## What is/are Observational Time?

Observational Time - We therefore present the Temporal Causal Discovery Framework (TCDF), a deep learning framework that learns a causal graph structure by discovering causal relationships in observational time series data.^{[1]}The derived expansions are proved to converge to the true probability density as the observational time interval shrinks.

^{[2]}Additionally, the observational time series are not affected by new satellite data unlike the reanalyses.

^{[3]}The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility to retrieve the original sets of dynamical equations directly from observational time series when all the system variables are observed.

^{[4]}We clarify the observation was indeed “after sunset”, reject the solar-halo hypothesis, define the observational time span between 25 March 775 and 25 December 777, and note that the parallel “drawing of lunar halo display” in 806 in the ASC shown in N15b was not based on the original observation in England.

^{[5]}The model indicated an overall improvement in fits to observational time series of biomass and catch when using the K.

^{[6]}Longer observational time may be required to fully confirm these findings.

^{[7]}Conclusion Observational time motion studies are a useful tool to make informed decisions about the workforce.

^{[8]}Results: Insignificant difference of all peri-implant soft tissue health arameters was observed over time within each group and between the two groups at all observational times.

^{[9]}Modelling the mean of observations as a Gaussian Process mitigates those errors and reliably identifies outliers by exploiting information hidden in the observational time series.

^{[10]}We test these characteristics' patterns for their existence in a rotated vector space of elementary patterns derived from a principal component analysis of an observational time series.

^{[11]}METHODS In this observational time-series analysis, we used six data sources (Government records for child mortality, police-recorded child homicides, crimes against children, child protection, and children in care; and NSPCC data) to estimate the incidence of child maltreatment in England and Wales and examine long-term trends.

^{[12]}By calculating the dynamics and synchrotron radiation of the jet-driven external shock, we reveal that an abrupt jump could appear in the afterglow light curves of SGRBs and the observational time of the jump is dependent on the viewing angle.

^{[13]}Identifying causal relationships and quantifying their strength from observational time series data are key problems in disciplines dealing with complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system or the human body.

^{[14]}The typical amount of RV jitter as a function of stellar age and observational timescale has not yet been systematically quantified, although it is often larger than the instrumental precision of modern high-resolution spectrographs used for Doppler planet detection and characterization.

^{[15]}Using a piscine model (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we combined a 25‐month observational time series for a wild lotic habitat with an open flume experiment to determine the influence of locomotor activity (countercurrent swimming) on natural variation in immune function.

^{[16]}Specifically, we considered the estimation of varying coefficient longitudinal data model with non-stationary varying coefficient autoregressive error process over observational time quantum.

^{[17]}Longer observational time and objective grading systems may be required to fully confirm these findings.

^{[18]}Average observational time lasted 81 minutes and resulted in recording the demographics and physical activity of a mean of 48 people per session.

^{[19]}Both delayed study entry (left-truncation) and competing risks are common phenomena in observational time-to-event studies.

^{[20]}We forecast the cosmological constraints of the neutral hydrogen (HI) intensity mapping (IM) technique with radio telescopes by assuming 1-year of observational time.

^{[21]}Design, Setting, and Participants This observational time-trend study analyzed admissions to a VA Medical Center with a principal diagnosis of HF, pneumonia, or sepsis/respiratory failure (RF) with a secondary diagnosis of pneumonia.

^{[22]}Methods: This prospective observational time-motion study measured process and wait times for 77 patient visits from 12 ophthalmologists at an academic glaucoma clinic over a 3-month period.

^{[23]}Methods This study employed an observational time and motion design among patients treated with lanreotide or octreotide LAR across five US cancer centers.

^{[24]}However, it has been difficult to reconcile model results and observational time series.

^{[25]}Potential gaps in observations are inevitably associatedwith interruptions in longtermobservational time series due to sensor failure or cuts in observation programmes.

^{[26]}Including the impact of delayed mergers and reionization feedback provides about 12 events over the same observational time-scale.

^{[27]}The collected data indicated that CA in patients with refractory SE after induction of analgo-sedation was intact and did not change in a relevant matter during the observational time.

^{[28]}A retrospective observational time interval study of a consecutive sample 234 case records of patients who underwent intravesical BCG treatment in one English National Health Service Cancer Unit, using time to event analysis.

^{[29]}Observational time on Apixaban ranged from 21 - 518 days (mean 263 ± 122) summing up to 5786 days.

^{[30]}ArcGIS software is the best choice for obtaining meaningful information and analysis results from UTAs in an observational time span.

^{[31]}Although an independent evaluation of the skill is difficult because of the short observational time series, this new reconstruction outperforms the previous reconstructions for the continental-mean temperature that were based on δ18O alone with a linear correlation coefficient with the observed surface temperatures (1958–2010 CE) of 0.

^{[32]}An observational time closer to the initial time in the model usually have greater impact on the prediction of near-surface wind speeds.

^{[33]}Limitations of observational time and distance from ‘the field’ were overcome by making most of the pre- and post-event observational periods, situating quality improvement within the wider context of clinical practice, achieving attunement with local clinical cultures and engaging participants in collaboratively guiding observational and interview design.

^{[34]}Self-reported sleep disturbance was evaluated before and after the observational time (2-year period); sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.

^{[35]}This is because most observational time series lack a long-term baseline, and the few time series that extend back into the pre-industrial era have limited spatial coverage7,8.

^{[36]}Establishment of causal relationships has traditionally been possible only through observational time studies or standardized experiments.

^{[37]}Developing standards for abiotic and biotic characteristics would provide quantitative metrics for comparison across different data types and observational time frames.

^{[38]}This is done by collecting a continuous observational time series on shell gaping behaviour covering at least an entire year, while at the same time high resolution environmental data are being collected from the underwater node to which the gape recorder is connected.

^{[39]}METHODS In a prospective, observational time and motion study, clinical pharmacists servicing 6 unmatched specialty areas in a major quaternary public hospital were observed and their activities documented.

^{[40]}

## Longer Observational Time

Longer observational time may be required to fully confirm these findings.^{[1]}Longer observational time and objective grading systems may be required to fully confirm these findings.

^{[2]}

## observational time series

We therefore present the Temporal Causal Discovery Framework (TCDF), a deep learning framework that learns a causal graph structure by discovering causal relationships in observational time series data.^{[1]}The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility to retrieve the original sets of dynamical equations directly from observational time series when all the system variables are observed.

^{[2]}The model indicated an overall improvement in fits to observational time series of biomass and catch when using the K.

^{[3]}Modelling the mean of observations as a Gaussian Process mitigates those errors and reliably identifies outliers by exploiting information hidden in the observational time series.

^{[4]}We test these characteristics' patterns for their existence in a rotated vector space of elementary patterns derived from a principal component analysis of an observational time series.

^{[5]}Identifying causal relationships and quantifying their strength from observational time series data are key problems in disciplines dealing with complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system or the human body.

^{[6]}Using a piscine model (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we combined a 25‐month observational time series for a wild lotic habitat with an open flume experiment to determine the influence of locomotor activity (countercurrent swimming) on natural variation in immune function.

^{[7]}However, it has been difficult to reconcile model results and observational time series.

^{[8]}Potential gaps in observations are inevitably associatedwith interruptions in longtermobservational time series due to sensor failure or cuts in observation programmes.

^{[9]}Although an independent evaluation of the skill is difficult because of the short observational time series, this new reconstruction outperforms the previous reconstructions for the continental-mean temperature that were based on δ18O alone with a linear correlation coefficient with the observed surface temperatures (1958–2010 CE) of 0.

^{[10]}This is because most observational time series lack a long-term baseline, and the few time series that extend back into the pre-industrial era have limited spatial coverage7,8.

^{[11]}This is done by collecting a continuous observational time series on shell gaping behaviour covering at least an entire year, while at the same time high resolution environmental data are being collected from the underwater node to which the gape recorder is connected.

^{[12]}

## observational time interval

The derived expansions are proved to converge to the true probability density as the observational time interval shrinks.^{[1]}A retrospective observational time interval study of a consecutive sample 234 case records of patients who underwent intravesical BCG treatment in one English National Health Service Cancer Unit, using time to event analysis.

^{[2]}

## observational time span

We clarify the observation was indeed “after sunset”, reject the solar-halo hypothesis, define the observational time span between 25 March 775 and 25 December 777, and note that the parallel “drawing of lunar halo display” in 806 in the ASC shown in N15b was not based on the original observation in England.^{[1]}ArcGIS software is the best choice for obtaining meaningful information and analysis results from UTAs in an observational time span.

^{[2]}