## What is/are Multi Level Model?

Multi Level Model - Multi-level models were used to determine i) whether precinct-level trading hours moderated the relationship between outlet density and serious assaults; and ii) the impact of outlets closing before 12am, 3am, and 5am on serious assaults.^{[1]}Ward- and patient-level factors were evaluated with multi-level models.

^{[2]}Here we generalize the main results of [10] to the multi-level model considered in [12] and [13].

^{[3]}In recent years, multi-level modeling has become more and more popular.

^{[4]}Results of multi-level modeling showed no support for gain-oriented strategies, namely elective selection (prioritizing one instead of multiple goals) and optimization (investing every effort to reach one's goal).

^{[5]}First, we developed a small extension of a multi-level modeling method proposed in 2007 by Croon and van Veldhoven and validated its properties using a comprehensive simulation study.

^{[6]}Using multi-level modeling, daily hassles and uplifts were both significantly associated with greater unhealthy snacking.

^{[7]}In the multi-level modeling, the mediation effect of employee commitment was checked by using Monte Carlo simulation.

^{[8]}An image-based multi-level modeling method is proposed to estimate the effective bulk thermal conductivity of lightweight aggregate (LWA) impregnated with phase change material (PCM).

^{[9]}Results were analyzed using multi-level models to evaluate the 7-day average (i.

^{[10]}Multi-level modeling was used to determine the individual-difference factors that modulated the relation between word-level characteristics (e.

^{[11]}Suboptimal Decision Making was the only significant moderator identified via multi-level modeling; however, comparison of subgroup effect sizes revealed potential moderating effects of ADHD presentation and trial-by-trial feedback on behavioral tasks.

^{[12]}Multi-layer modeling is originated from multi-level modeling and offers a highly flexible abstraction management approach in a level-blind fashion through its advanced deep instantiation and evolutionary snapshot management.

^{[13]}We used multi-level models to assess the effects of 287(g) programs on ACSC hospitalizations during FY2011-2015.

^{[14]}Multi-level models indicated that FA changed significantly during treatment, with gains maintained over 6-months.

^{[15]}Tendon stress was calculated as the ratio of tendon force during contraction to CSA using the resting and instantaneous measures of CSA, and statistically evaluated with multi-level modeling (MLM) and Johnson–Neyman regions of significance tests to determine the specific force levels above which the differences between calculation methods and groups became statistically significant.

^{[16]}At a methodological level, our research revealed that in any multi-level modelling exercise, POM can be seen as an essential approach to accompany the ACE approach, particularly for a macroeconomic (here macro = regional) looping of a model designed at a microscale.

^{[17]}The aim of this contribution is to present a multi-level model for assessing the vulnerability of key elements of rail transport infrastructure.

^{[18]}Multi-level models assessed whether social factors-housing status, insurance type, and co-methamphetamine use-predicted outcomes while accounting for group-level effects of treating hospital and controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and gender.

^{[19]}MCID changes of the PRO were introduced and compared with β values of CDSM obtained from the multi-level models to further evaluate the clinical significance.

^{[20]}To integrate the data from different platforms, various integrative analyses have been adopted, ranging from the direct union or intersection operation on sets derived from different single-platform analysis to complex hierarchical multi-level models.

^{[21]}Multi-level modeling analyses were used.

^{[22]}To clarify the relationship between the KCL and geriatric depression or critical factors, a random intercept model of multi-level models was estimated using individual and provincial variables depending on five cohorts.

^{[23]}We used the principal component analysis to build the social economic and strategy effect on each area respectively and used multi-level model (MLM) to explore the personality, social economic and strategy effects in health-related quality of life among PLWHIV.

^{[24]}Finally we used multi-level model (MLM) to explore the personality, social economic and strategy effects in health-related quality of life among PLWHIV.

^{[25]}Next, multi-level modeling was conducted to test concurrent relations of Wave 1 school contextual factors to all four parent involvement constructs (controlling for family-level factors), as well as testing the prospective relations of parent involvement at Wave 1 to children's academic achievement at Wave 2.

^{[26]}The results of multi-level modeling and mediational analyses demonstrated that higher optimism, one form of trait positive anticipation, was related to higher state positive anticipation, which was in turn related to higher positive emotions during the current episode, which persisted to the next episode.

^{[27]}By reducing the complexity of large models through multi-level models while keeping the essence (biological meaning) of the model, model reduction can help answer many important questions about these systems.

^{[28]}We employed multi-level modeling to examine group differences overall, and in three factor-analytically derived domains labeled Acting Out, Lack of Future Planning, and Hassles.

^{[29]}Multi-level models showed a significant group by time interaction effect (B = -0.

^{[30]}The results of multi-level modelling revealed that students’ test scores in the computerized version of the VERA test were significantly lower than in the paper-pencil version.

^{[31]}Analyses were performed on four waves of data with one-year intervals using multi-level modeling.

^{[32]}Using spatial econometric and multi-level models, we assess if and to what extent perceived urban park quality affects the value of nearby houses and the interaction effect between urban park quality and proximity.

^{[33]}Our results show that the use of multi-level models can provide new insights into the factors that may be related to disclosed prevalence of violence against women.

^{[34]}Through re-analysis of the CRASH-2 trial (2010), this study clarifies when and how to use multi-level models for multicentre studies with binary outcomes.

^{[35]}Multi-level modeling was used to examine within-person effects and temporal associations with adjustment for day of the week.

^{[36]}Multi-level modeling analyses showed that participants expressed differential rates of learning to avoid risks on the gambling task, depending on their status as potential problem/non-problem gamblers and their level of self-compassion.

^{[37]}Trial registration numberEudraCT Number: 2020-001684-89 ISRCTN Number: 40580903 Strengths and limitations of this trialO_LICATALYST will provide a rapid readout on the safety and proof-of-concept of candidate novel treatments C_LIO_LICATALYST will enable phase III trial resources to be focussed and allocated for agents with a high likelihood of success C_LIO_LICATALYST uses Bayesian multi-level models to allow for nesting of repeated measures data, with factors for each individual patient and treatment arm, and allowing for non-linear responses C_LIO_LICATALYST is not designed to provide a definitive signal on clinical outcomes C_LI.

^{[38]}Based on the multi-level model, the corneal elastic modulus is found to have a linear positive relation with IOP (P<0.

^{[39]}By developing a global willingness–local ability framework, we test a multi-level model of corporate EO by conceptualizing its effects on business unit radical innovation and business unit financial performance, moderated by business unit R&D resourcing and business unit absorptive capacity.

^{[40]}It provides the seamless integrations of multi-level models and interconnections between virtual and real testing, which reduces the total development time of the electrified vehicles.

^{[41]}Data analysis utilised random-slope multi-level models.

^{[42]}Multi-level modelling showed girls who received BTIDA reported less appearance commentary engagement and thin ideal internalisation at T2 and T3, than the control, supporting the partial efficacy of BTIDA for girls.

^{[43]}Multi-level models indicated that A/YAs with higher IQs experienced severer top problems exacerbations at the transition to the COVID-19 pandemic.

^{[44]}Multi-level modeling analyses showed a within-person increase in mental health symptoms from before to after the outbreak after controlling for changes associated with maturation.

^{[45]}Analyses were conducted relying on the multi-level modeling framework (MLM), accounting for between- and within-culture variability, and examining the extent to which TV exposure contributions were universal vs.

^{[46]}For each outcome, we estimated multi-level models with separate practice-level random intercepts for Black and White patients to quantify practice-level Black-White disparities in adjusted rates of these measures and assess the associations of these rates with the proportion of Black patients in the practice.

^{[47]}Multi-level modelling revealed a large overall effect, Hedges' g = 1.

^{[48]}Associations between changes in weight and changes in activity and diet compositions will be examined using repeated measures multi-level models.

^{[49]}Using multi-level modelling we compared team performance and referee decisions pre-COVID (crowd present) and during-COVID (crowd absent) across 4844 games from 15 leagues in 11 countries.

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