## What is/are Pile Response?

Pile Response - Finally, the tunnel diameter has an impact on pile responses as well as the pile cap foundation influenced by the tunnel when the tunnel is in very close vicinity of the pile, and its effect is modest to negligible if located far away from the buildings.^{[1]}The increase of correlation length of Cu and e50 will lead to the increase of the mean value of pile response, which has different effects on the failure probability under different failure modes.

^{[2]}The range in monopile response demonstrates how the natural spatial variability of clay can have a strong influence on monopile performance.

^{[3]}The research seeks to determine the effect of pile loading and the pile response under axial loading.

^{[4]}In their use to estimate pile capacity, the dynamic formulae are fed simply by the measured set, while the Wave Equation solution requires more extensive measurements of the pile response to driving, in what is called the High Strain Dynamic Test (HSDT).

^{[5]}Laboratory and field test data on the lateral pile response with caps due to adjacent excavation are rather limited.

^{[6]}The main purpose of this study is investigating energy pile response in various soils.

^{[7]}The influence of the modulus of subgrade reaction, degrees of non-homogeneity, and intermediate end-boundary conditions on the pile response are investigated via a parametric study.

^{[8]}The present study will be useful guide for pile designers to obtain pile response under dynamic loads.

^{[9]}Dynamic response records of pile performance during earthquakes are limited mainly due to the challenges of recording the seismic soil–pile response.

^{[10]}The presented method can predict the pile response better than p-y curve method.

^{[11]}The pile response is of great importance to the effectiveness of a row of piles used as a landslide mitigation method.

^{[12]}Similar to the free-field responses, monopile responses can generally be amplified or reduced with the presence of a water layer, depending on the saturation degrees of soil and incident angles in P wave case and SV wave case, respectively.

^{[13]}To evaluate pile response in a group, a new concept involving static pushover analyses of pile groups considering soil deformation in the vicinity of piles was developed.

^{[14]}The prediction of the pile response near a slope has not been fully explored and remains challenging for designers.

^{[15]}The pile response to the free-field lateral soil displacements is assessed using a beam-column model incorporating p–y curves, considering the effect of soil remoulding caused by the installation of the spudcan where appropriate.

^{[16]}Design/methodology/approach Using the explicit finite element code PLAXIS 3 D, a full three-dimensional numerical analysis is carried out to investigate pile responses when performing an adjacent deep braced excavation.

^{[17]}The solution was then used to evaluate the effect of major soil and pile parameters on the kinematic pile response, pile deformation and curvature ratio, as well as soil displacement.

^{[18]}Finally, the present solution for a single pile response is validated with the existing theoretical solution and the simulation solution, and extensive parameter studies are conducted to systematically discuss the variation of the behavior of the existing single pile and pile group.

^{[19]}09 times that pile responses due to non-liquefied soil condition, respectively.

^{[20]}On the other hand, the vertical and horizontal loads are divided into 5 stages to assess the influence of load intensities on the lateral pile response.

^{[21]}To gain new insights into single pile responses to adjacent excavations in soft ground, three dimensional numerical parametric studies are carried out.

^{[22]}With some caveats, the limits defined by perfect restraint and free movement may be used in design to provide a first-order estimate of pile response.

^{[23]}Furthermore, the test results obtained from this method were compared with the results that were taken from equivalent raft method and equivalent pier with single pile response in a sandy soil.

^{[24]}uk There are a significant number of studies into the failure of pile-supported structures exposed to earthquakes, however, there remain a difficulties with the in situ examination of pile response and performance during seismic excitation.

^{[25]}It was found that the surcharge effect was detrimental to the wall and pile responses and the excavation stability.

^{[26]}Four large laminar-box shaking table experiments are conducted to document pile response due to the mechanism of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.

^{[27]}The test results on the induced axial and lateral pile responses due to tunneling are presented in this paper and the implications of the findings to engineering practice are highlighted.

^{[28]}A great variability was seen among the results of pile response for any typical layered soil profile, when different analysis approaches have been adopted.

^{[29]}On the other side, the pile shape is a well affected to the pile response where the level of decline in lateral displacement at the pile groups head in the square pile is more than circular pile about 20 % at the same load intensity.

^{[30]}The measured pile responses are then employed to calibrate a numerical model.

^{[31]}Assisted by failure mechanisms revealed by finite element analyses, a conceptual framework is proposed to analyse the monopile response under lateral loading using the beam-column approach.

^{[32]}A multitude of mechanisms will affect the evolution of the pile response over time, each with their respective time scale.

^{[33]}The proposed p–y method is capable of predicting laterally loaded pile response in cement-improved soil profiles as measured in the static load tests.

^{[34]}We show that kinematic pile response in the harmonic regime is controlled by a unique dimensionless frequency parameter involving the active pile length in a generalized nonhomogeneous soil.

^{[35]}Based on these results, a macro-element model to represent the monopile response in the time-domain integrated load simulations employed in OWT design is proposed and verified against finite element analyses (FEA).

^{[36]}Compared to current practice, the proposed approach accounts for soil and pile properties and contributes to the improvement in the construction of a nonlinear (springs) t–z curve in sandy soil which can be utilized with other computer codes to model the soil–pile response under tension forces (i.

^{[37]}In this paper, a novel t-z model was proposed to predict the pile responses under axial cyclic loadings.

^{[38]}After excavation beneath existing basement of a pile-supported building, prediction of the pile response is an interesting topic in geotechnical engineering.

^{[39]}In this study, an Impulse Response Function analysis of pile response to sine-sweep excitation by a low cost, portable shaker was used to identify defects in piles.

^{[40]}The paper points out the significant changes in the pile response given by any variations in soil saturation conditions.

^{[41]}The proposed schemes highlight a number of key aspects associated with the modelling of energy pile response to loading and may be considered in analysis and design.

^{[42]}As part of the development of methods and procedures to account for the effect of loadings on pile response, a numerical modeling using finite difference codes for 3D analysis has been performed.

^{[43]}The numerical simulations facilitate the evaluation of various parameters controlling soil-pile interaction and the structural pile response, including the effect of pile spacing, pile fixity, pile orientation, slope angle, and geometrical effects of the pile cross-section with emphasis on the X-shaped section.

^{[44]}

## Lateral Pile Response

Laboratory and field test data on the lateral pile response with caps due to adjacent excavation are rather limited.^{[1]}On the other hand, the vertical and horizontal loads are divided into 5 stages to assess the influence of load intensities on the lateral pile response.

^{[2]}The test results on the induced axial and lateral pile responses due to tunneling are presented in this paper and the implications of the findings to engineering practice are highlighted.

^{[3]}

## Single Pile Response

Finally, the present solution for a single pile response is validated with the existing theoretical solution and the simulation solution, and extensive parameter studies are conducted to systematically discuss the variation of the behavior of the existing single pile and pile group.^{[1]}To gain new insights into single pile responses to adjacent excavations in soft ground, three dimensional numerical parametric studies are carried out.

^{[2]}Furthermore, the test results obtained from this method were compared with the results that were taken from equivalent raft method and equivalent pier with single pile response in a sandy soil.

^{[3]}

## Kinematic Pile Response

The solution was then used to evaluate the effect of major soil and pile parameters on the kinematic pile response, pile deformation and curvature ratio, as well as soil displacement.^{[1]}We show that kinematic pile response in the harmonic regime is controlled by a unique dimensionless frequency parameter involving the active pile length in a generalized nonhomogeneous soil.

^{[2]}

## Energy Pile Response

The main purpose of this study is investigating energy pile response in various soils.^{[1]}The proposed schemes highlight a number of key aspects associated with the modelling of energy pile response to loading and may be considered in analysis and design.

^{[2]}