## What is/are Infinite Dilution?

Infinite Dilution - We constrained the stability constants for UO2C2O4(aq) and UO2(C2O4)22− at infinite dilution based on our evaluation of the literature data over a wide range of ionic strengths up to ∼11 mol•kg−1.^{[1]}The first was determined on the basis of the extrapolation of infinite dilution, second was determined as their average value in the region of high concentrations in which it was constant.

^{[2]}Based on the COSMO-SAC model, the infinite dilution activity coefficients of the components were calculated, and the potential extractant was further determined.

^{[3]}For this purpose, a combination of 40 cation (involving imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, ammonium and phosphonium) and 20 different anions in 800 possible combinations were screened via COSMO-RS to predict their selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution for phenolic compounds removal.

^{[4]}However, past papers are referenced to TlNO3 solution in water at infinite dilution.

^{[5]}In this work, we systematically assess the quality of the Sternheimer approximation as well as the impact of the classical force field (FF) on the NMR relaxation rates of aqueous quadrupolar ions at infinite dilution.

^{[6]}In addition, the pseudophase-water partition coefficients, Kx, the free energies of transfer of perfume from bulk water to the MBP-pseudophase, ΔGt, and the intra-aggregate activity coefficients, γm∞, at infinite dilution were also determined.

^{[7]}Here, we discuss the ability of a full polarizable hybrid approach coupled to a standard molecular dynamics scheme to model the behavior in the aqueous phase and at infinite dilution conditions of a standard hydrophobic polyelectrolyte polymer whose charge is neutralized by explicit counterions.

^{[8]}The diffusion and local structure of eight normal alkanols in 1-octanol at infinite dilution from 298 to 370 K have been investigated via molecular dynamics simulation.

^{[9]}Flory–Huggins interaction parameter and weight fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution were researched for BDBB.

^{[10]}It was found that the absolute value of the solution enthalpies at infinite dilution increases with the substitution rate in all studied britholites.

^{[11]}The extraction performance of the solvents was interpreted by the analysis of activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ∞).

^{[12]}The infinite dilution permeability coefficient of CO2 at 298 K was found identical to 2.

^{[13]}The efflux of glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), a typical substrate for hPEPT1, was determined using an infinite dilution method after cells were preloaded with [3H]-Gly-Sar.

^{[14]}The infinite dilution binary diffusion coefficients (D12) of acetylferrocene and 1,1′-diacetylferrocene were measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) at (313, 353, 363 and 373) K and at pressures from (11 to 26) MPa using the chromatographic impulse response method, and in atmospheric-pressure liquid organic solvents such as acetone at 303 K, methanol at (313, 323, and 333) K and ethanol at (323 and 333) K using the Taylor dispersion method.

^{[15]}The non-random liquid equation (NTRL) was utilized to correlate measured experimental LLE results, prediction of activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ∞) and capacity of solvent for solute (C∞).

^{[16]}The objective of this study was to develop a robust prediction model for the infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ∞) of organic molecules in diverse ionic liquid (IL) solvents.

^{[17]}In this work, the capacity and selectivity for m-cresol, as well as the solubility of cumene and dodecane in different IL–H2O mixtures, were firstly calculated by the conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) at infinite dilution.

^{[18]}The approach is based on activity coefficients at infinite dilution of volatile organic solutes in ionic liquids bearing the imidazolium cation of the general formula [Cnmim][Anion].

^{[19]}Henry’s law constant and some thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy $$(\Delta {{H}^{\infty }})$$ and entropy $$(\Delta {{S}^{\infty }})$$ in infinite dilution are calculated.

^{[20]}We present a novel molecular thermodynamic framework for the unambiguous assessment of the reliability of modeling approximations, their internal consistency, and the compliance with fundamental limiting behaviors in the description of solvation phenomena of species at infinite dilution in fluid systems over wide ranges of state conditions and solute-solvent intermolecular asymmetries.

^{[21]}The infinite dilution solution enthalpies of chloroform in diethyl ether, diglyme, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, 12-crown-4 and 15-crown-5 were measured at 298.

^{[22]}(2) The infinite dilution capacity and selectivity of different components for the α-tocopherol/methyllinoleate extraction are predicted to estimate their potential for the separation task.

^{[23]}15 K and electrolyte concentrations from infinite dilution to salt saturation.

^{[24]}We estimated saturation vapor pressures and activity coefficients (at infinite dilution in water and a model water-insoluble organic phase) of cyclohexene- and α-pinene-derived accretion products, “dimers”, using the COSMOtherm19 program.

^{[25]}We will demonstrate that accurately describing the SR interaction is imperative for predicting both intrinsic properties, namely, at infinite dilution, and collective properties of electrolyte solutions.

^{[26]}The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and excess thermodynamic functions of the compound in eaсh solvent were calculated.

^{[27]}The surface activity characterizes the process of the surface layer formation of a surfactant solution at the air–water interface with an infinite dilution.

^{[28]}16 K and the conductivity parameters: Association constant (KA), equivalent conductance at infinite dilution (Λo) and the distance parameter (R).

^{[29]}We confirmed the dependence of the dispersive component of the surface energy on the variations of the surface areas of organic molecules used in IGC technique at infinite dilution.

^{[30]}Solvation is modeled as a linear decline from infinite dilution solvation (hydration) values to empirically determined saturation solvation (hydration) values.

^{[31]}A comparative study was done from the perspective of sigma profile, sigma potential and activity coefficient at infinite dilution of heavy metal ions (Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+) using COSMO-RS and proposed research experiments were on characterization and performance of electrospun Nylon 6,6 NFM and with five different molar ratios between choline hydroxide and glycine as AAILs with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 for copper removal.

^{[32]}The activity coefficients of the solvents at infinite dilution were calculated and compared with those obtained by fitting the non-random two-liquid and universal quasichemical models.

^{[33]}The model accurately correlates the IL dissociation and VLE data in the entire concentration range from pure IL to infinite dilution aqueous solution.

^{[34]}Experiments with two silica materials have been conducted at infinite dilution to determine the dispersive component of the surface energy ( γ s d ) as well as the specific component ( γ s sp ) using the van Oss theory and a least-squares procedure evaluating the IGC data of 8 polar probe molecules collectively (instead of evaluating only the data of a pair of monopolar probes as is often the case in IGC studies).

^{[35]}To model the activity coefficient at infinite dilution for the binary mixtures, a 3-suffix Margules (3sM) function is introduced for the quantitative estimation of the asymmetric interactions and, for the combinatorial term, the Staverman-Guggenheim (SG) form is used.

^{[36]}The infinite dilution activity coefficients and activity coefficients of components of the SiCl4–CS2 and SiCl4–C2H4Cl2 binary systems were calculated.

^{[37]}The experimental vaporization enthalpies were compared with theoretical values available in the literature, as well as with empirical values derived from a gas-liquid-chromatographic method based on activity coefficients at infinite dilution.

^{[38]}Some of the main types of physicochemical properties of ionic liquids accessible using gas chromatography include gas-liquid partition constants, infinite dilution activity coefficients, partial molar quantities, solubility parameters, system constants of the solvation parameter model, thermal stability, transport properties, and catalytic and other surface properties.

^{[39]}A gas chromatographic headspace analysis method was used to experimentally determine gas-to-liquid partition coefficients and infinite dilution activity coefficients for two saturated (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, cyclooctane) and 3 unsaturated hydrocarbons (1,7-octadiene, 1-hexyne, 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene), one aromatic hydrocarbon (propylbenzene), one haloalkane (1,3-dichloropropane) and four halobenzenes (fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, bromobenzene), two cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane), two alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol), three alkyl acetates (ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, pentyl acetate), and one alkanenitrile (acetonitrile) dissolved in 2-pyrrolidone at 298.

^{[40]}The heat of absorptions per mole of CO2 at infinite dilution for aqueous solutions of DMAPA and 1MPZ were estimated from the experimental heat of absorption data.

^{[41]}To quantify the film saturation dynamics and model the absorption of BTEX analyte molecules into the bulk of the sensing film, a diffusion study was performed in which the frequency–time curve obtained via QCM was correlated with gas-phase analyte composition and the infinite dilution partition coefficients of each constituent.

^{[42]}We apply the new approach to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution and obtain significant improvements compared to the physical and data-driven baselines and established ensemble methods from the machine learning literature.

^{[43]}The infinite dilution activity coefficients of 100 ionic liquids with a combination of 10 cations and 10 anions were calculated by COSMO-SAC model, and the σ-profiles were plotted.

^{[44]}Successively, by means of a Debye–Hückel type equation, the corresponding hydronation constants at infinite dilution and the parameters for the dependence on the ionic strength were calculated, as well as the enthalpy change values of hydronation at infinite dilution.

^{[45]}The NRTL model predicts well the VLE data, the SLE data, the calorimetric data and the activity coefficient of PZ at infinite dilution in water.

^{[46]}The new methodology was validated against infinite dilution properties for ion-solvent interactions: Gibbs energy of hydration and Gibbs energy of transfer of alkali halides from water to alcoholic solvents.

^{[47]}2, a progressive decrease in δexp(OH) was observed which demonstrates a decrease in hydrogen bond interactions at infinite dilution in H2O, despite the increase in the number of available hydrogen bond acceptor and donor sites.

^{[48]}Using gas–liquid chromatography, the activity coefficients upon the infinite dilution of the components of the reaction mixture for obtaining cyclohexanone in the presence of various ionic liquids are determined.

^{[49]}The infinite dilution activity coefficient, γ i ∞ , is a frequently used molecular descriptor to pre-select a solvent for various kinds of fluid separations.

^{[50]}

## apparent molar volume

The infinite dilution apparent molar volumes, Vϕ/m3·mol−1, and limiting apparent molar expansibility, E Φ 0 / c m 3 · m o l - 1 · K - 1 , have been obtained and discussed from the RRM equation and polynomial equation.^{[1]}From the measured density, some derived properties like apparent molar volume at infinite dilution, transfer volume, hydration number and apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution of amino acid/glycyl dipeptide in [C8C1Pyrr]Br solutions were determined.

^{[2]}Using the measured density values of NA solutions in Car – water and Car – buffer systems, the apparent molar volumes, partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and their derivatives with respect to temperature have been obtained.

^{[3]}The results obtained from density and viscosity measurement have been used to calculate apparent molar volume φv partial molar volume φov at infinite dilution, relative viscosities hrel, A and B coefficients, and free energies of activation of viscous flow of solvent Δ µ10# and solute Δ µ20.

^{[4]}Using the appropriate thermodynamic equations incorporating the corrections due to Debye–Huckel limiting law, the apparent molar volume of solute at infinite dilution (Vϕ0) at all studied temperatures has been calculated along with the deviation parameters.

^{[5]}From density data, thermodynamic parameters like the apparent molar volumes (Vϕ), the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution ( V ϕ 0 ) and partial molar volume of transfer Δ V ϕ 0 has been determined.

^{[6]}Experimental data for density and ultrasonic velocity were used to calculate the apparent molar volumes (Vϕ), the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution ( V ϕ 0 ), partial molar isentropic compression (Kϕ,s) and partial molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution ( K ϕ , s 0 ).

^{[7]}For this purpose, from measured density data, apparent molar volumes Vφ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$V_{\varphi }$$\end{document}, apparent specific volumes, Vas\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$V_{\text{as}}$$\end{document}, apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution Vφo\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$V_{\varphi }^{{\text{o}}}$$\end{document}, transfer volumes ΔtVφo\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Delta_{{\text{t}}} V_{\varphi }^{{\text{o}}}$$\end{document} and also apparent molar expansibility Eφo\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$E_{\varphi }^{{\text{o}}}$$\end{document} for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Bmim][BF4]) in aqueous galactose or xylose solutions have been calculated.

^{[8]}The density data were used to calculate the apparent molar volumes and expansibilities (down to infinite dilution) for urea as a solute, as well as urea – urea and urea – mebicar pairwise interaction coefficients over the whole temperature range being chosen.

^{[9]}The measured density data was used to compute the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution, V2, φ0, the hydration number, nH, the transfer volume, ∆tV0, and the apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution, E ∅ o, of AAGG in aqueous [CetPy][Sal] solution.

^{[10]}The apparent molar volume (Vϕ), apparent molar volume at infinite dilution (Vϕo), Masson's experimental slope (Sv), limiting apparent molar expansibility, (Eϕo), Hepler's coefficient, hydration number, and viscosity B coefficient have been evaluated using the experimental density and viscosity values.

^{[11]}The experimental parameters, such as apparent molar volume, limiting apparent molar volume, partial molar volume were analyzed by measuring density at infinite dilution.

^{[12]}These data were used to calculate the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution, V 2 , φ 0 , the apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution, E φ 0 , limiting molar conductivity, Ʌ0, critical micelle concentration, cmc, and the relative thermodynamic functions for the micellization of [CnPy][AceSA] in aqueous solution.

^{[13]}To gain further insight the derived parameters such as apparent molar volumes V ϕ , apparent molar isentropic compressibilities K s ϕ , and their infinite parameters mainly limiting apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution V ϕ o , limiting apparent molar expansibilities E ϕ o , limiting isentropic compression K ϕ o , molar refraction R m and infinite molar conductance m o values have been calculated.

^{[14]}The infinite dilution apparent molar volume, V 2 , φ 0 , transfer volume, Δ t V 0 , hydration number, nH and infinite dilution apparent molar expansibility, E φ 0 of amino acids in aqueous [Dom][Sal] solution were derived from the measured density data.

^{[15]}The apparent molar volume (Vϕ), apparent molar volume at infinite dilution (Vϕo), Masson's experimental slope (Sv), limiting apparent molar expansibility, (Eϕo), viscosity B-coefficient, thermodynamical parameters of viscous flow and molar refractions (Rm) have been evaluated from experimental measurements and results are additionally proven by molecular dynamic simulations.

^{[16]}Apparent molar volume ( V ∅ ) , apparent molal volumes at infinite dilution ( V ∅ 0 ) , micellar apparent molal volumes ( V ∅ mic ) , changes in apparent molal volumes upon aggregation (ΔVm), apparent molar isentropic compressibilities ( K ∅ ( S ) ) , isentropic apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities at infinite dilution ( K ∅ ( S ) 0 ) , micellar isentropic apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities ( K ∅ ( S ) m ) and changes in isentropic apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities ( Δ K ∅ ( S ) ) of procaine in aqueous solution have been calculated by combining the speed of sound and density measurements.

^{[17]}Two parameter of V Ð ¤ o / m 3 Â · m o l - 1 (infinite dilution apparent molar volume) and E Ð ¤ 0 / m 3 Â · m o l - 1 Â · K - 1 (limiting apparent molar expansibility) were also been fitted and discussed based on the RRM equation and polynomial equation, respectively.

^{[18]}The apparent molar volume of solute (Vϕ), apparent molar volume at infinite dilution (Vϕo), viscosity B-coefficients and hydration numbers were calculated to understand structuring of water in the aqueous solutions of investigated ionic liquids.

^{[19]}The apparent molar volume Vϕ0 and apparent molar isentropic compressibility Kϕ, s0 at infinite dilution for all the ternary system were computed at all working temperatures.

^{[20]}Apparent molar volumes Vφ,m and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V∞ were calculated from the experimental results.

^{[21]}From the obtained values of the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution ( V ϕ o ), the excess partial molar volumes of water ( V m 2 e ), the Hepler’s coefficients, viscosity B-coefficients and hydration numbers, a structure making/breaking properties creatine and creatinine in aqueous solutions were investigated.

^{[22]}

## inverse gas chromatography

Many studies were devoted in our Laboratory to the determination of physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties of polymers and/or oxides by using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution.^{[1]}2 K) was investigated by inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution (IGC-ID).

^{[2]}Surface properties of the polymer were investigated by inverse gas chromatography method at infinite dilution region.

^{[3]}An experimental study, using size measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution (IGC-ID) and finite concentration (IGC-FC) conditions, has been carried out to evaluate, respectively, the changes of particles size, crystalline phases, morphology and surface properties evolution of attapulgite powder after grinding in wet media.

^{[4]}Inverse gas chromatography was used to obtain the activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ13 ∞) of several organic solutes and water in the thermotropic ionic liquid crystal phases of both [C12mim][BF4] and [C14mim][BF4] and their isotropic phases.

^{[5]}In this study, adsorption of 38 VOCs on a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was examined using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution, and the adsorption coefficients (K), dispersive and specific components of adsorption free energy were calculated.

^{[6]}

## partial molar volume

Partial molar volumes for 15 alkali halide solutes are calculated from the slope of solution density (g/L) versus the solution molarity (mol/L) at the infinite dilution limit.^{[1]}Finally, the solubilities of NH3 were fitted to the Krichevsky−Kasarnovsky equation to calculate the Henry's constants and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of NH3 in DESs, as well as the enthalpy changes, Gibbs free energy changes and entropy changes for NH3 absorption process.

^{[2]}Also, partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilutions were calculated to elucidate the non-ideal behavior of investigated mixtures.

^{[3]}Also, partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilutions were calculated for further non-ideal behaviour of binary mixture.

^{[4]}The partial molar compressibility’s and partial molar volume also calculated at infinite dilution of the system.

^{[5]}The partial molar volume/compressibility and excess partial molar volume/compressibility at infinite dilution have also been calculated.

^{[6]}

## excess molar volume

These results have been used to calculate the excess molar volumes, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution.^{[1]}The excess molar volume, VmE\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{V}}_{\text{m}}^{\text{E}}$$\end{document}, was calculated using the experimental data, from which a Redlich–Kister type polynomial was fit, enabling the determination of the partial molar volumes, the excess partial molar volumes, the apparent molar volumes and the excess partial molar volumes at infinite dilution.

^{[2]}Molar volume ( V m ), thermal expansion coefficient ( α p ), excess molar volume ( V m E ), apparent molar volume ( V φ ), apparent molar volume at infinite dilution ( V φ ∞ ), partial molar volume ( V ¯ )and excess partial molar volumes ( V ¯ E ) were calculated according to experimental density values.

^{[3]}The excess molar volume, the apparent molar volume, the partial molar and excess partial molar volumes of the components at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental values.

^{[4]}

## limiting apparent molar

0199 mol kg−1 range of concentrations and its limiting apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$V_{{\varphi ,{\text{SDS}}}}^{^\circ }$$\end{document}) in solutions containing the amino acid (at a fixed concentration of 0.^{[1]}Infinite dilution limiting apparent molar volume (Vϕ0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$V_{\phi }^{0}$$\end{document}) and limiting apparent molar isentropic compression (Kϕ,S0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$K_{\phi ,S}^{0}$$\end{document}) parameters and their variation tendencies were considered in terms of the interactions between solute and solvent.

^{[2]}According to Redlich-Mayer equation, the empirical parameters (SV and BV) and the limiting apparent molar volume at infinite dilution, ϕVi0, were acquired.

^{[3]}

## excess partial molar

The excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m,1 E and V ¯ m,2 E and excess partial molar isentropic compressibility, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E , excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 ° E and V ¯ m , 2 ° E and excess partial molar isentropic compressibility, K ¯ s , m , 1 ° E and K ¯ s , m , 2 ° E of the components at infinite dilution also been measured.^{[1]}The excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 E and V ¯ m,2 E ; excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E ; excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 ° E and V ¯ m , 2 ° E ; excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities, K ¯ s , m , 1 ° E and K ¯ s , m , 2 ° E of the components at infinite dilution also been measured.

^{[2]}The experimental data were used to compute several thermodynamic properties, namely, excess volume (VE), excess isentropic compressibilities (κsE) and the volumetric properties like excess partial molar volume ( V ¯ m , 1 E , V ¯ m , 2 E ), partial molar volume ( V ¯ m , 1 0 , V ¯ m , 2 0 ), excess partial molar volume ( V ¯ m , 1 0 E , V ¯ m , 2 0 E ) at infinite dilutions.

^{[3]}

## partial molar isentropic

The partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 and K ¯ s,m,2 , and excess partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E over the whole composition range, partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 ° and K ¯ s,m,2 ° , and excess partial molar isentropic compressions, K ¯ s,m,1 ° E and K ¯ s,m,2 ° E of the components at infinite dilution have also been calculated.^{[1]}

## At Infinite Dilution

At infinite dilution, CO2 solubility dependence upon temperature in each DES was examined by means of Henry’s Law constants.^{[1]}At infinite dilution the derived total effective solvation numbers, Zt, extrapolate to ∼8 − 9 DMSO per ethaline, ∼16 per glyceline and ∼7 − 8 per reline unit but numbers decrease rapidly with rising DES mole fraction.

^{[2]}

## infinite dilution activity

Based on the COSMO-SAC model, the infinite dilution activity coefficients of the components were calculated, and the potential extractant was further determined.^{[1]}The objective of this study was to develop a robust prediction model for the infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ∞) of organic molecules in diverse ionic liquid (IL) solvents.

^{[2]}The infinite dilution activity coefficients and activity coefficients of components of the SiCl4–CS2 and SiCl4–C2H4Cl2 binary systems were calculated.

^{[3]}Some of the main types of physicochemical properties of ionic liquids accessible using gas chromatography include gas-liquid partition constants, infinite dilution activity coefficients, partial molar quantities, solubility parameters, system constants of the solvation parameter model, thermal stability, transport properties, and catalytic and other surface properties.

^{[4]}A gas chromatographic headspace analysis method was used to experimentally determine gas-to-liquid partition coefficients and infinite dilution activity coefficients for two saturated (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, cyclooctane) and 3 unsaturated hydrocarbons (1,7-octadiene, 1-hexyne, 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene), one aromatic hydrocarbon (propylbenzene), one haloalkane (1,3-dichloropropane) and four halobenzenes (fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, bromobenzene), two cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane), two alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol), three alkyl acetates (ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, pentyl acetate), and one alkanenitrile (acetonitrile) dissolved in 2-pyrrolidone at 298.

^{[5]}The infinite dilution activity coefficients of 100 ionic liquids with a combination of 10 cations and 10 anions were calculated by COSMO-SAC model, and the σ-profiles were plotted.

^{[6]}The infinite dilution activity coefficient, γ i ∞ , is a frequently used molecular descriptor to pre-select a solvent for various kinds of fluid separations.

^{[7]}Based on solute-in-IL infinite dilution activity coefficient generated from DNN-based recommender system, infinite dilution selectivity between product and reactant in ILs is adopted to evaluate extraction performance.

^{[8]}Based on the COSMO-SAC model, the infinite dilution activity coefficients of the components were calculated, and the final solvent was further obtained by relative volatility and solvent power screening.

^{[9]}The basic data used to determine the interaction parameters are VLE, HE and infinite dilution activity coefficient data.

^{[10]}The method uses the three-component Margules equation, which can predict vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) in ternary systems with the infinite dilution activity coefficients, γ i ∞ , as sole input parameters.

^{[11]}In this work, COSMO-SAC was used to calculate infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ∞) of carotenoids in CO2+ethanol mixtures as a theoretical approach to evaluate the effect of solvent composition on solute solubility.

^{[12]}The infinite dilution activity coefficients of artemisinin in 903 ILs, composed by 43 cations and 21 anions, were calculated by COSMO-RS, and the results implied that the solubility of artemisinin in ILs mainly depends on the anions.

^{[13]}Measurements of infinite dilution activity coefficients of 46 organic solutes including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, ketones, pyridine, thiophene, acetonitrile, and 1-nitropropane in ionic liquids (IL), 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium thiocyanate (abbreviated as [C1C3OHIM][SCN]) are reported in the temperature range from T = (318.

^{[14]}New experimental infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs) of 45 different molecular solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, ethers, ketones, thiophene, acetonitrile, pyridine and 1-nitropropane) in the novel ionic liquid 1-(3-cyanopropyl)-1-methyl pyrrolidinium thiocyanate are presented.

^{[15]}

## infinite dilution apparent

The infinite dilution apparent molar volumes, Vϕ/m3·mol−1, and limiting apparent molar expansibility, E Φ 0 / c m 3 · m o l - 1 · K - 1 , have been obtained and discussed from the RRM equation and polynomial equation.^{[1]}The infinite dilution apparent molar volume, V 2 , φ 0 , transfer volume, Δ t V 0 , hydration number, nH and infinite dilution apparent molar expansibility, E φ 0 of amino acids in aqueous [Dom][Sal] solution were derived from the measured density data.

^{[2]}Two parameter of V Ð ¤ o / m 3 Â · m o l - 1 (infinite dilution apparent molar volume) and E Ð ¤ 0 / m 3 Â · m o l - 1 Â · K - 1 (limiting apparent molar expansibility) were also been fitted and discussed based on the RRM equation and polynomial equation, respectively.

^{[3]}

## infinite dilution solution

The infinite dilution solution enthalpies of chloroform in diethyl ether, diglyme, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, 12-crown-4 and 15-crown-5 were measured at 298.^{[1]}The infinite dilution solution enthalpies of ethers in cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, ethyl acetate, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, acetone, pyridine, chloroform and methanol were measured at 298.

^{[2]}The infinite dilution solution enthalpies of δ-valerolactam, N-methylvalerolactam, ε-caprolactam, and N-methylcaprolactam were measured at 298.

^{[3]}

## infinite dilution condition

Here, we discuss the ability of a full polarizable hybrid approach coupled to a standard molecular dynamics scheme to model the behavior in the aqueous phase and at infinite dilution conditions of a standard hydrophobic polyelectrolyte polymer whose charge is neutralized by explicit counterions.^{[1]}The top 20 MOF membranes that exceed the polymeric membranes’ upper bound for H2/N2 separation were identified based on the results of initial screening performed at infinite dilution condition.

^{[2]}

## infinite dilution v

To gain further insight the derived parameters such as apparent molar volumes V ϕ , apparent molar isentropic compressibilities K s ϕ , and their infinite parameters mainly limiting apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution V ϕ o , limiting apparent molar expansibilities E ϕ o , limiting isentropic compression K ϕ o , molar refraction R m and infinite molar conductance m o values have been calculated.^{[1]}Apparent molar volumes Vφ,m and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V∞ were calculated from the experimental results.

^{[2]}

## infinite dilution also

The excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m,1 E and V ¯ m,2 E and excess partial molar isentropic compressibility, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E , excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 ° E and V ¯ m , 2 ° E and excess partial molar isentropic compressibility, K ¯ s , m , 1 ° E and K ¯ s , m , 2 ° E of the components at infinite dilution also been measured.^{[1]}The excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 E and V ¯ m,2 E ; excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities, K ¯ s,m,1 E and K ¯ s,m,2 E ; excess partial molar volumes, V ¯ m , 1 ° E and V ¯ m , 2 ° E ; excess partial molar isentropic compressibilities, K ¯ s , m , 1 ° E and K ¯ s , m , 2 ° E of the components at infinite dilution also been measured.

^{[2]}

## infinite dilution partition

To quantify the film saturation dynamics and model the absorption of BTEX analyte molecules into the bulk of the sensing film, a diffusion study was performed in which the frequency–time curve obtained via QCM was correlated with gas-phase analyte composition and the infinite dilution partition coefficients of each constituent.^{[1]}Infinite dilution partition coefficients, Kp,0, of a series of unbranched perfluoralkylacids, PFAAs with 3 to 8 CF2 units between water and commercially available weak anion exchange (WAX) and strong anion.

^{[2]}