## What is/are Observational Constraints?

Observational Constraints - In addition, we have studied observational constraints on the EYM parameter $\lambda$ via frequency analysis of QPOs and the EHT data of shadow cast by the M87 central black hole.^{[1]}To obtain the actual observational constraints, rigorous treatment of the radiative surface layers is required.

^{[2]}Our results for the Earth are discussed in light of observational constraints regarding the composition of the material delivered as the late veneer.

^{[3]}In particular, in the isotropic coordinates we find a class of exact static solutions characterized bya single parameter $c_{14}$ in closed forms, which satisfies all the current observational constraints of the theory, and reduces to the Schwarzschild vacuum black hole solution in the decoupling limit ($c_{14} = 0$).

^{[4]}The first is a parametric model based on observational constraints, and the second type are numerical models that combine advanced core accretion and gravitational instability planet population synthesis.

^{[5]}Methyl chloroform (MCF) is an often-adopted tracer to indirectly put observational constraints on large-scale variations in OH.

^{[6]}3 are consistent with current observational constraints on high-z quasars, and that such a value is comparable to the scatter estimated from hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation.

^{[7]}Lastly, we used “PhotoIonization Model Probability Density Functions” to infer physical parameters of the full sample and individual systems based on photoionization model parameter grids and observational constraints from our UV emission line searches.

^{[8]}There is, however, no observational constraints on how these exchanges influence coastal DZs at the scale of the entire northern Indian Ocean.

^{[9]}We present, for the first time, observational constraints on these parameters that: (i) apply to the full theory, (ii) are consistent with a working screening mechanism (i.

^{[10]}Observational constraints on the properties of the sites can be obtained by comparing $r$-process abundances in different environments.

^{[11]}This tension cannot be completely relieved within existing observational constraints on the hydrogen neutral fraction and mean free path.

^{[12]}The STE flux of O3, however, is predominantly northern hemispheric, but observational constraints show that this is only caused by the Antarctic ozone hole.

^{[13]}We present an analytical framework that uses inverse modeling to integrate an ensemble of global model simulations with observational constraints on the dust size distribution, extinction efficiency, and regional dust aerosol optical depth.

^{[14]}Obtaining precise observational constraints on the elemental inventory of giant exoplanets has, however, remained challenging owing to the limited simultaneous wavelength coverage of current space-based instruments.

^{[15]}mdm plane, which is bounded by both modelindependent theoretical considerations and observational constraints.

^{[16]}The decline in biospheric sink in the Amazon driven by the inversion also disagrees with MIPAS COS retrievals at 250 hPa, highlighting the lack of observational constraints in this region.

^{[17]}We present, for the first time, observational constraints on these parameters that: (i) apply to the full theory, (ii) are consistent with a working screening mechanism (i.

^{[18]}In this work, we aim to provide robust observational constraints on the internal mixing processes by spectroscopically analyzing a sample of three massive overcontact binaries at different metallicities.

^{[19]}Observational constraints suggest smaller cloud feedbacks than previously reported and imply a more moderate climate sensitivity.

^{[20]}6 × 1013 G is obtained in our fitting, indicating that a relatively low thermalization efficiency η ≲ 10−3 is needed to satisfy observational constraints on the kilonova.

^{[21]}We found that for Mrk 421, Mrk 501 and 3C 273, the derived time scales are consistent with the observational constraints, while for 1ES 1959+650 we are mostly limited by uncertainty in the Doppler beaming factor.

^{[22]}This often requires a large sampling of the parameter space to determine which combinations can satisfy certain observational constraints.

^{[23]}We also analyse one portal interaction – the neutron portal – in greater detail, in order to satisfy the observational constraints on dark radiation.

^{[24]}Using a data set of approximately 2 million phenomenological equations of state consistent with observational constraints, we construct new equation-of-state-insensitive universal relations that exist between the multipolar tidal deformability parameters of neutron stars, Λl, for several high-order multipoles (l=5,6,7,8), and we consider finite-size effects of these high-order multipoles in waveform modeling.

^{[25]}This approach allows to adopt a set of observational constraints, such as magnitude limits and uncertainties in magnitudes and photometric redshifts (photo-zs), to produce realistic simulations of photometric surveys.

^{[26]}In the minimal setup, we show that it is difficult to explain the observed dark matter abundance without conflicting observational constraints on the coldness and the self-interaction of dark matter.

^{[27]}As a result, there is a need for stronger observational constraints on these properties.

^{[28]}Obtaining observational constraints on the role of turbulent effects for the solar dynamo is a difficult, yet crucial, task.

^{[29]}In this scenario, we obtain the values for various inflationary parameters and make useful checks on the observational constraints on the parameters from Planck data by imposing a set of bounds on the parameter $$\lambda $$ of the potential.

^{[30]}These minimal SUGRA models evade the [Formula: see text] problem due to a broken shift symmetry and can easily accommodate the observational constraints.

^{[31]}Overlaying our theoretical results on the observational constraints from previous literature, we establish fair agreement.

^{[32]}0 % by weight, along with at least two other light elements, is compatible with observational constraints, according to molecular dynamics simulations, and could make the core Earth’s largest carbon reservoir.

^{[33]}Geologic evidence of island uplift and subsidence can provide important observational constraints on the rheology, thermal evolution, and dynamics of the lithosphere and mantle – all of which have implications for understanding Earth’s heat budget, the styles of deformation that develop at plate boundaries, and the surface expression of mantle convection.

^{[34]}9×10 −3M yr−1 kpc−2, VFFwarm = 60−80 per cent as well as thermal, kinetic, magnetic, and cosmic ray energy densities of the model including all feedback mechanisms agree well with observational constraints.

^{[35]}We simulated volcanic degassing, atmospheric escape, and crustal hydration on Mars, incorporating observational constraints from spacecraft, rovers, and meteorites.

^{[36]}Our results are sensitive to the amount of circumgalactic gas; current observational constraints indicate that the resulting corrections are likely moderate.

^{[37]}The current observational constraints still leave a substantial mass window $\sim [10^{-16},10^{-14}] \cup [10^{-13},10^{-12}] M_\odot$ for primordial black holes (PBHs) representing all of dark matter (DM) in our Universe.

^{[38]}We devise a synthetic data experiment to compare the impact of transport and dispersion error component of the model‐data mismatch covariance choices on flux retrievals and study the robustness of the method with respect to fewer observational constraints.

^{[39]}(iii) Other lines of evidence to constrain future projections, including observational constraints, can be introduced, which helps to refine projected future ranges beyond the multi-ESM ensemble's estimates.

^{[40]}We select a well observed case to derive observational constraints for eruption models.

^{[41]}This study provides observational constraints for related researches such as modelling of the environmental impact of WSOC in the HTP.

^{[42]}The phenomenon of self-sustaining vortices is consistent with observational constraints of exoplanets and sets a favorable environment for planetary system formation.

^{[43]}We arrive at a set of virtual vent conditions that incorporate or satisfy all available observational constraints and several novel ones, including the gas canopy height and aspect ratio and the depositional ring extent and orientation.

^{[44]}Young Supernova remnants (SNRs) with smaller angular sizes are likely missing from existing radio SNR catalogues, caused by observational constraints and selection effects.

^{[45]}Both modeling and observational constraints provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of the sodium production rate of ∼1026 s−1.

^{[46]}The model meteorology, emissions, transport and chemistry are evaluated in the recent past and found to be largely consistent with GEOS-Chem driven by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2) product and with observational constraints.

^{[47]}Over the last decade, seismic techniques have provided unique observational constraints on Earth surface processes.

^{[48]}In this presentation, I will detail our new Jupiter structure models reconciling Juno and Galileo observational constraints.

^{[49]}sphinx is able to reproduce many observational constraints such as the UV/Lyα luminosity functions and stellar mass functions at z & 6 for the dynamical range probed by our simulation (M1500 & −18, LLyα.

^{[50]}

## Provide Observational Constraints

This study provides observational constraints for related researches such as modelling of the environmental impact of WSOC in the HTP.^{[1]}Carbonate, graphite, and CO2 inclusions also provide observational constraints for geochemical cycling of carbon and volatiles during subduction.

^{[2]}Though the exact nature of such formation scenarios is difficult to pin down, we provide observational constraints on the different possible mechanism.

^{[3]}The study provides observational constraints on aerosol physical and optical properties that can serve as inputs for model simulation of aerosol physiochemical processes and quantification of impacts on air quality, climate and sensitive ecosystems in this data-sparse region.

^{[4]}Follow-up observations of double quasars discovered by this targeted approach will be able to provide observational constraints on kpc-scale dual SMBHs at z > 2.

^{[5]}We provide observational constraints in remote regions on the ambient ratios of FeO x relative to BC from fossil fuel burning.

^{[6]}

## New Observational Constraints

The new observational constraints, especially the splitting delay, provide new information on Alpine geodynamics.^{[1]}We discuss earlier concepts of Alpine geodynamics in the light of these new observational constraints.

^{[2]}In particular, it demonstrates its efficiency for locating a source of seismic noise using infrasound observations, predicting the source amplitude using microseismic observations, correcting seismic propagation anomalies due to heterogeneities in the propagation medium using accurate infrasound backazimuths, and inferring new observational constraints in the middle atmosphere using an enhanced description of the microbarom source.

^{[3]}In this talk, we shall review some recent results derived from X-ray and radio imaging spectroscopy of solar flares bringing some new observational constraints on the localization of HXR/radio sources with respect to current sheets, termination shocks in the corona derived from EUV observations.

^{[4]}We re-examine the XUV luminosity evolution of TRAPPIST-1 utilizing new observational constraints (XUV and bolometric luminosity) from multi-epoch X-ray/UV photometry.

^{[5]}

## Put Observational Constraints

Methyl chloroform (MCF) is an often-adopted tracer to indirectly put observational constraints on large-scale variations in OH.^{[1]}In this method, using the Hubble diagrams from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa) in Pantheon catalog, quasars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB), we put observational constraints on the cosmographic parameters in holographic dark energy (HDE) and concordance $$\varLambda $$ Λ CDM models by minimizing the error function $$\chi ^2$$ χ 2 based on the statistical Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm.

^{[2]}Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array we put observational constraints on the physical location of COMs in a high-mass protostellar envelope associated with the G328.

^{[3]}

## Important Observational Constraints

Geologic evidence of island uplift and subsidence can provide important observational constraints on the rheology, thermal evolution, and dynamics of the lithosphere and mantle – all of which have implications for understanding Earth’s heat budget, the styles of deformation that develop at plate boundaries, and the surface expression of mantle convection.^{[1]}The process of sudden changes of the magnetic field topology in the night side of the magnetosphere, a global magnetic bubble shielding our planet from the flow of solar wind particles, is simulated for the first time using several important observational constraints.

^{[2]}Empirical rules of solar-cycle evolution form important observational constraints for the solar-dynamo theory.

^{[3]}

## Derive Observational Constraints

We select a well observed case to derive observational constraints for eruption models.^{[1]}We derive observational constraints on the model parameters by using the data from cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), the local value of Hubble constant from Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and large scale structure (LSS) information from the abundance of galaxy clusters, in four different combinations.

^{[2]}

## Satisfy Observational Constraints

6 × 1013 G is obtained in our fitting, indicating that a relatively low thermalization efficiency η ≲ 10−3 is needed to satisfy observational constraints on the kilonova.^{[1]}Any theoretical model of entry must satisfy observational constraints, such as the overall entry rate and the dawn‐dusk asymmetry observed in the cold, dense plasma sheet.

^{[2]}

## Additional Observational Constraints

Our findings imply a need for additional observational constraints on NOy partitioning and lifetime, especially in the remote free troposphere, as well as the fate of carbon-containing reaction intermediates to test models, thereby reducing uncertainties in projections of OH and, hence, lifetimes of pollutants and greenhouse gases.^{[1]}We measure abundances of six iron-peak elements (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni) in the local thin and thick disks as well as the Bulge to provide additional observational constraints for Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

^{[2]}

## Direct Observational Constraints

The dynamics of the broad line region (BLR) in active galaxies is an open question; direct observational constraints suggest a predominantly Keplerian motion, with possible traces of inflow or outflow.^{[1]}The relative roles of molecular gas expulsion, depletion, and stabilization are uncertain as direct observational constraints of the gas reservoirs in quenched or quenching galaxies at high redshift are scant.

^{[2]}

## Robust Observational Constraints

In this work, we aim to provide robust observational constraints on the internal mixing processes by spectroscopically analyzing a sample of three massive overcontact binaries at different metallicities.^{[1]}These figures provide robust observational constraints for the stellar progenitors that produce the PNLF cutoff in a star-forming galaxy such as M31, where a large range of initial masses is in principle available.

^{[2]}

## Stronger Observational Constraints

As a result, there is a need for stronger observational constraints on these properties.^{[1]}As a result, there is a need for stronger observational constraints on these properties.

^{[2]}

## Available Observational Constraints

We arrive at a set of virtual vent conditions that incorporate or satisfy all available observational constraints and several novel ones, including the gas canopy height and aspect ratio and the depositional ring extent and orientation.^{[1]}4 K to reproduce the available observational constraints.

^{[2]}

## Different Observational Constraints

We therefore assume that they are the only source of r-process elements and combine different observational constraints to describe the chemical features of heavy elements in the Milky Way.^{[1]}In such a set-up, we explore the evolution of EM, scalar, and tensor perturbations considering different observational constraints.

^{[2]}

## observational constraints suggest

Observational constraints suggest smaller cloud feedbacks than previously reported and imply a more moderate climate sensitivity.^{[1]}The dynamics of the broad line region (BLR) in active galaxies is an open question; direct observational constraints suggest a predominantly Keplerian motion, with possible traces of inflow or outflow.

^{[2]}

## observational constraints indicate

Our results are sensitive to the amount of circumgalactic gas; current observational constraints indicate that the resulting corrections are likely moderate.^{[1]}Recent observational constraints indicate that primordial black holes (PBHs) with the mass scale ∼ 10-12M⊙ can explain most of dark matter in the Universe.

^{[2]}

## observational constraints imposed

The range of these estimates over the model ensemble is a measure of the uncertainty in the RCB arising from the range in climate sensitivity over this ensemble, and it is suggested that observational constraints imposed on the transient climate response in the model ensemble can reduce uncertainty in RCB estimates.^{[1]}The range of these estimates over the model ensemble is a measure of the uncertainty in the RCB arising from the range in climate sensitivity over this ensemble, and it is suggested that observational constraints imposed on the transient climate response in the model ensemble can reduce uncertainty in RCB estimates.

^{[2]}