## What is/are Low Order?

Low Order - Therefore, lake sediments could not be used to analyze the historical sedimentary model of low order PCBs.^{[1]}We first formalize the CCT minimization problem into a 0-1 programming problem, then relax and solve the problem in 2 steps to obtain the coflow order and flow grouping decisions on each circuit.

^{[2]}Although quasi-resonant interactions are observed at low orders, five-wave resonant interactions are found to be the lowest-resonant order subsisting in the capillary range, and are thus probably the mechanism generating the observed 1D capillary-wave turbulence.

^{[3]}The mean dimension of a black box function of $d$ variables is a convenient way to summarize the extent to which it is dominated by high or low order interactions.

^{[4]}The simulated geometry exhibits a low order of dispersion 4.

^{[5]}By designing parameters such as shear frequency and low order harmonic attenuation coefficient, the dynamic and static ability of position calculation is improved.

^{[6]}However, different sources of non-linearities, including low order harmonics mapped to secondary subspaces, cross-coupling saturation and iron losses result in a notable deviation from the experimentally measured waveforms.

^{[7]}Efficacy of the acceleration iterations with varying coarse mesh size and convergence criteria of the low order problem, and their overall performance has been investigated for the 2-group LRA-BWR problem and the 7-group C5G7 problem.

^{[8]}The WENO type extrapolation maintains high order accuracy if the solution is smooth near the boundary and it becomes a low order extrapolation automatically if a shock is close to the boundary.

^{[9]}manoeuvring, gust), low order methods are known to introduce significant dissipation and dispersion errors.

^{[10]}Besides, they are sharp at least for low order methods, if the testing moments and deflection in their right parts are found by accurate recovery procedures.

^{[11]}After confirming that the patient was well awake and could follow orders, she was sent to the ward.

^{[12]}The result shows that flow order, the co-current flow or the counter-current flow, has little influence on the engine array performance.

^{[13]}Compared to previous models, these low order systems display longer turbulence lifetimes and lower transition thresholds.

^{[14]}With the explicit time integration and low order finite elements under the total Lagrangian framework, the proposed model is much computationally efficient for modeling the dynamic mechanical behavior of a cell colony.

^{[15]}The proposed system consists of a high-power thyristor-based line commutated converter to contribute a majority of the dc de-icing current and a low power PWM CSC to provide a part of the dc de-icing current and to compensate the low order harmonic ac current from the TCR.

^{[16]}The photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanoflowers follow order of sea urchin > rose > southern cone marigold flower.

^{[17]}The radiant thermal source is first identified via a low order reduced model based on AROMM (Amalgam Reduced Order Modal Model) method.

^{[18]}In this work, comparative experimental measurements of low order OAM, Ince-, and Hermite-Gaussian modes in turbulence are presented.

^{[19]}In the urban network, resources can flow orderly and realize optimal allocation, but the crisis also can spread and even exert an amplification effect.

^{[20]}The method shows good agreement with existing experimental results and superior behaviour when compared to a low order panel method.

^{[21]}However, adding the dead-time increases the low order harmonics of the output voltage/current waveform of the inverter.

^{[22]}The goal of this work was to study the influence of low order mode responses on extreme response statistics.

^{[23]}The solver is free of any approximation (no linearisation of the scattering operator, no close-to-equilibrium approximation, full non-analytic dispersions, full account of Pauli factors, and no limit to low order scattering) \cite{Michael}.

^{[24]}A low order thermal network model for the perimeter zone, validated with experimental measurements, is utilized to study various control strategies in response to changes in the electrical grid price signal, including short term (nearly reactive) changes of the order of 10–15 min notice.

^{[25]}These are removed via a low order eigenimage filter in which the decomposed GPR data is reconstructing without the eigenimages containing them.

^{[26]}Low order models based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory exhibit modeling issues in the performance prediction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) compared to Computational Fluid Dynamics, despite the widespread engineering practice of such methods.

^{[27]}The angular and spatial derivative terms of governing equations in the cylindrical coordinate system are approximated by high order Chebyshev polynomials instead of the low order finite difference schemes.

^{[28]}In addition, at low orders, the error range of the new optimized SGFDM could be strictly controlled within 1‱, whereas, at high orders, while ensuring accuracy, the spectrum coverage significantly improved.

^{[29]}The traditional theories characterized by the low orders of approximation of transverse shears do not enable one to detect these local effects, which explains their quite rough accuracy.

^{[30]}The application of classical methods description of the control system assumes that the control objects are described by linear dynamic links of low order.

^{[31]}Low order streams drain a big proportion of river catchments.

^{[32]}Transformation of forecast variance and prediction intervals in case of simple (moving averages MA(q) and autoregressions AR(p) of low order) models is also considered but is a part of further work.

^{[33]}New simple recurrence relations of low order satisfied by dual Bernstein polynomials are given.

^{[34]}The speed of this process can be accelerated by the decrease of the hollow order, topological charge, beam width, and transverse coherence width of the beam.

^{[35]}Specifically, we studied a dual version of the Theorem of Routh-Hurwitz and present explicit criteria for polynomials of low order and derivatives.

^{[36]}Comparison of the results predicted by the procedure described in this paper with limited numerical applications, corroborates that it is successful in predicting the response of the components when these are tuned to low order modes of the carrying structure.

^{[37]}AKA-II shows very low order of reaction and high activation energy leading to considerably long shelf life but harsh stabilizer depletion when the end of shelf life is nearing.

^{[38]}We work perturbatively — but to arbitrary orders — in the ratio of the heavy operator’s conformal dimension to the dual CFT2’s central charge, thus going beyond the low order results of [1] and [2].

^{[39]}Using the available data, we analyzed the distributions of coil geometry, collared coil size, main field, and low order field errors in warm conditions.

^{[40]}A novel conductivity surface decomposition approach, based on low order bivariate polynomials and RBF networks is introduced for the efficient solution of the EIT inverse problem.

^{[41]}Our new Curie depth model differs by as much as ±20 km relative to previous models, with the largest differences arising from the low order thermal model and variable susceptibility.

^{[42]}Low order continuous equations are pursued since they avoid the need to involve extra boundary conditions.

^{[43]}In the proposed approach, matrix model multi-point resolvents take a simplified form and some structures of the genus expansion, hardly visible at low order, may be identified and rigorously proved.

^{[44]}Secondly, the paper gives a theory proof to explain why only the low orders of the coefficients are influenced by polar gaps.

^{[45]}We allow order splitting between consecutive lots.

^{[46]}Pollen assemblages and vegetation correlate better in terms of richness, that is, low order diversity indices.

^{[47]}The results show that the NARX with low order models fit the real data very well if compared to the ARX models.

^{[48]}The aim of this paper is to develop efficient recursive strategies to tackle a class of high dimensional integrals having a special product structure with low order couplings, motivated by models in lattice gauge theory from quantum field theory.

^{[49]}A low order CP mode (TM11 Mode) and a high order CP mode (TM12 Mode) are both excited in this simple structure for the dual band operation.

^{[50]}

## pulse width modulation

However, there are some unexpected influences caused by the low order harmonic sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM), such as the imbalanced submodule power in cascaded half-bridge inverter (CHB) and limited output power capability in H-bridge neutral-point-clamped (HNPC) converter.^{[1]}It is well known that the pulse width modulation selective harmonic elimination control (SHEPWM) applied to a seven-level inverter can allow the suppression of only two low order harmonics.

^{[2]}Selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHEPWM) is a fundamental frequency switching angles calculation technique that eliminates the undesired low order harmonics while maintaining the desired fundamental component.

^{[3]}

## Use Low Order

A benefit of this method is that is uses low order schemes iteratively to produce a high order approximation.^{[1]}This element uses low order interpolation functions for the seven kinematic variables.

^{[2]}Most of them use low order algebraic metrics to find the common part of the RGB and depth signals.

^{[3]}

## Relatively Low Order

The results of even relatively low orders of approximation are highly accurate and can be calculated very efficiently.^{[1]}Accurate results have been obtained in using a relatively low order from the perturbation series.

^{[2]}Very high order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes can obtain more accurate results than those relatively low order WENO schemes for many problems.

^{[3]}

## Desired Low Order

A mixed-method for the order abatement of large-scale linear dynamic systems (LSLDSs) into desired low order systems is proposed.^{[1]}The fundamental voltage is obtained by solving the equations in such a way that the desired low order harmonics are eliminated.

^{[2]}

## low order harmonic

By designing parameters such as shear frequency and low order harmonic attenuation coefficient, the dynamic and static ability of position calculation is improved.^{[1]}However, different sources of non-linearities, including low order harmonics mapped to secondary subspaces, cross-coupling saturation and iron losses result in a notable deviation from the experimentally measured waveforms.

^{[2]}The proposed system consists of a high-power thyristor-based line commutated converter to contribute a majority of the dc de-icing current and a low power PWM CSC to provide a part of the dc de-icing current and to compensate the low order harmonic ac current from the TCR.

^{[3]}However, the conventional modulation schemes result in higher distortions and inject low order harmonics in the AC side grid current.

^{[4]}However, adding the dead-time increases the low order harmonics of the output voltage/current waveform of the inverter.

^{[5]}However, there are some unexpected influences caused by the low order harmonic sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM), such as the imbalanced submodule power in cascaded half-bridge inverter (CHB) and limited output power capability in H-bridge neutral-point-clamped (HNPC) converter.

^{[6]}The proposed idea was validated through simulation and the results provide better efficiency, fewer low order harmonics and lower switching losses.

^{[7]}It is well known that the pulse width modulation selective harmonic elimination control (SHEPWM) applied to a seven-level inverter can allow the suppression of only two low order harmonics.

^{[8]}The traditional proportional feedforward control strategy can suppress the low order harmonics in the strong power grid, but in the weak power grid environment, the grid impedance will have an adverse impact on the stability of the system, resulting in the proportional feedforward control can not suppress the low order harmonics well.

^{[9]}A large stator current containing low order harmonics is produced during the application of the classic ST-DTC technique, this leads to higher losses affecting the efficiency of the machine.

^{[10]}Selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHEPWM) is a fundamental frequency switching angles calculation technique that eliminates the undesired low order harmonics while maintaining the desired fundamental component.

^{[11]}The winging adopts appropriate short-pitch winding to eliminate low order harmonics uniquely for two-phase windings.

^{[12]}While operating at the fundamental switching frequency, the algorithm returns those solutions, expressed in terms of switching angles to be applied to power devices, which allow complete elimination of a subset of low order harmonics and the mitigation of others.

^{[13]}The optimum values of switching angles from MPA are applied to control a three-phase 11-level MLI using cascaded H-bridge (CHB) topology to control the fundamental component and cancel the low order harmonics for all values of modulation index from 0 to 1.

^{[14]}The controller is able to ensure a good tracking of sinusoidal references and to suppress low order harmonics.

^{[15]}In addition, a strong dependence between lifetime consumption and the harmonic phase angle is observed for low order harmonics, such as 3rd and 5th harmonics.

^{[16]}Explanation on the cancellation of low order harmonics in input line current by the utilization of phase shifting transformer is presented.

^{[17]}Results show that the proposed method does effectively eliminate specific low order harmonics and the output voltage is resulted in low total harmonic distortion with balanced flying capacitors.

^{[18]}The fundamental voltage is obtained by solving the equations in such a way that the desired low order harmonics are eliminated.

^{[19]}

## low order mode

The goal of this work was to study the influence of low order mode responses on extreme response statistics.^{[1]}Comparison of the results predicted by the procedure described in this paper with limited numerical applications, corroborates that it is successful in predicting the response of the components when these are tuned to low order modes of the carrying structure.

^{[2]}The proposed sensor presents a high sensitivity due to low order modes that propagate in the middle single-mode fiber (SMF) cladding.

^{[3]}A key issue is that the natural modes of vibration of the cylinder wall involve circumferential travelling waves and, for certain rotational speeds, the frequency of a backward wave for a low order mode can become equal to that of a forward wave for a high order mode.

^{[4]}In the Nd3+:YAG pulsed Q-switched laser system, the selective output of several low order modes of TEM00, TEM01 and TEM11 is realized by adding a iris diaphragm, a telescope or a Gaussian mirror at an appropriate position in the resonator, and the three are compared and analyzed.

^{[5]}We find that tapering the beam near the clamps, thus locally increasing the stress, leads to an increased Q of MHz-frequency low order modes due to enhanced dissipation dilution.

^{[6]}

## low order model

In the field of complex systems, it is often possible to arrive at some simple stochastic or chaotic Low Order Models (LOMs) exploiting the time scale separation between leading modes of interest and fast fluctuations.^{[1]}Low order models based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory exhibit modeling issues in the performance prediction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) compared to Computational Fluid Dynamics, despite the widespread engineering practice of such methods.

^{[2]}This paper investigates the simplifying assumptions used for deriving low order models of thermoacoustic instabilities and thermoacoustic intermittency in turbulent combustor.

^{[3]}The results show that the NARX with low order models fit the real data very well if compared to the ARX models.

^{[4]}While the consistent advance in computational power has enabled the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) an effective tool for compressor performance characterization, the need for quick performance estimates at initial design phase of compressor still requires the use of low order models.

^{[5]}To solve these issues, this letter proposes using a low order model to catch the dominant dynamics such that a high speed variation in the control signal can be avoided when choosing the model predictive control algorithm.

^{[6]}

## low order method

manoeuvring, gust), low order methods are known to introduce significant dissipation and dispersion errors.^{[1]}Besides, they are sharp at least for low order methods, if the testing moments and deflection in their right parts are found by accurate recovery procedures.

^{[2]}With those features, this problem set could then be used for benchmarking neutron transport methods as well as its low order methods in 2D single assembly and full core configurations.

^{[3]}This is important because high-order methods have the potential to reduce the computational cost while obtaining more accurate solutions with less dissipation and dispersion errors than low order methods.

^{[4]}We use high-resolution grids and low order methods in the multiphase flow regions near the saturation discontinuity and a discontinuous Galerkin method along with low-resolution grids in single-phase flow regions of the domain.

^{[5]}The results of practical experiments show that while high order methods in both space and time have good accuracy initially, unless the problem has relatively little particle movement then the accuracy of the methods for later time is closer to that of low order methods.

^{[6]}

## low order stream

We present differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecular composition within Upper Mississippi River Basin low order streams and rivers draining one of three dominant landcovers (forest, agriculture, and urban).^{[1]}Low order streams drain a big proportion of river catchments.

^{[2]}Over 70% of the total channel length in all river basins is formed by low order streams, many of which originate on mountaintops.

^{[3]}the small rivers eventually flow into the larger ones), I'm a bit puzzled how CO2 would increase downstream due to higher C inputs unless the study design somehow missed high CO2 inputs from low order streams that directly joined the mainstream? AC: Changes in riverine CO2 can mainly result from the variation of two factors, external C input and in-stream metabolism processes.

^{[4]}To examine the potential for interactions of other fishes with coastal cutthroat trout, we conducted an analysis of 281 sites in low order streams located on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula and along the central Oregon coast.

^{[5]}In both systems, there are no significant cosmogenic

^{3}He in the grains from the low order streams that drain the source rock.

^{[6]}

## low order thinking

Pada tahapan mengingat (remembering), memahami (understanding), menerapkan (applying) dikategorikan sebagai kemampuan berpikir tingkat rendah atau Low Order Thinking Skill (LOTS).^{[1]}This paper addresses the question of how cognitive levels covering high, middle, and low order thinking skills are delineated in the questions seen from Bloom’s revised taxonomic framework and stimulus.

^{[2]}For example, issues considered very difficult in the easiness rating, but which required low order thinking skills and reciprocally.

^{[3]}The distribution of the items for the final Physics test form is balanced; 50% measures low order thinking skills and the other 50% measures higher order thinking skills.

^{[4]}However, in terms of cognitive aspect, it still covered in the Low Order Thinking Skill, particularly at the C1-C3 level.

^{[5]}Karena lebih dari 50% materi ajar yang disajikan masih berbasis LOTS (Low Order Thinking Skills).

^{[6]}

## low order system

Compared to previous models, these low order systems display longer turbulence lifetimes and lower transition thresholds.^{[1]}A mixed-method for the order abatement of large-scale linear dynamic systems (LSLDSs) into desired low order systems is proposed.

^{[2]}With the same accuracy, proposed method is two times faster for low order systems.

^{[3]}Stochastic fractal search algorithm (SFS) has been proposed to obtain low order system (LOS) from LTI higher order system (HOS) as well as in speed control of DC motor with PID controller.

^{[4]}

## low order network

A low order network model is built to recognize the thermoacoustic modes of the combustion system.^{[1]}Then, a low order network model is used to explain the observed behaviors.

^{[2]}A low order network framework is conducted, illustrating that when T a is increased a stability shift of this mode is predicted at T a near 570 K, in good agreement with the experimental observations.

^{[3]}

## low order aberration

The following items were examined preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively: uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical, cylinder, central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal mean curvature (CMC), total ocular aberrations (TA), total low order aberrations (tLOAs), defocus, astigmatism and total high order aberrations (tHOAs), spherical, coma, trefoil, modulation transfer function (MTF), MTF cutoff , SR, objective scatter index (OSI), point scatter function at 50 and 10% (PSF50%, PSF10%), and contrast visual acuity of 100, 20, and 9% (VA100%, VA20%, and VA9%).^{[1]}As an application example, the compensations of some low order aberrations of the 2.

^{[2]}We present a methodology to compute wavefront stability requirements in the presence of temporal variations of the observatory optical errors at all spatial scales: global low order aberrations, segment to segment misalignments and high spatial frequencies.

^{[3]}

## low order interaction

The mean dimension of a black box function of $d$ variables is a convenient way to summarize the extent to which it is dominated by high or low order interactions.^{[1]}Interestingly, in these cases, the mapping reveals that the inferred models are essentially low order interaction models.

^{[2]}

## low order finite

With the explicit time integration and low order finite elements under the total Lagrangian framework, the proposed model is much computationally efficient for modeling the dynamic mechanical behavior of a cell colony.^{[1]}The angular and spatial derivative terms of governing equations in the cylindrical coordinate system are approximated by high order Chebyshev polynomials instead of the low order finite difference schemes.

^{[2]}

## low order thermal

A low order thermal network model for the perimeter zone, validated with experimental measurements, is utilized to study various control strategies in response to changes in the electrical grid price signal, including short term (nearly reactive) changes of the order of 10–15 min notice.^{[1]}Our new Curie depth model differs by as much as ±20 km relative to previous models, with the largest differences arising from the low order thermal model and variable susceptibility.

^{[2]}

## low order approximation

Tensor-train (TT) decomposition has been an efficient tool to find low order approximation of large-scale, high-order tensors.^{[1]}The main features of this work include the adaptive length of the chromosome for ascending system order identification, no limitation of the order of the system to approximate, robust to the system noise, and capable of providing low order approximation to the system.

^{[2]}