## What is/are Multi Phase Model?

Multi Phase Model - Then, we extended it to the integration of modeling the detailed channel two-phase flow by VOF (volume of fluid) method into the 3D multi-phase model of PEMEC.^{[1]}avaflow, which implements a physically-based model (Pudasaini and Mergili, 2019) for the flow propagation and an empirical multi-phase model for the entrainment processes.

^{[2]}A modeling framework is derived to predict the significant transport induced by a turbine installed on the erodible fluvial sandy bed surface, such as the Eulerian multi-phase model for the sediment and the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) for the turbine, using the open source platform OpenFOAM.

^{[3]}A micromechanics model based on multi-phase modeling was established by using ABAQUS software.

^{[4]}By using the advanced multi-phase modelling option of the code, the particle-size solid debris are treated with an independent momentum field.

^{[5]}In this work, we present a multi-phase model ma-CODE to uncover communities based on the inherent association without having any prior information about the presence of the number of communities.

^{[6]}Eruption progression is consistent with existing multi-phase models developed on historical data, and suggests that tephra volume increases in later phases of an eruption.

^{[7]}In this study, a three-dimensional multi-phase model is developed to numerically investigate the effect of gas diffusion layer spatial variation properties on water management and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

^{[8]}A multi-phase model is introduced to model the material structure of the nanocrystalline substrate incorporating porosity effects.

^{[9]}We used our observations to validate a polymer-based multi-phase model that characterises the gel-water-air interactions.

^{[10]}The Manninen’s multi-phase model and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model were employed for numerical calculations of hydrodynamics; the non-continuous operating mode of a reactor was adopted.

^{[11]}Multi-phase model validation study using full phase treatment and droplet assumption for water injection is performed prior to water jet optimization analysis of high thrust LOX-kerosene test facility.

^{[12]}Single-phase and multi-phase models are applied for a submerged and splashing inlet, respectively.

^{[13]}Here, a Eulerian–Eulerian multi-phase model for sediment transport, with the capability to capture the free surface, is used.

^{[14]}

Guillaume Meyrat, Brian McArdell, Ksenyia Ivanova, Perry Bartelt

WSL Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland

**Keywords**: Debris flows, multi-phase models, dilatancy, shear stress, density distribution

To implement an accurate numerical tool to simulate debris flow hazard is a longstanding goal of natural hazard research and engineering.
^{[15]}
The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multi-phase model was applied in the treatment of the water-air interaction.
^{[16]}
The hydrodynamics for the reactor employed, was evaluated with the Navier-Stokes equations (κ-ɛ) RNG turbulence model and the VOF multi-phase model.
^{[17]}
In order to investigate the role of MPL with real spatially variable properties on PEMFCs performance and water management, a three-dimensional multi-phase model, which couples the catalyst layer agglomerate sub-model, is developed.
^{[18]}
In the present flow computations, two different multi-phase models, such as the volume of fluid (VOF) and the Eulerian multi-phase (EMP), are adopted to investigate their performances in resolving two-phase flow patterns and estimating skin-friction drag reductions.
^{[19]}
A new efficient airlift pump is hydrodynamically designed by incorporating the Volume of Fluid (VOF) multi-phase model along with the K-e turbulence model utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.
^{[20]}
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd An improved agglomerate sub-model of catalyst layer (CL) involving actual agglomerate size and oxygen local transport characteristics is developed and incorporated into a three-dimensional (3D) multi-phase model of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell.
^{[21]}
,A multi-phase model was used to study the limitations of the reactions and their impact on the performance of the cell.
^{[22]}
The local binary fitting model was advanced as a multi-phase model in order to identify several regions in an image.
^{[23]}
Multi-phase model and single-phase model are both employed to predict the characteristics of trans-critical fluids and the comparison shows that two models provide comparable accuracy.
^{[24]}
Utilizing the Volume of Fluid (VOF) multi-phase model along with the K-ε turbulence model, a numerical study using ANSYS Fluent 19.
^{[25]}
Shan-Chen Lattice Boltzmann multi-phase model is used in present study.
^{[26]}
93 cm2), which is a repeated unit in commercial stacks and includes realistic anode and cathode flow fields, is investigated in detail utilizing a comprehensive 3D multi-phase model.
^{[27]}
Conjugate heat transfer in laminar slot jets impinging on multiple protruding hot sources using various nanofluids has been investigated numerically by employing (i) a mass-based modeling and an (ii) Eulerian-based multi-phase modeling (MPM).
^{[28]}
Based on the original pseudopotential model and progresses in single-component multi-phase model, a multi-component LB model was proposed to study the two-phase gas-liquid flow with realistic fluid properties.
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A multi-phase model lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the wavy falling liquid film flow, and the absorption process takes place in this flow field region.
^{[30]}
In the last decade, advances in the available computing power have enabled to solve the underlying equations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using multi-phase models for the interaction between the different phases.
^{[31]}
The reconstructed meso-structure, as well as the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were introduced into a multi-phase model to numerically characterize the three-dimensional diffusion of chloride ions in real concrete.
^{[32]}
Lastly, we find that a multi-phase model incorporating differential expansion of a fluid outer layer and radial and circumferential constraints approximates the in vivo shape evolution observed during initiation of cerebellar folding.
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It can achieve satisfactory prediction accuracy and effectively tackle nonlinear and multi-phase modeling problems in chemical and biological processes.
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