## What is/are Inner Cylinder?

Inner Cylinder - The model is found to provide adequate pressure loss predictions for axial flow in an annulus where the inner cylinder does not rotate.^{[1]}For the analysis, the outer and inner cylinders are cooled and heated respectively through insulated top and lower boundaries.

^{[2]}Then, effects of some key parameters, including the thermal boundary conditions at the walls of the outer enclosure, the location and the placement direction of the inner cylinder are numerically studied and analyzed.

^{[3]}In fluid mechanics communities, the Taylor–Couette flow is well-known as a flow between coaxial cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating.

^{[4]}Force condition analysis was conducted on the projectile and the PSP’s inner cylinder to establish the mechanical dynamic model.

^{[5]}This paper reports the numerical simulations on buoyant thermal transfer inside the finite porous cylindrical annular region with a thin circular baffle attached to inner cylinder.

^{[6]}The experiment shows an important result: at sufficiently strong forcing and long time scale, a saturated fully nonlinear regime develops as a consequence of an energy transfer draining energy towards a slow two-dimensional manifold represented by a regular polygonal system of axially oriented cyclonic vortices undergoing a slow prograde motion around the inner cylinder.

^{[7]}Effects of the inner cylinder on the evolution of the outer one are highlighted by changing the radius ratio, i.

^{[8]}The pressurization of the fluid and the resultant motion of the inner cylinder are analytically predicted.

^{[9]}Without a magnetic field, the vortex breakdown takes place near the inner cylinder due to the increased pumping action of the Ekman boundary layer.

^{[10]}Also, the effect of inner cylinder rotation was discussed.

^{[11]}Special attention is given to entropy generation and its dependency on the various governing parameters including the inner cylinder temperature, the outer cylinder radius, emissivities of the annulus walls, and the gas pressure.

^{[12]}The results revealed that when the speed of the inner cylinder increases from 0 to 400 rpm, the friction factor increases by 7.

^{[13]}Thus, we used an inner cylinder of 15-cm 20G long needle directly through the retrograde femoral sheath and successfully introduced the guidewire into the calcified plaque.

^{[14]}Thus, we used a inner cylinder of 15-cm 20G long needle directly through the retrograde femoral sheath and successfully introduce the guidewire into the calcified plaque.

^{[15]}In this numerical study, the turbulent flow of liquid lead–bismuth eutectic is solved for various specimen configurations, filling heights, and rotational speeds of the inner cylinder.

^{[16]}The experimental co-precipitation in TC reactor was conducted using two types of inner cylinder, circular and lobed cross-sections (referred to as CTC and LTC), focusing on the effects of processing time and local turbulent shear rate.

^{[17]}The inner cylinder is supposed hot and rotating, however the outer one is kept cold and motionless.

^{[18]}The results showed that this new form of inner cylinders is suitable for insulating applications.

^{[19]}The inner cylinder was rotated at 300 rpm while the outer cylinder was kept static.

^{[20]}The inner cylinder was put eccentrically into the outer one.

^{[21]}The inner cylinder surface is maintained at a hot temperature (Th), while the outer cylinder surface is at a cold temperature (Tc).

^{[22]}The effect of inner cylinder eccentricity is not much considerable (up to 5.

^{[23]}The strength of the streamlines increases significantly due to an increase in the aspect ratio of the inner cylinder and the Rayleigh number.

^{[24]}The outer cylinder is heated by a uniform and constant heat flux while the inner cylinder is thermally insulated.

^{[25]}It is noticed that when the inner cylinder is fixed and the outer cylinder is rotating, the system moves towards stability, but when the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotating, the system gets destabilized.

^{[26]}The diameter of the outer and inner cylinders was 0.

^{[27]}We study the possibility of modifying these secondary structures using patterns of stress-free and no-slip boundary conditions on the inner cylinder.

^{[28]}The flow transition from the azimuthally-invariant Circular Couette flow (CCF) to the Taylor-vortex flow (TVF) is studied by increasing the rotation rate (ωi) of the inner cylinder, with the outer cylinder being kept stationary.

^{[29]}It is found that, on the one hand, under certain conditions, in terms of curvature of cylinders κ and the voltage U, the torques and forces acting on the director n ^ may excite the kink-like distortion wave spreading along the normal to both cylindrical boundaries, whose resemblance to a kink-like distortion wave depends on the value of applied voltage U and the curvature of the inner cylinder.

^{[30]}Two pair sources (T c and T h ) were placed around outer and inner cylinders, and others were considered adiabatic.

^{[31]}Results revealed that an increase on radius of inner cylinders rises temperature distributions and nanofluid flow.

^{[32]}Here, we have explored the effects of changing polymer chain conformation of polyelectrolyte solutions on laminar and turbulent TC flow by using a quasi-static ramp protocol to vary the inner cylinder rotation rates.

^{[33]}The inner cylinder is filled with a viscous liquid.

^{[34]}The outer cylinder orbits the inner cylinder while the inner cylinder rotates on its own axis.

^{[35]}The study was usesd a test section in the form of two concentric cylinders, in which the inner cylinder rotates as a membrane while the outer cylinder is stationary with a height of 500 mm, a radius ratio of 0.

^{[36]}fluid flow enclosed between two concentric cylinders where the inner cylinder is rotating with some constant speed and the outer cylinder is stationary.

^{[37]}The inner cylinder is the outer surface of the motor.

^{[38]}Here, we propose an asymmetric form of cellulose nanofibrils having a shape that changed from a thick nanobarrel at one end to a thinner cylinder with a few flourishes towards the reducing end.

^{[39]}In the nucleation phase, fiber alignment is enhanced by a horizontal laminar Couette flow driven by the inner cylinder rotation.

^{[40]}The numerical solution of the corresponding problem was obtained using Gear-Generalized Differential Quadrature Method to provide appropriate graphical and tabular results in terms of velocity and temperature profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselet number on the surface of the inner cylinder.

^{[41]}The study considers a triple tube energy storage system with PCM stored in the inner cylinder and outer annular region while heated water is passed through the inner annular region.

^{[42]}This paper presents the results of a study of a Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine with an inner cylinder inside the runner.

^{[43]}In this work, numerical investigation of the natural convection and entropy generation characteristics of biological Ag-water nanofluid in a horizontal annulus having fins attached to the inner cylinder is aimed.

^{[44]}The effects of the thickness of the inner cylinder on the temperature contours are analyzed.

^{[45]}The annular pool is heated at the outer cylinder, cooled at the inner cylinder and filled with the n-decane/n-hexane binary mixture with an initial mass fraction of 50%.

^{[46]}Calculations also show that there exists a range of parameter values (voltage and curvature of the inner cylinder) producing a nonstandard pumping regime with maximum flow near the hot cylinder in the horizontal direction.

^{[47]}In this study, we perform a parametric analysis (blockage ratio, initial position, velocity profile of the inner cylinder, and viscosity of Newtonian fluids) of the back extrusion flow to determine its potential to provide reliable viscosity measurements at short time scales.

^{[48]}The validation shows a perfect performance of the proposed solution even in the vicinity of the inner cylinder not like the approximate solutions existing in the literature.

^{[49]}Transition to inertio-elastic turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow with shear-thinning and viscoelastic polymer solutions is investigated when the rotation rate of the inner cylinder is increased and the outer cylinder is fixed.

^{[50]}

## finite volume method

In this paper, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature TH.^{[1]}In this study, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature \( 299\;{\text{K}} \le T_{H} \le 341\;{\text{K}} \).

^{[2]}The immersed boundary method (IBM) was used to capture the virtual wall boundary of the inner cylinder based on the finite volume method (FVM).

^{[3]}

## outer cylinder rotation

The centrifugal force arising due to the outer cylinder rotation and the buoyant force developed due to the heat generated from the stationary inner cylinder has been characterized by using a non-dimensional number denoted as Rotation parameter (ζ = Reω 2/Gr).^{[1]}It is observed that outer cylinder rotation results in narrow distributions where the small droplets are relatively large, whereas inner cylinder rotation results in broad distributions where the small droplets are significantly smaller than in the case of outer cylinder rotation.

^{[2]}

## Rotating Inner Cylinder

A comparison with the experiment was made for rotating inner cylinder, the outer cylinder was at rest.^{[1]}The outer cylinder is axially finned while the rotating inner cylinder has a smooth surface.

^{[2]}Here, we investigate a highly turbulent TC flow, with a hydrodynamically fully rough, rotating inner cylinder, while the outer cylinder is kept smooth and stationary.

^{[3]}To this end, the titania nanoparticle dispersion was mixed with an organic dye solution under a rotating inner cylinder at controlled speed.

^{[4]}The Reynolds number, based on the wall velocity of a rotating inner cylinder and the radius of a centerline between cylinders, is set to 84,000.

^{[5]}The flow is bounded between a rotating inner cylinder of radius R_{i} and a fixed outer cylinder of radius R_{o}.

^{[6]}The existing applications are based on the study of the Taylor-Couette cell with a weak imposed radial inflow through a rotating inner cylinder.

^{[7]}It consists of a cylindrical annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder.

^{[8]}

## Elliptic Inner Cylinder

In this contribution, a numerical investigation was made for heat transfer and steady magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in a fined cold wavy-walled porous enclosure with a hot elliptic inner cylinder occupied by hybrid Fe3O4-MWCNT /water nanofluid.^{[1]}In this paper, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature TH.

^{[2]}In this study, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature \( 299\;{\text{K}} \le T_{H} \le 341\;{\text{K}} \).

^{[3]}

## Hot Inner Cylinder

Two-dimensional natural convection in an annulus enclosed by a hot inner cylinder and cold outer cylinder with air (Prandtl number, Pr=0.^{[1]}802),with physical properties are temperature dependent confined between two concentric cylinders horizontal and closed at the ends by two walls and which are adiabatic, a temperature gradient is imposed (Δ T=100°), the hot inner cylinder (T

^{[2]}The current work concentrates on the transient entropy generation and mixed convection due to a rotating hot inner cylinder within a square cavity having a flexible side wall by using the finite element method and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation.

^{[3]}

## Thick Inner Cylinder

The annulus space is formed by a thick inner cylinder having a uniform high temperature, an exterior cylindrical tube with a constant lower temperature, and thermally insulated upper and lower surfaces.^{[1]}The enclosed annulus is constituted by a thick inner cylinder with a constant high temperature, an exterior boundary with a constant low temperature and thermally insulated upper and lower surfaces.

^{[2]}

## inner cylinder rotation

5; Re = 100 ÷ 10,000 and dimensionless inner cylinder rotation rate χ = 0.^{[1]}Also, the effect of inner cylinder rotation was discussed.

^{[2]}Here, we have explored the effects of changing polymer chain conformation of polyelectrolyte solutions on laminar and turbulent TC flow by using a quasi-static ramp protocol to vary the inner cylinder rotation rates.

^{[3]}In the nucleation phase, fiber alignment is enhanced by a horizontal laminar Couette flow driven by the inner cylinder rotation.

^{[4]}It is observed that outer cylinder rotation results in narrow distributions where the small droplets are relatively large, whereas inner cylinder rotation results in broad distributions where the small droplets are significantly smaller than in the case of outer cylinder rotation.

^{[5]}

## inner cylinder temperature

Special attention is given to entropy generation and its dependency on the various governing parameters including the inner cylinder temperature, the outer cylinder radius, emissivities of the annulus walls, and the gas pressure.^{[1]}To stop the turning gear on a turbine, the high-pressure turbine inner cylinder temperature must be below 130 ° C.

^{[2]}The quantitative effects of a state variable and several dimensionless parameters such as pressure gradient, numerical exponent of viscosity, an exponent of the pre-exponential factor, cylinder ratio, viscous heating parameter, and the material parameter accounting for the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid, on the activation energy, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter and Maximum inner cylinder temperature are explored.

^{[3]}Inner and outer cylinders have a constant temperature, and the inner cylinder temperature is higher than the outer one.

^{[4]}

## inner cylinder radiu

The effects of various parameters such as the Rayleigh number ( 10 3 ≤ R a ≤ 10 6 ) , yield number ( 0 ≤ Y ≤ Y max ) , ratio of gap width to inner cylinder radius ( 0.^{[1]}We describe the critical condition necessary for the inner cylinder radius of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) used for in-space rocket propulsion to sustain adequate thruster performance.

^{[2]}Parametric studies on the effects of various significant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Darcy number, the inner cylinder radius, the porous layer thickness, the angular rotational velocity, the solid volume fraction and the number of undulations on the flow and thermal fields together with the heat transfer rate have been performed.

^{[3]}

## inner cylinder increase

The results revealed that when the speed of the inner cylinder increases from 0 to 400 rpm, the friction factor increases by 7.^{[1]}The average Nusselt number is found sensitive to the central obstacle’s size, and it reduces sufficiently when the radius of the inner cylinder increases.

^{[2]}With the increase of ambient steam temperature and pressure, the condensation mass flux near the inner cylinder increases, the radial temperature gradient rises, and thermocapillary convection strengthens.

^{[3]}

## inner cylinder rotate

The study was usesd a test section in the form of two concentric cylinders, in which the inner cylinder rotates as a membrane while the outer cylinder is stationary with a height of 500 mm, a radius ratio of 0.^{[1]}When the inner cylinder rotates, flow and thermal fields are affected within the cavity.

^{[2]}The outer cylinder remains stationary, and the inner cylinder rotates about its axis.

^{[3]}

## inner cylinder diameter

,As the ratio of the inner cylinder diameter to the outer cylinder diameter (r1/r2) increases, the Nusselt number increases.^{[1]}The simulations were run in 3, 5 and 7 m long domains with the annulus dimensioned such that the outer and inner cylinder diameter were 0.

^{[2]}

## inner cylinder surrounded

The configuration that a truncated inner cylinder surrounded by four truncated cylinders is considered as an effective way to realize this phenomenon.^{[1]}Two arrangements, consisting of an inner cylinder surrounded by either four or eight outer cylinders, are considered to confirm this cloaking phenomenon and to find the effect of the wave direction.

^{[2]}

## inner cylinder maintained

In this paper, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature TH.^{[1]}In this study, the finite volume method is combined with the discrete ordinate method to study numerically the natural convection coupled to surface radiation in a square cavity with an elliptic inner cylinder maintained at a high temperature \( 299\;{\text{K}} \le T_{H} \le 341\;{\text{K}} \).

^{[2]}

## inner cylinder wall

Owing to the curvature difference between the two cylinder surfaces, the thermal boundary layer developed over the outer cylinder wall is thicker than that over the inner cylinder wall.^{[1]}Surprisingly, we found a preferential alignment for the cylindrical particles with respect to the inner cylinder wall.

^{[2]}

## inner cylinder surface

The inner cylinder surface is maintained at a hot temperature (Th), while the outer cylinder surface is at a cold temperature (Tc).^{[1]}The application is verified by numerical simulation of steady free convection in a concentric annulus heated through the inner cylinder surface using an extended square domain.

^{[2]}