## What is/are Impact Simulations?

Impact Simulations - We used finite element models to perform a series of low-speed fender vault pedestrian impact simulations with the aim of reconstructing the primary impact phase and the final event of ground contact.^{[1]}The determination of the mixing constant can be done by the aid of a few of multiple-impact simulations.

^{[2]}The paper presents an application of milli- and micro-XCT to mesostructure characterization of CGPs and failure patterns analysis using dynamic impact simulations.

^{[3]}The feasibility of using the developed simplified beam models in dynamic impact simulations for a horizontal drop condition is examined, and discussions are provided.

^{[4]}This paper investigates the existence of UHIs and the impact of green areas to mitigate the impacts of UHIs in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using UrbClim, a boundary climate model that runs two classes of simulations, namely urbanization impact simulations, and greening simulations.

^{[5]}For this purpose, a set of finite-element (FE) impact simulations are conducted.

^{[6]}Including dead volume sections improves simulation results while casing heat leaks impact simulations with a net cooling power up to 2.

^{[7]}We use numerical impact simulations that replicate conditions in several laboratory experiments to demonstrate that our approach to quantify ejecta properties is consistent with impact experiments in analogous materials.

^{[8]}Here we perform a series of impact simulations to quantify the impactor-retention ratio, followed by a Monte Carlo procedure considering a monotonically decaying impact flux4, to compute the impactor mass accreted into the lunar crust and mantle over their histories.

^{[9]}Meteorite impacts often occur in layered targets, where the strength of the target varies as a function of depth, but this complexity is often not represented in numerical impact simulations because of the high computational cost of resolving thin layers.

^{[10]}This article describes an open source tool based on the geodesign approach, which links the co-creation of design proposals together with stakeholders, impact simulations informed by geographic contexts, systems thinking, and digital technology—the Geodesign Decision Support Environment.

^{[11]}Recently the importance of material strength in impact heating was reported from head-on impact simulations.

^{[12]}Hydrological impact simulations were conducted using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for 2020–2040.

^{[13]}And regular multiple-impact simulations present the same trend, indicating the capability of multiple-impact analyses on the prediction of dimple size evolution.

^{[14]}These oblique impact simulations are performed in order to help determine whether there are additional dangers due to the obliquity of impact not covered by previous studies.

^{[15]}To determine the effect of rotation, we perform a large number of SPH/N-body impact simulations with rotating targets.

^{[16]}Single particle impact simulations addressed the influence of mesh size, particle temperature, size and speed on particle temperature and equivalent plastic deformation after impact.

^{[17]}A finite element (FE) -implementation of an anisotropic plasticity model coupled with damage and isotropic hardening for the DD13 metal in low velocity impact simulations is performed.

^{[18]}Numerical impact simulations have been performed to study the effect of impact location during the low-velocity impact behaviors of repaired structures.

^{[19]}In this study, a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) formulation is implemented in impact simulations of a head system to overcome the mesh distortion difficulties due to large deformation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region and provide a biofidelic model of the interaction between the brain and skull.

^{[20]}Here, we use giant impact simulations and planetary structure models to calculate the energy budget at stages in Earth's evolution.

^{[21]}The diffusive approximation of the IMPACT simulations was insufficient to capture the transport behaviour present in the theoretical high order calculation.

^{[22]}The paper contributes to enhance the industry practice in impact simulations of steel structures when only material quasi-static tensile tests are available.

^{[23]}Impact simulations for projectiles of two liquids with dissimilar molecular complexity, formamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoro-methylsulfonyl) imide, show that sufficient resolution of the projectile is needed to reproduce the impact zone, which has a depth of the order of the diameter of the projectile.

^{[24]}We perform Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) impact simulations of two orbiting moonlets inside the planetary gravitational potential and find that the classical outcome of two bodies impacting in free space is altered as erosive mass loss is more significant with decreasing distance to the planet.

^{[25]}Experimental impact simulations were performed to investigate regional and localised injury vulnerability.

^{[26]}The fourth article presents an open-source tool based on the geodesign approach which links the co-creation of design proposals to impact simulations informed by geographic contexts, systems thinking, and digital technology—the Geodesign Decision Support Environment.

^{[27]}So, 150 head impact simulations were performed for 3 magnitudes and 50 directions of impact using head finite element model (FEM).

^{[28]}This model is embedded in ABAQUS/Explicit code in the form of a VUMAT user-subroutine to perform ballistic impact simulations.

^{[29]}We investigate the origin of their shapes by high-resolution impact simulations for catastrophic disruptions using a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code.

^{[30]}Our aim is to assess the cause of unusually high porosities within the Chicxulub peak ring and the capability of numerical impact simulations to predict the gravity signature and the distribution and texture of porosity within craters.

^{[31]}It has the major advantage in saving computational cost while maintaining reasonable numerical accuracy compared to other finite element solutions that involve realistic impact simulations for thousands of particles.

^{[32]}In order to understand how the vehicle safety countermeasures prevent pedestrian head injuries caused by primary and secondary impacts, a total of 252 vehicle-to-pedestrian impact simulations were conducted using the MADYMO code.

^{[33]}We further explore variation in head contact time (HIT) and location by HBM size and impact speed across 48 full body impact simulations.

^{[34]}High velocity impact simulations using SPH on different types of projectiles and target plates were conducted, and the predicted results including the residual velocity, hole diameter, and spall ring diameter in the target plate were verified by comparing them with the measured values reported in the reference.

^{[35]}These results refute our hypothesis, suggesting superficial perineal structures impact simulations of vaginal delivery by inhibiting perineal body anterior–posterior displacement, which stretches and inferiorly displaces the perineal body.

^{[36]}The residual stress evolution in the cold-sprayed Al-6061 coating on an Al-6061 substrate is investigated via three-dimensional single-particle and multi-particle impact simulations.

^{[37]}In impact simulations, one often has only limited material data available, and it makes therefore sense to study the parameter sensitivity of the material model in order to fix realistic parameter values.

^{[38]}

## Numerical Impact Simulations

We use numerical impact simulations that replicate conditions in several laboratory experiments to demonstrate that our approach to quantify ejecta properties is consistent with impact experiments in analogous materials.^{[1]}Meteorite impacts often occur in layered targets, where the strength of the target varies as a function of depth, but this complexity is often not represented in numerical impact simulations because of the high computational cost of resolving thin layers.

^{[2]}Numerical impact simulations have been performed to study the effect of impact location during the low-velocity impact behaviors of repaired structures.

^{[3]}Our aim is to assess the cause of unusually high porosities within the Chicxulub peak ring and the capability of numerical impact simulations to predict the gravity signature and the distribution and texture of porosity within craters.

^{[4]}

## Pedestrian Impact Simulations

We used finite element models to perform a series of low-speed fender vault pedestrian impact simulations with the aim of reconstructing the primary impact phase and the final event of ground contact.^{[1]}In order to understand how the vehicle safety countermeasures prevent pedestrian head injuries caused by primary and secondary impacts, a total of 252 vehicle-to-pedestrian impact simulations were conducted using the MADYMO code.

^{[2]}

## Dynamic Impact Simulations

The paper presents an application of milli- and micro-XCT to mesostructure characterization of CGPs and failure patterns analysis using dynamic impact simulations.^{[1]}The feasibility of using the developed simplified beam models in dynamic impact simulations for a horizontal drop condition is examined, and discussions are provided.

^{[2]}

## Body Impact Simulations

To determine the effect of rotation, we perform a large number of SPH/N-body impact simulations with rotating targets.^{[1]}We further explore variation in head contact time (HIT) and location by HBM size and impact speed across 48 full body impact simulations.

^{[2]}

## Particle Impact Simulations

Single particle impact simulations addressed the influence of mesh size, particle temperature, size and speed on particle temperature and equivalent plastic deformation after impact.^{[1]}The residual stress evolution in the cold-sprayed Al-6061 coating on an Al-6061 substrate is investigated via three-dimensional single-particle and multi-particle impact simulations.

^{[2]}

## Velocity Impact Simulations

A finite element (FE) -implementation of an anisotropic plasticity model coupled with damage and isotropic hardening for the DD13 metal in low velocity impact simulations is performed.^{[1]}High velocity impact simulations using SPH on different types of projectiles and target plates were conducted, and the predicted results including the residual velocity, hole diameter, and spall ring diameter in the target plate were verified by comparing them with the measured values reported in the reference.

^{[2]}

## impact simulations informed

This article describes an open source tool based on the geodesign approach, which links the co-creation of design proposals together with stakeholders, impact simulations informed by geographic contexts, systems thinking, and digital technology—the Geodesign Decision Support Environment.^{[1]}The fourth article presents an open-source tool based on the geodesign approach which links the co-creation of design proposals to impact simulations informed by geographic contexts, systems thinking, and digital technology—the Geodesign Decision Support Environment.

^{[2]}