## What is/are Real Heat?

Real Heat - Previous studies on phase change material (PCM) selection for latent thermal energy storage (LTES) mainly focused on steady heat source conditions without considering the effects of thermal fluctuation of real heat sources, and how fluctuating heat sources will affect the charging performance of LTES and material selection is still unclear.^{[1]}The estimations performed on real heats demonstrate that its optical basicity decreases upon increase in Al 2 O 3 content in slag.

^{[2]}Calculations carried out on the basis of real heats have shown that with an increase in the content of Al2O3 oxide in the slag, its optical basicity decreases.

^{[3]}Nominal power of them exceeds the real heat loads.

^{[4]}The efficiency of the heat exchanger in the general case is a function of the mode parameters, the scheme of mutual movement of heat carriers and features of hydrodynamics and heat transfer of real heat exchangers.

^{[5]}However, only the laboratory testing can accurately obtain the real heat transfer and flow resistance performance of plate heat exchanger.

^{[6]}With respect to varying temperatures, the kinetic parameters enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, real heat power, and entropy of activation are measured.

^{[7]}The applicability of the fluorescence immunosensor is evaluated by measuring total amount of eight HAAs in real heat processed meat.

^{[8]}Simulation results of the current model yield consistent and more real heat transfer, pressure drop, and temperature contours using nonuniform airflow velocity profiles than those of the simplified models that assumed uniform airflow.

^{[9]}Also the optimal performance and the effects on environment are studied to find the best approximation with real heat engines.

^{[10]}Besides, for considering the effect of pressure penalty and heat transfer improvement instantaneously, the efficiency evaluation coefficient (EEC) in the fluid flow and heat transfer based on the power required to provide the real heat transfer augmentation are used.

^{[11]}The indicator was also intended to fully reflect the real heat exchange processes inside the human body when it is in contact with ambient conditions.

^{[12]}Results herein could help to understand the real heat transfer process of regenerative cooling and guide the design of thermal protection systems.

^{[13]}The total energy yielded by the studied wind farms are first extracted over a two-year period from April 2019 to March 2021 based on a detailed practical data and then, its impact is investigated on the reduction of natural gas and gasoil consumptions in a real heat-cycle power plant due to its practical fuel intake data.

^{[14]}An inverse algorithm was applied to calculate the real heat flux by measuring temperatures from thermocouples buried in various locations of the mold.

^{[15]}In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategies are developed and tested in a semi-virtual environment laboratory setup: a real heat pump is operated from within a controlled climate chamber and coupled with loads of a virtual building, i.

^{[16]}These data allowed the computation of optical and real heating power values and consequently the generation of compact thermal models in the form of Foster and Cauer RC ladders.

^{[17]}The simulation model is experimentally validated and represents the real heat exchanger with a steady state error within the bounds of ± 0.

^{[18]}The maximum and minimum virtual heaters are then applied in a comparison with a real heater tested in a specific room at constant thermal comfort in order to quantify its ability to provide comfort while using a minimum amount of energy.

^{[19]}In this paper, the fractal porous media that resemble real heat storage materials are reconstructed by a random walk method.

^{[20]}A 3-dimensional computational domain with two symmetry planes is built and 5 heating elements are arranged at the bottom surface of the domain to simulate the real heaters used in experiments.

^{[21]}Hence, a real heat sink with the straight grooves is tested experimentally to create the reference model and validate the numerical approach.

^{[22]}One algorithm was designed to match a real heat pump controller used in the house model.

^{[23]}The real heating load of the building constituted of the total load relevant to hot consumed water and the building thermal loss rate in cold months and the available solar radiation are calculated and employed in the simulations.

^{[24]}The real heating characteristics of heat source are comprehensively predicted and analyzed, so as to accurately predict the bearing thermal dynamic performances of feed shaft bearings.

^{[25]}It is challenging to measure local air-side HTC with good accuracy, especially for complicated geometries and real heat exchangers.

^{[26]}Then, thermodynamic calculation was verified by the real heat treatment of simulated hydrogen-reduced high phosphorus iron ore with several pure reagents including self-made pure fluorapatite.

^{[27]}In this study, the development of a numerical model for the sintered-grooved wick heat pipe operation was conducted to predict thermal resistance under non-uniform conditions for approaching the real heat transfer mechanism of the heat pipe thermal module.

^{[28]}The efficiency of a real heat engines is considered.

^{[29]}This paper proposes the system of controlling the heat mode of the heat-treatment furnace by the criterion of fuel consumption rate minimization and controlling over a real heated state of a sheet slab located at the workpiece pushing from the heat-treatment furnace to the rolling mill.

^{[30]}In the second approach, a variable heat loss source term is introduced into the 1D flame solutions by mimicking a real heat loss to reduce the post-flame enthalpy.

^{[31]}Measurements over the entire range of qualities are completed in one pass to have conditions similar to a real heat exchanger.

^{[32]}Then, the two insulation solutions were compared by looking at their steady and periodic thermal transmittance, decrement factor, phase shift, internal areal heat capacity and surface mass.

^{[33]}At the alpine and polar tree line in Finnish Lapland, rising temperatures are assumed to promote densification and expansion of conifers towards fell tops and treeless boreal heathlands beyond the recent tree-line position.

^{[34]}However, measurements show that the real heat recovery efficiency during operation is commonly 10-20 % lower.

^{[35]}The proposed method was tested on an aggregated scheme of a real heat supply system.

^{[36]}This research is based on the internal research funded by Soegijapranata Catholic University, the aim of which is to analyze the field of wall materials by utilizing Software Therm with real heat transfer simulation and accurate calculation by mapping plane wall cutting.

^{[37]}The change in temperature was analyzed as a function of the pipeline length for a given real heat transfer model; the assumed temperatures were 5 and 25 ∘ C.

^{[38]}These data allowed the computation of optical and real heating power values and consequently the generation of compact thermal models in the form of Foster and Cauer RC ladders.

^{[39]}To study the effects of this initiator on hydrocarbon pyrolysis, a miniature tube reactor that can simulate a real heating procedure in an aeroengine was used to investigate the n-decane pyrolysis with and without nitropropane under experimental supercritical conditions.

^{[40]}A new method is developed to obtain local air-side HTC of real heat exchangers without the use of complex experimental tools.

^{[41]}The forced convection coefficients are calibrated in order that the LPTN can simulate the real heat transfer of the VCPA.

^{[42]}We also described the way to find out the real heat transfer coefficients during convection and nucleate boiling in liquid nitrogen by using data from measurements of voltage – time characteristics of the HTS tape cooled by liquid nitrogen at current pulses more than critical current.

^{[43]}Most real heat engines operate, if not at maximum power output, then at least closer to maximum power output than to maximum efficiency.

^{[44]}The study is based on a common dwelling in Norway, comparing results obtained with a Building Performance Simulation Software, following the Norwegian standard for energy certification and with the use of measured ventilation rate, airtightness and real heating set points.

^{[45]}

## real heat transfer

However, only the laboratory testing can accurately obtain the real heat transfer and flow resistance performance of plate heat exchanger.^{[1]}Simulation results of the current model yield consistent and more real heat transfer, pressure drop, and temperature contours using nonuniform airflow velocity profiles than those of the simplified models that assumed uniform airflow.

^{[2]}Besides, for considering the effect of pressure penalty and heat transfer improvement instantaneously, the efficiency evaluation coefficient (EEC) in the fluid flow and heat transfer based on the power required to provide the real heat transfer augmentation are used.

^{[3]}Results herein could help to understand the real heat transfer process of regenerative cooling and guide the design of thermal protection systems.

^{[4]}In this study, the development of a numerical model for the sintered-grooved wick heat pipe operation was conducted to predict thermal resistance under non-uniform conditions for approaching the real heat transfer mechanism of the heat pipe thermal module.

^{[5]}This research is based on the internal research funded by Soegijapranata Catholic University, the aim of which is to analyze the field of wall materials by utilizing Software Therm with real heat transfer simulation and accurate calculation by mapping plane wall cutting.

^{[6]}The change in temperature was analyzed as a function of the pipeline length for a given real heat transfer model; the assumed temperatures were 5 and 25 ∘ C.

^{[7]}The forced convection coefficients are calibrated in order that the LPTN can simulate the real heat transfer of the VCPA.

^{[8]}We also described the way to find out the real heat transfer coefficients during convection and nucleate boiling in liquid nitrogen by using data from measurements of voltage – time characteristics of the HTS tape cooled by liquid nitrogen at current pulses more than critical current.

^{[9]}

## real heat exchanger

The efficiency of the heat exchanger in the general case is a function of the mode parameters, the scheme of mutual movement of heat carriers and features of hydrodynamics and heat transfer of real heat exchangers.^{[1]}The simulation model is experimentally validated and represents the real heat exchanger with a steady state error within the bounds of ± 0.

^{[2]}It is challenging to measure local air-side HTC with good accuracy, especially for complicated geometries and real heat exchangers.

^{[3]}Measurements over the entire range of qualities are completed in one pass to have conditions similar to a real heat exchanger.

^{[4]}A new method is developed to obtain local air-side HTC of real heat exchangers without the use of complex experimental tools.

^{[5]}

## real heat engine

Also the optimal performance and the effects on environment are studied to find the best approximation with real heat engines.^{[1]}The efficiency of a real heat engines is considered.

^{[2]}Most real heat engines operate, if not at maximum power output, then at least closer to maximum power output than to maximum efficiency.

^{[3]}

## real heat pump

In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategies are developed and tested in a semi-virtual environment laboratory setup: a real heat pump is operated from within a controlled climate chamber and coupled with loads of a virtual building, i.^{[1]}One algorithm was designed to match a real heat pump controller used in the house model.

^{[2]}