## What is/are Isolation Bearing?

Isolation Bearing - The complex response characterizing elastomeric isolation bearings is reproduced by employing a novel uniaxial hysteretic model that has been recently formulated and successfully implemented in OpenSees.^{[1]}The research results show that the use of friction pendulum damping and isolation bearings can delay the vibration response of the superstructure from the seismic excitation, thereby achieving the effect of prolonging the vibration period of the structure and reducing the possibility of resonance of the structure under the action of an earthquake.

^{[2]}In this paper, an intelligent shock isolation bearing based on the negative stiffness platform (SIBP) is designed, manufactured, and modeled.

^{[3]}Lead rubber bearings (LRBs) are among the most commonly used seismic isolation bearing types due to their high energy dissipation capacity.

^{[4]}In order to investigate the application of 3D base-seismic isolation system in nuclear power plants (NPPs), comprehensive analysis of constitution and design theory for 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) was presented and derived.

^{[5]}Through the test and finite element analysis, the following conclusions are obtained: the initial rotation angle has a great influence on the horizontal stiffness of the isolation bearing.

^{[6]}In civil engineering, scientists try to use the advantages of SMA by making it into different components and they have already made some types of components that are SMA bracing, SMA constrains RC columns, SMA ring springs and base isolation bearing.

^{[7]}This paper aimed at evaluating the influence of different vertical equivalent damping ratios of a 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) as regards seismic response and isolation effectiveness.

^{[8]}The efficiency of traditional isolation bearings is doubted for near-field earthquakes because these bearings undergo large displacement.

^{[9]}, isolation bearings) are not that effective for tall piers, since their dynamic performance is significantly affected by the distributed mass and vibration modes of columns; therefore, base isolation design philosophy could be a promising alternative for mitigating seismic demands of this type of bridges.

^{[10]}This study proposes a novel air spring–friction pendulum system (FPS) three-dimensional isolation bearing composed of an FPS for horizontal isolation and an air spring for vertical isolation.

^{[11]}Triple friction pendulum isolation bearings are typically designed with only earthquakes in mind, or perhaps with a large enough initial friction coefficient to limit displacement under wind loads.

^{[12]}However, there is a significant gap in our understanding of how the presence of isolation bearings influences the dynamic response, especially when an earthquake occurs.

^{[13]}Two 2/3-scale precast shear wall structures were constructed by using the dry energy-dissipation connection and the cast-in-place connection respectively, combining with two types of isolation bearings with different shear stiffness, the quasi-static tests of 4 isolation conditions and 2 seismic conditions were considered.

^{[14]}Based on the SMA cables, the proposed isolation bearing named as SCDFPB had capability to adapt to multi-level earthquake intensities in horizontal directions, which was superior to the conventional DFPB.

^{[15]}This paper aims to propose a new 3D combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) to mitigate the seismic response in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

^{[16]}Theoretical derivation concentrates on identifying the design parameters that affect the accelerations, displacements and lift-off forces of seismic isolation bearings.

^{[17]}This report presents an efficient design and optimization of MRE isolation bearing (MRE-IB) according to the requirements of a scaled frame structure, by simultaneously considering the superior magnetic-controllable performance, low power consumption and fast current response time as the optimization objectives.

^{[18]}Seismic isolation bearing has been considered an effective solution for constructions in earthquake areas.

^{[19]}Isolation bearings are widely applied to mitigate the seismic response of civil structures under strong earthquakes.

^{[20]}In the second stage, the location parameters of isolation bearing layout are optimized.

^{[21]}Elastomeric isolation bearing is one of the most commonly efficient devices and widely applied for protecting constructions in the earthquake regions.

^{[22]}The article discusses the most suitable base isolation bearings from the author's point of view for use in the buildings of old mosques in Syria, which are designed to protect such buildings from the effects of earthquakes that can occur at any time.

^{[23]}Seismic isolation has been a prevalent approach to seismic design of bridges whereas isolation bearings are susceptible to damages in a major earthquake event.

^{[24]}Therefore, the planar rotation can be restrained and the seismic demand of the isolation bearing is decoupled.

^{[25]}Performance of torsionally coupled buildings isolated by Shape Memory Alloy based Super-elastic isolation bearing is presented considering stochastic and recorded seismic excitations.

^{[26]}Based on a curved continuous girder bridge project, this thesis employed the seismic vulnerability method to analyze the isolation bearings which were usually considered as the fragile member of bridge.

^{[27]}Results show that: The use of isolation bearing can reduce the response of track structure and pier, but meanwhile, increase the response of bearings.

^{[28]}Motivated from these limitations and using double friction pendulum bearings as an example, this paper presents a three-dimensional formulation of isolation bearings which incorporates the uplift and impact behavior.

^{[29]}To improve the energy dissipation capacity of rubber isolation bearings, it is important to find a new rubber material with good applicability and high damping properties.

^{[30]}Inelastic stiffnesses and modal damping ratios for the column and isolation bearing are obtained using the rheological-dynamical analogy (RDA).

^{[31]}The parallel base-isolated system is composed of rubber isolation bearings and pure-friction sliding isolation bearings.

^{[32]}In order to study the influence of the ground motion spatial effect on the seismic response of large span spatial structures with isolation bearings, a single-layer cylindrical latticed shell scale model with a similarity ratio of 1/10 was constructed.

^{[33]}Analytical expressions to calculate the mean square value of one massive seismic isolation system with displacement kinematic pillars and the effectiveness of the application of graphs of kinematic seismic isolation bearings for multi-storey buildings based on the results of numerical experiments using the method of statistical tests.

^{[34]}Predicting critical loads in elastomeric isolation bearings has important implications for the design of isolation systems.

^{[35]}Test results show that the shear behavior of isolation bearings is unpredictable and the friction behavior is uncontrollable.

^{[36]}The selection of a suitable phenomenological model, required to accurately describe the hysteretic behavior of each seismic isolation bearing, as well as of a time integration method, required to numerically integrate the nonlinear equilibrium equations, plays a crucial role in performing such analyses.

^{[37]}This study aims to investigate the damage probability of bridge components (piers and isolation bearings) and the bridge system under different types of ground motions.

^{[38]}The present study compares the nonlinear seismic response of a high-speed railway bridge with and without isolation bearings.

^{[39]}Analytical expressions to calculate the mean square value of one massive seismic isolation system with displacement kinematic pillars and the effectiveness of the application of graphs of kinematic seismic isolation bearings for multi-storey buildings based on the results of numerical experiments using the method of statistical tests.

^{[40]}ABSTRACT This paper presents a robust mixed force and displacement control strategy for testing of base isolation bearings in real-time hybrid simulation.

^{[41]}Time history analysis shows that under the action of 8 degree earthquake, the isolation performance of short-period isolation structure is better than that of long-period isolation structure; engineering economic analysis shows that when the tensile stress exceeds the limit of the isolation bearing, special measures are needed for adjustment.

^{[42]}Using a detailed 3D finite element model of the bridge and considering the bridge component material properties and bearing properties at summer and winter service temperatures, the performance of the isolated bridge is evaluated in terms of isolator force-deformation relationship, force demand in the substructure, deck acceleration, and shear strain in the isolation bearing.

^{[43]}The reactor would be fabricated, assembled and sealed at the factory, and transported by rail, truck or barge to a permanent site and installed underground, to protect against an airplane or a missile impact, and mounted on seismic isolation bearings, to resist earthquakes.

^{[44]}Considering the flexibility of isolation bearings, isolated bridges are susceptible to unseating problems or even collapse due to excessive displacement under strong earthquakes.

^{[45]}In this paper, nonlinear contact is used to simulate behavior of sliding isolation bearing, nonlinear dynamic equation is used to solve fluid-structure interaction, bilinear material model is used to simulate limiting-device, and 3-D calculation model of sliding isolation concrete rectangular liquid storage tank (CRLST) with limiting-devices is established.

^{[46]}

## Seismic Isolation Bearing

Lead rubber bearings (LRBs) are among the most commonly used seismic isolation bearing types due to their high energy dissipation capacity.^{[1]}Theoretical derivation concentrates on identifying the design parameters that affect the accelerations, displacements and lift-off forces of seismic isolation bearings.

^{[2]}Seismic isolation bearing has been considered an effective solution for constructions in earthquake areas.

^{[3]}Analytical expressions to calculate the mean square value of one massive seismic isolation system with displacement kinematic pillars and the effectiveness of the application of graphs of kinematic seismic isolation bearings for multi-storey buildings based on the results of numerical experiments using the method of statistical tests.

^{[4]}The selection of a suitable phenomenological model, required to accurately describe the hysteretic behavior of each seismic isolation bearing, as well as of a time integration method, required to numerically integrate the nonlinear equilibrium equations, plays a crucial role in performing such analyses.

^{[5]}Analytical expressions to calculate the mean square value of one massive seismic isolation system with displacement kinematic pillars and the effectiveness of the application of graphs of kinematic seismic isolation bearings for multi-storey buildings based on the results of numerical experiments using the method of statistical tests.

^{[6]}The reactor would be fabricated, assembled and sealed at the factory, and transported by rail, truck or barge to a permanent site and installed underground, to protect against an airplane or a missile impact, and mounted on seismic isolation bearings, to resist earthquakes.

^{[7]}

## Elastomeric Isolation Bearing

The complex response characterizing elastomeric isolation bearings is reproduced by employing a novel uniaxial hysteretic model that has been recently formulated and successfully implemented in OpenSees.^{[1]}Elastomeric isolation bearing is one of the most commonly efficient devices and widely applied for protecting constructions in the earthquake regions.

^{[2]}Predicting critical loads in elastomeric isolation bearings has important implications for the design of isolation systems.

^{[3]}

## Combined Isolation Bearing

In order to investigate the application of 3D base-seismic isolation system in nuclear power plants (NPPs), comprehensive analysis of constitution and design theory for 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) was presented and derived.^{[1]}This paper aimed at evaluating the influence of different vertical equivalent damping ratios of a 3-dimensional combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) as regards seismic response and isolation effectiveness.

^{[2]}This paper aims to propose a new 3D combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) to mitigate the seismic response in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

^{[3]}

## Rubber Isolation Bearing

To improve the energy dissipation capacity of rubber isolation bearings, it is important to find a new rubber material with good applicability and high damping properties.^{[1]}The parallel base-isolated system is composed of rubber isolation bearings and pure-friction sliding isolation bearings.

^{[2]}

## Base Isolation Bearing

In civil engineering, scientists try to use the advantages of SMA by making it into different components and they have already made some types of components that are SMA bracing, SMA constrains RC columns, SMA ring springs and base isolation bearing.^{[1]}ABSTRACT This paper presents a robust mixed force and displacement control strategy for testing of base isolation bearings in real-time hybrid simulation.

^{[2]}