters.

^{[10]}We show that the curvature of the Minkowski superspace does not vanish, and the Minkowski supermetric is the solution of the Einstein superequations, so the eight-dimensional curved super-Poincare invariant superuniverse $SM(4,4\vert \lambda, \mu)$ is supported by purely fermionic stress-energy supertensor with two real parameters $\lambda$, $\mu$, and, moreover, it has non-vanishing cosmological constant $\Lambda=12/(\lambda^2 -\mu^2)$ defined by these parameters that could mean a new look at the cosmological constant problem.

^{[11]}A scale of mappings that depends on two real parameters $$p,q$$ ($$n - 1 \leqslant q \leqslant p < \infty $$) and a weight function $$\theta $$ is defined.

^{[12]}

## Three Real Parameters

This class depends on three real parameters and various relationships between these parameters give special subclasses.^{[1]}Finally, we proposed a study in Estimation for parameters of [0,1] Truncated Lomax – Uniform distribution by using maximum likelihood estimation method and we used simulation to generate random variables to take four experiments for the default values of three real parameters with samples sizes (n = 30, 60, 90, 120) and sample iteration (S = 1000).

^{[2]}

## Independent Real Parameters

They are expressed relying on two independent real parameters accounting respectively the size and the shape so that all possible Delaunay surfaces are represented in a unified way.^{[1]}For the $(N+1)$-brane solution, our $U$ is specified by $[N/2]$ independent real parameters $\alpha_k$.

^{[2]}

## real parameters p

In the synthesis of CPAA, an amplitude distribution was chosen that depends on two real parameters p and γ, which allows adjusting of the side lobes level and the width of the main radiating beam.^{[1]}We consider a class of plane orthotropic deformations of the form ε x = σ x + a 12 σ y , γ xy = 2( p − a 12 ) T xy , ε y = a 12 σ x + σ y , where σ x , T xy , σ y and ε x γ xy 2 , ε Y $$ {\upvarepsilon}_x\frac{\upgamma_{xy}}{2},{\upvarepsilon}_Y $$ are components of the stress tensor and the deformation tensor, respectively, real parameters p and a 12 satisfy the inequalities: - 1 < p < 1, - 1 < a 12 < p.

^{[2]}We define a scale of mappings that depends on two real parameters p and q , and a weight function θ.

^{[3]}