## What is/are Dual Phase?

Dual Phase - The single-crystal samples of each phase with the equilibrium chemical compositions as in the conventionally utilized alloy were used to elucidate the temperature-dependent behavior of the individual phase leading to a further interpretation of each phase effect in the intensively used dual-phase alloy.^{[1]}Dual phase (DP) and Martensitic steels are prominent in AHSS family because they are inexpensive and has vast application areas.

^{[2]}Results of sequential analyses showed that Al, Cr, and Ni were found in residual phases, proving their predominantly lithogenic origin and their low mobility.

^{[3]}In this study, a series of lightweight nonequiatomic Al50–Ti–Cr–Mn–V MEAs with a dual phase were produced through arc melting and drop casting.

^{[4]}It has been observed that hot deformation in the austenite region results in the formation of a dual phase-type microstructure consisting of fine pearlite lamella and ferrite grains with some amount of degenerated pearlite.

^{[5]}Dual phase ADI material microstructure consists of different amounts and morphologies of ausferrite and free ferrite, obtained by subjecting ductile iron to specific heat treatment.

^{[6]}The stress-strain relationships of individual phases including austenite, ferrite and strain-induced martensite were validly extracted through inversely determining the micro-constituents' mechanical properties from the nanoindentation load-depth (P-h) curves.

^{[7]}The materials in which tungsten is incorporated into the crystal lattice of anatase, without tungsten in the form of an individual phase, offer the highest PCA.

^{[8]}A comprehensive protection of furnace transformers on magnetically sensitive elements is proposed, consisting of differential protection and protection against damages to individual phase conductors from low voltage side.

^{[9]}By incorporating individual phase and amplitude control modules under the guidance of equivalent circuit models, the proposed metasurface achieved the arbitrary phase and amplitude tuning while maintaining reasonably low physical profile.

^{[10]}The authors found that the majority of the analyzed metals could be considered immobile due to their high affinity for binding to the residual phase.

^{[11]}While we find that the residual phase of planetary migration only minimally alters the the planets’ ultimate eccentricities, our work uncovers several intriguing outcomes in realizations where Jupiter and Saturn are born with extremely large eccentricities (eJ ' 0.

^{[12]}Received: 12 November 2020 Accepted: 9 January 2021 In the present investigation, some electrochemical properties of dual phase X70 steels with different martensite morphologies which have undergone boriding were studied.

^{[13]}Superimposition of scanning electron micrographs and statistically analysed heat and contour maps using nanoindentation datasets revealed deviations in localized properties within and across individual phases; which were supported by Weibull plots of individual phases.

^{[14]}, >1000) of indents with depths of up to ~6000 nm were made on each of the two sandstones with highly contrasting microstructures and dissimilar compositions, followed by intensive data processing using the recently developed data analytics consisting of data segmentation to extract subdatasets at various depths, statistical deconvolution of each subdataset to identify mechanically distinct phases, re-assembly of results from different subdatasets, and indentation surround effect modeling to extract the properties of both individual phases and bulk rocks.

^{[15]}Partial flow mixing is required by installing the venturi device vertically downstream of a blind tee pipework that conditions the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow (for an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flow rate).

^{[16]}Our results indicate that the autoencoder can be successfully optimized using the proposed training method to achieve better robustness to residual phase noise with respect to standard constellation schemes such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation and Iterative Polar Modulation for the considered conditions.

^{[17]}4 % respectively in the residual phase.

^{[18]}The addition of Zn did not restructure the ZrO2 lattice, as the results indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy revealed neither any mixed or individual phases; rather, all the films retained the amorphousness.

^{[19]}Chemical identification of individual phases within the mixture components is achieved via a quantitative elemental method.

^{[20]}The XRD studies indicated the presence of a dual phase boride layer (FeB/Fe2B) besides the chromium and vanadium borides as precipitates inside it.

^{[21]}The prepared HEA had a dual phase microstructure consisting of body-centered cubic (BCC) phase (32.

^{[22]}A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the Gibbs energies of individual phase in the Co-Cr-Nb system has been obtained which leads to a great fit between calculated results and experimented data.

^{[23]}Results The individual phases of the disease from diagnosis to follow-up care cause specific psychological stresses of varying intensity.

^{[24]}Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution.

^{[25]}By exploiting different electro-optic modulators as fast actuators, this method can extend the feedback bandwidth to more than 150 kHz at the repetition rate phase locking and carrier-envelope offset phase locking We obtain a residual phase noise of 21.

^{[26]}A mechanism for degradation of the composite materials is proposed and the influence of the individual phases on the oxidation behaviour of the composites is discussed.

^{[27]}It has been established that the main factors influencing the losses of electricity in low-voltage networks are: incommensurability of the power of transformers of transformers and consumers, uneven loading of individual phases, a significant effect of individual converters on the quality of energy.

^{[28]}Residual errors in the phase estimation at the receiver, also known as residual phase noise (RPN), follow the so-called Tikhonov distribution.

^{[29]}The analysis identifies the existing disturbances and assigns them to the individual phases of the supply process.

^{[30]}Co-doping technology is always employed to improve the stability of the materials by hindering the phase segregation into CeO2 and ZrO2 individual phases.

^{[31]}The developed control system of the prosumer voltage source does not fully control the active power of individual phases of the distribution transformer.

^{[32]}Differences in the course of the cycles depending on spatial diversity are presented, as well as differences in the strength of decreases and increases in individual phases.

^{[33]}We demonstrate optical-microwave timing synchronization by employing electro-optic sampling-based timing detector with residual phase noise (at 8-GHz carrier) of –174.

^{[34]}The aim of this work is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination associated with BTEX dissolution from fuels as a residual phase.

^{[35]}Statistical analysis of these data is conducted with the focus on hole expansion capacity in relation to individual phases, combinations of phases and number of phases.

^{[36]}This study describes for the first time individual phases of microsporidiosis caused by E.

^{[37]}The methods differ on whether netting is based on each individual phase (or on the overall energy flow) and the netting interval used for settlement.

^{[38]}Pentamode metamaterials for simulating water with dual phase and triple phase were proposed and investigated in this article.

^{[39]}Sintering at 1000 °C promotes the formation of NiAl rich B2, CrFe disordered BCC and TiC phases making the alloy a dual phase structure with TiC precipitates.

^{[40]}The images of individual phases of the water-spot propagation show quite long-term stability of laminar structure of tracers inside the water spots.

^{[41]}In conjunction with the moderate-low content of potential hazardous elements, the features of the contained C-residual phases suggest that these fly ashes could possibly be the subject of further studies for their applicability as soil improvements.

^{[42]}In this research two individual phases of experiments are conducted for performance evaluation of proposed routing protocols.

^{[43]}The Hanqinggou plutons which have similar geochemical features but are more depleted in Ba, Ti, and P may represent the residual phase of the Datan pluton.

^{[44]}In this way, the individual phases do not have to be purely synthesized, which always involves the risk of structural changes.

^{[45]}The main innovation and contribution of this research is to 1) incorporate local fringe frequency (LFF) compensation technique into the nonlocal phase filtering method to include more independent and identically distributed samples for filtering; 2) modify the nonlocal phase filter from three aspects: 1) executing nonlocal filtering in the complex domain of the residual phase to avoid gray jumps in phase, 2) adaptively calculating the smoothing parameter based on the LFF and the coherence coefficient, and 3) using the integral image in similarity calculation to improve the efficiency; 3) perform Goldstein filter in high coherence areas to reduce the computation expense.

^{[46]}The dual phase lag (DPL) for the heat conduction equation is introduced in the context of the variable of the thermal conductivity.

^{[47]}Upon inspection of optical, electronic, and thermoelectric properties, the composites are found to exhibit emergent properties that are an improvement over its individual phases.

^{[48]}Based on dilatometric tests, it was observed that Al2O3/ZrO2 composites show a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than that resulting from the content of individual phases.

^{[49]}The volume fraction of the individual phase constituents (namely, granular bainite, upper bainite, lower bainite and tempered martensite) and their hardness, local deformation response and the strain-hardening ability, as determined from nanoindentation testing, influenced the bulk properties such as hardness, tensile properties (strength and ductility), Charpy impact properties (upper shelf energy, USE, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, DBTT) and strain-hardening abilities under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions.

^{[50]}

## face centered cubic

To provide experimental basis for designing Cu-rich non-equiatomic HEAs, in the current study, a dual phase (Cu-rich and CoCrFeNi-rich phases) face-centered cubic CoCrFeNiCu4 alloy was systematically investigated.^{[1]}Here we report a new deformation mechanism of mechanically-induced dual phase transformations from the face-centered cubic (FCC) to hexagonal close- packed (HCP) phase and then back to the FCC phase with nanotwins in a CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA).

^{[2]}Here, the GSFE curves for sequential faulting pathways in dual phase [face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp)] ${\mathrm{Cr}}_{20}{\mathrm{Mn}}_{20}{\mathrm{Fe}}_{20}{\mathrm{Co}}_{20}{\mathrm{Ni}}_{20}, {\mathrm{Cr}}_{25}{\mathrm{Fe}}_{25}{\mathrm{Co}}_{25}{\mathrm{Ni}}_{25}, {\mathrm{Cr}}_{20}{\mathrm{Mn}}_{20}{\mathrm{Fe}}_{34}{\mathrm{Co}}_{20}{\mathrm{Ni}}_{6}, {\mathrm{Cr}}_{20}{\mathrm{Mn}}_{20}{\mathrm{Fe}}_{30}{\mathrm{Co}}_{20}{\mathrm{Ni}}_{10}$, and ${\mathrm{Cr}}_{10}{\mathrm{Mn}}_{30}{\mathrm{Fe}}_{50}{\mathrm{Co}}_{10}$ high-entropy alloys are investigated on ${{111}}_{\text{fcc}}$ and ${(0002)}_{\text{hcp}}$ close-packed planes using density-functional calculations.

^{[3]}The original Co has a dual phase structure with a mixture of hexagonal closed-packed and face-centered cubic structures.

^{[4]}The results showed that the developed AlZnCuFeSi HEAF consists of a dual phase (Cu–Zn, face-centered cubic (FCC)) and Al–Fe–Si rich (base centered cubic, BCC) phases.

^{[5]}The results revealed that the alloys exhibited a dual phase structure with BCC (body centered cubic) and FCC (face centered cubic) solid solution phases.

^{[6]}

## heat conduction model

This work gives some results and develops the derivation of memory dependence heat conduction model with dual phase-lags using the modified definition of the fractional derivative of Caputo and hig.^{[1]}A unified model is proposed combining all variants of bioheat models: Fourier's heat conduction based Pennes' bioheat model, hyperbolic heat conduction model and dual phase lag model.

^{[2]}This paper deals with phase lag (or time-lagged) heat conduction models: the Cattaneo-Vernotte (or thermal wave) model and the dual phase lag model.

^{[3]}In this study, the fractional linear thermo-viscoelastic theory is developed with considering the fractional relaxation effect of dual phase lag heat conduction model and viscoelastic constitutive relation simultaneously.

^{[4]}

## dual active bridge

This article proposes a modular equalization system using dual phase-shift (DPS)-controlled capacitively isolated dual active bridge (CIDAB) converters.^{[1]}The modulation strategies of dual active bridge (DAB) including single phase-shift (SPS), dual phase-shift (DPS), and triple phase-shift (TPS) have been proposed to optimize the efficiency, eliminate the reactive power, and release the current stress.

^{[2]}This letter proposes a generic method to model and mitigate the transient dc bias in the transformer winding current and the magnetizing flux linkage of the dual-active bridge (DAB) converter, which is valid for all the most commonly used modulation methods such as single phase-shift, extended phase-shift, dual phase-shift, and triple phase-shift.

^{[3]}

## advanced high strength

Among the advanced high strength steels, the steel group named as dual phase (DP) steel has started to be preferred more than other AHSS steels due to their weight / strength ratio and good weldability in assembly [5].^{[1]}While different steel grades and even dissimilar metals can be joined with this method, the current paper focuses on similar joints of galvanized advanced high strength steel (AHSS), namely dual phase steel with a yield strength of 1200 MPa and high ductility (DP1200HD).

^{[2]}For the comprehensive investigation of advanced high strength steel grades, like complex and dual phase steels, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM) have proven to be useful tools, especially for analysis of hydrogen permeability of the individual steel phases.

^{[3]}

## high strength steel

In this paper, the effect of autogenous diode laser beam welding (LBW) and the influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on microstructural changes and mechanical properties of dual phase DP1400 high strength steel (HSS) butt welded joint are studied and presented.^{[1]}In this review, effects of initial microstructure before intercritical annealing and processing routes of dual phase (DP) high strength steels are discussed.

^{[2]}The work also revealed that the TRIP effect per se may not play a major role and it is the deformation of a composite microstructure comprising hard and soft phases, which allows TRIP aided steels to offer a better combination of mechanical properties (strength, ductility and strain hardening) in comparison with conventional high strength steels (HSS) like high strength interstitial free (HS-IF) steel and high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) and other first generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) like dual phase (DP) steels.

^{[3]}

## single phase shift

Dual phase shift (DPS) control can extend ZVS range greatly compared with single phase shift (SPS) control, and it has less control variables with reduced operation modes compared with triple phase shift (TPS) control.^{[1]}Multiple typical modulation schemes have been proposed, which include single phase-shift (SPS) modulation, dual phase-shift (DPS) modulation, and discontinuous current SPS (DCSPS) modulation.

^{[2]}

## Bcc Dual Phase

A new family of Cobalt–Copper–Iron–Nickel–Zinc (Co–Cu–Fe–Ni–Zn) HEA thin films are prepared through pulse electrodeposition in aqueous medium, hosts nanocrystalline features in the range of ~ 5–20 nm having FCC and BCC dual phases.^{[1]}75, in which the structure changed from FCC to FCC/BCC dual phase.

^{[2]}The phase components of the studied alloy in the as-cast and annealed conditions are the FCC + BCC dual phases, unlike the single FCC phase component of the precursory base alloy.

^{[3]}

## Β Dual Phase

The results showed the composite comprises alternating recrystallized Ti layer, β-Ti alloy layer with deformed microstructure, and α+β dual phase interface layer containing submicron sized rod-like or granular α phase.^{[1]}The whole coating/substrate system is substrate → physically gas-absorbed Fe surface → oxygen-enriched TaOx layer → amorphous Ta → α and β dual phase → single α phase.

^{[2]}As a result, we found a random texture originating from the fine grains in the initial material and observed a significant suppression of α phase nucleation in the slow cooling after heating to 950 ∘C within the α and β dual phase regime but close to the the β-transus temperature at ∼980 ∘C, which led to a coarse microstructure.

^{[3]}

## Novel Dual Phase

Among them, a novel dual phase microstructure consisting of 51 vol.^{[1]}This article proposes a novel dual phase LLC resonant converter with an improved variable frequency-based zero circulating current phase-shift modulation scheme for wide input voltage applications.

^{[2]}

## dual phase steel

In the present work, specimens of the the mentioned S355 steel are cold rolled with two different pass reductions and heat treated to obtain a DP800 dual phase steel.^{[1]}In the present work, low carbon dual phase steels with ultrafine grains and nanoscale copper rich precipitates were produced by a combination of warm deformation and isothermal aging processes.

^{[2]}As a result, the DBTT of ferrite–bainite dual phase steel could be improved by increasing the amount of separation during DWTT.

^{[3]}, “Investigations on the edge crack defectsin dual phase steel stamping process”, Procedia Manufacturing, Vol.

^{[4]}To enable a further evaluation of the process chain and its relevant process parameters, a numerical and experimental test phase using strip of a dual phase steel DP600 with a sheet thickness of t0 = 0.

^{[5]}Banding in commercial dual phase steels, such as banded ferrite and pearlite or ferrite and martensite microstructures, is inherited from segregation during solidification in continuously cast material, predominantly from Mn segregation, and subsequent rolling.

^{[6]}In this work, digital image correlation is applied to different types of shear testing performed on a dual phase steel.

^{[7]}In this contribution, the effects of the coating nature on the hydrogen diffusion of a 980 MPa dual phase steel (DP980) are investigated.

^{[8]}These influences are investigated for a dual phase steel with an ultimate tensile strength of 1200 MPa, a fracture strain of 14% and high ductility (DP1200HD) by means of systematic isothermal hot tensile testing on a Gleeble® 3800 thermomechanical simulator.

^{[9]}The capability of prediction and a detailed application are investigated considering material data of dual phase steel sheets.

^{[10]}While different steel grades and even dissimilar metals can be joined with this method, the current paper focuses on similar joints of galvanized advanced high strength steel (AHSS), namely dual phase steel with a yield strength of 1200 MPa and high ductility (DP1200HD).

^{[11]}In this context, the hole expansion test (HET) of a dual phase steel was interrupted at pre-defined punch travel heights to understand the time-dependent effects on stretch-flangeability.

^{[12]}Two highly different materials are chosen: the mildly anisotropic dual phase steel DP780 and the highly anisotropic zirconium alloy Zirlo.

^{[13]}Hysteresis loop characteristics are successfully measured for a dual phase steel up to the Curie point for heating and cooling.

^{[14]}The significant impact of ultra-rapid heating continuous annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al substituted Si dual phase steel under hot-dip galvanized process was studied.

^{[15]}Dual phase steels are materials whose microstructure is composed of a ferrite matrix with martensite islands.

^{[16]}For the comprehensive investigation of advanced high strength steel grades, like complex and dual phase steels, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM) have proven to be useful tools, especially for analysis of hydrogen permeability of the individual steel phases.

^{[17]}For this purpose, Friction Melt Bonding (FMB) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) were used to join aluminum AA6061 and Dual Phase steel (DP980).

^{[18]}Dual phase steels are largely used to form automotive structural parts by deep drawing involving complex loading paths, which influence the material mechanical behavior and formability, as well as subsequent service life.

^{[19]}In this study, the galvanizing and galvannealing ability of dual phase steel sheet (DP 590), with and without Fe pre-coatings, is investigated with varying dew points using a hot dip process simulator (HDPS).

^{[20]}The ferrite–bainite microstructures and mechanical properties in a hot-rolled dual phase steel with different transformation temperatures were investigated in this paper.

^{[21]}In this paper, we utilize reflective digital holographic microscopy (rDHM) to evaluate the mean height between ferrite and martensite phases in dual phase steel (DPS) samples.

^{[22]}This work adopts elastic–plastic/damage coupling in order to describe tensile behavior with validation on the deep-drawing test of a DP980 Dual Phase steel sheet.

^{[23]}

## dual phase lag

The volumetric heat source component in nonlinear dual phase lag bio-heat transfer model such as the metabolic heat generation is considered an experimentally temperature-dependent function.^{[1]}The dual phase lag (DPL) for the heat conduction equation is introduced in the context of the variable of the thermal conductivity.

^{[2]}In the current article, the dual phase lag theory is used to discussed the waves propagations in poroelastic nanoscale materials by the finite element method.

^{[3]}The required inputs for the inverse problem in the fractional diffusion equation are chosen from the outcomes of the dual phase lag (DPL) theory.

^{[4]}Comparing the two (or three)-temperature equation model with the nonlocal bioheat transfer models with lagging time, one may obtain: the lagging time of temperature gradient τtand the nonlocal characteristic length λq in the space derivative items of heat flux have the same effect on heat transfer; when the heat transport occur among N energy carriers with considering the conduction effects of all carries, the heat transfer processes are dependent upon the high-order effect of τqN-1, τtN-1 and λt(2N-1) in nonlocal dual phase lag bioheat transfer model.

^{[5]}The governing equations for photothermoelastic with dual phase lag model are framed for two dimensional case and are further simplified by using potential function.

^{[6]}The results for the TPL model have been compared with those for the dual phase lag theory.

^{[7]}The Schrödinger-Poisson equations coupled with Dual phase lag (DPL) thermal transfer equation was undertaken.

^{[8]}The system of governing equations are formulated in terms of displacement vector field, chemical potential and the tissue temperature in the context of non local dual phase lag (NL DPL) theories of heat conduction and mass diffusion.

^{[9]}A unified model is proposed combining all variants of bioheat models: Fourier's heat conduction based Pennes' bioheat model, hyperbolic heat conduction model and dual phase lag model.

^{[10]}This paper deals with phase lag (or time-lagged) heat conduction models: the Cattaneo-Vernotte (or thermal wave) model and the dual phase lag model.

^{[11]}To demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed BEM methodology, numerical solutions for two-dimensional (2D) special case of the nonlinear space-time fractional dual phase lag bio-heat transfer problems are obtained and compared to experimental, Legendre wavelet collocation method (LWCM) and Fractional order Legendre functions and Galerkin method (FOLFs-GM).

^{[12]}In order to consider the finite speed of heat transfer, dual phase lag (DPL) model is implemented for prediction of the thermal results.

^{[13]}In this study, the fractional linear thermo-viscoelastic theory is developed with considering the fractional relaxation effect of dual phase lag heat conduction model and viscoelastic constitutive relation simultaneously.

^{[14]}These concepts are demonstrated by revisiting two experiments from the literature in which the Cattaneo–Vernotte and the dual phase lag models are utilized.

^{[15]}One of the general forms of the bioheat transfer equation which is introduced and studied in this paper for the first time, is the 2D-transient, dual phase lag (DPL), variable-order fractional energy equation.

^{[16]}ABSTRACT The generalized model for plasma, thermal, and elastic waves under dual phase lag model have been applied to determine the carrier density, the displacement, the temperature, and the stresses in a semiconductor medium.

^{[17]}The problem is solved in the context of the theory of generalized thermoelasticity with dual phase lags.

^{[18]}

## dual phase noise

Our results indicate that the autoencoder can be successfully optimized using the proposed training method to achieve better robustness to residual phase noise with respect to standard constellation schemes such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation and Iterative Polar Modulation for the considered conditions.^{[1]}By exploiting different electro-optic modulators as fast actuators, this method can extend the feedback bandwidth to more than 150 kHz at the repetition rate phase locking and carrier-envelope offset phase locking We obtain a residual phase noise of 21.

^{[2]}Residual errors in the phase estimation at the receiver, also known as residual phase noise (RPN), follow the so-called Tikhonov distribution.

^{[3]}We demonstrate optical-microwave timing synchronization by employing electro-optic sampling-based timing detector with residual phase noise (at 8-GHz carrier) of –174.

^{[4]}Finally, we carry out simulations to verify the theoretical analysis, and evaluate the impact of the channel estimation errors and residual phase noises on the optimization performance.

^{[5]}A sub-sampling phase detector formed by a balanced optical microwave phase detector (BOMPD) eliminates the use of RF frequency divider and maintains low residual phase noise.

^{[6]}The value of residual phase noise, after phase compensation, is one of the key limitations of performance improvement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using a local local oscillator (LLO CV-QKD) system, since it is the major excess noise.

^{[7]}Accordingly, the in-loop residual phase noise of fceo and fr are 468 mrad and 0.

^{[8]}Finally, the residual phase noise is eliminated by the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator.

^{[9]}The residual phase noise power spectral density of the 300-km cascaded link measured at 100-MHz is also obtained.

^{[10]}We achieved a servo bandwidth of 200 kHz, a residual phase noise of 0.

^{[11]}We show both theoretically and experimentally for the first time that carrier suppression is capable of suppressing the effects of the residual phase noise of the microwave amplifiers and the relative intensity noise of light in the system by up to 70 dB, and therefore effectively eliminates the contributions of these noise sources to the noise floor of the phase noise measurement system.

^{[12]}

## dual phase microstructure

The prepared HEA had a dual phase microstructure consisting of body-centered cubic (BCC) phase (32.^{[1]}Significant softening was observed due to dual phase microstructure of ferrite and martensite in the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) and tempered martensite (TM) structure in sub-critical HAZ.

^{[2]}The solidified fusion zone consists of an elongated dual phase microstructure with a bimodal grain size distribution.

^{[3]}Here, we investigate their validity in a dual phase microstructure that is locally dominated by its microstructural morphological complexity based on a statistical ensemble of thousands of individual voids formed under different stress states.

^{[4]}Among them, a novel dual phase microstructure consisting of 51 vol.

^{[5]}Further experimental analysis found that a dual phase microstructure presents in the Al 1.

^{[6]}While 3D techniques have enabled many findings in steels, fine dual phase microstructures in titanium alloys such as the basketweave structure have been challenging to resolve.

^{[7]}Results indicated that the specimen showed superior austenite/ferrite (γ/δ) dual phase microstructure, high strength (608.

^{[8]}

## dual phase structure

Sintering at 1000 °C promotes the formation of NiAl rich B2, CrFe disordered BCC and TiC phases making the alloy a dual phase structure with TiC precipitates.^{[1]}The RHEA composite has a dual phase structure: a RHEA matrix (BCC) and a complex carbide (FCC).

^{[2]}A dual phase structure consisting of ferrite and martensite has been achieved in Ti-bearing steels microalloyed with Mo or Cu, respectively, which were treated under different austenitizing and hot deformation conditions to investigate the effects of second microalloying elements and thermomechanical processes on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties.

^{[3]}X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results show the as-deposited coatings demonstrate a fcc-TiN + bct-Ti2N dual phase structure, with Mo solution into TiN lattice.

^{[4]}The original Co has a dual phase structure with a mixture of hexagonal closed-packed and face-centered cubic structures.

^{[5]}The DSS is dual phase structure comprising of austenite and ferrite in equal proportion.

^{[6]}It was observed that the microstructure of each sample had bainite and ferrite dual phase structure.

^{[7]}The results revealed that the alloys exhibited a dual phase structure with BCC (body centered cubic) and FCC (face centered cubic) solid solution phases.

^{[8]}

## dual phase shift

Based on the dual phase shift control strategy, the power transmission optimization algorithm model is analyzed and derived, and a control method for optimizing mode switching is proposed.^{[1]}Dual phase shift (DPS) control can extend ZVS range greatly compared with single phase shift (SPS) control, and it has less control variables with reduced operation modes compared with triple phase shift (TPS) control.

^{[2]}Furthermore, the iHCM is compared in analysis and simulations by the variable switching frequency dual phase shift modulation (VSF DPSM) method that have small RMS current advantage in the vicinity of nominal output power.

^{[3]}It is shown that the conventional dual phase shift (DPS) control method imposes high stresses on system components, especially when the coupling coefficient is unknown.

^{[4]}The residual phase shift of the electron beam footprint on the phase plate was measured by electron holography and used as input to image simulations that were compared to experimental data.

^{[5]}

## dual phase error

Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution.^{[1]}However, so far, the use of independent, ultralow-linewidth, stable sources in a precision fibre frequency link and the demonstration of ultralow residual phase error using low-bandwidth synchronization methods have not been reported.

^{[2]}To this end, numerical computation is designed for the accurate azimuth frequency-time mapping in the presence of the residual phase errors.

^{[3]}This study assumes that the LIS performs non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that follows a Von Mises distribution, and shows that the resulting channel can be accurately approximated by a Gamma distributed SNR whose parameters are analytically derived.

^{[4]}Either acquisitions were reconstructed using a complex R2* algorithm that accounts for the presence of fat and residual phase errors due to eddy currents.

^{[5]}

## dual phase transition

Extended cycling shows a gradual phase transition, that is, from the original orthorhombic V3 O7 · H2 O to a stable hexagonal Zn3 (VO4 )2 (H2 O)2.^{[1]}The enantiomeric compound undergoes a dual phase transition with a Tc of 460 K and 367 K.

^{[2]}The change in the optical gap indicated the presence of a gradual phase transition for the polymer blends.

^{[3]}Dynamic light scattering measurements in aqueous solutions of these polymers reflect a small particle size (∼2-8 nm) at solution pH below their individual phase transition pH, while a large particle size (∼140-340 nm) forms beyond their phase transition pH.

^{[4]}All the samples exhibit a gradual phase transition behavior from the tetragonal to a cubic structure with the increase in the Ni–Nb co-doping concentration.

^{[5]}

## dual phase parathyroid

Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the results of ultrasonography and Tc-99m sestamibi dual phase parathyroid scintigraphy with postoperative pathology findings in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.^{[1]}The objective of this study is to continue prior physical phantom optimization studies by performing Monte Carlo simulations for the dual phase parathyroid SPECT-CT protocol using a digital anthropomorphic phantom.

^{[2]}For detection of hyper-functioning parathyroid tissue, routine neck ultrasound and 99mTc-MIBI dual phase parathyroid scintigraphy were performed.

^{[3]}

## dual phase component

Using a non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) approach, we show how the pair distribution function (PDF) of complex mixtures can be deconvolved into the contributions from the individual phase components and also the interface between phases.^{[1]}Using a non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) approach, we show how the pair distribution function (PDF) of complex mixtures can be deconvolved into the contributions from the individual phase components and also the interface between phases.

^{[2]}Then, fast non-local means filtering is used to extract an accurate residual phase component.

^{[3]}

## dual phase transformation

Here we report a new deformation mechanism of mechanically-induced dual phase transformations from the face-centered cubic (FCC) to hexagonal close- packed (HCP) phase and then back to the FCC phase with nanotwins in a CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA).^{[1]}7 V voltage range, this work puts forward a concomitant and gradual phase transformation from γ’-V2O5 to zinc pyrovanadate Zn3V2O7(OH)2.

^{[2]}It is shown that this leads to the incompleteness of a gradual phase transformation, jump-like transformation behavior, and jump in stress.

^{[3]}

## dual phase nature

Structural investigation suggests the dual phase nature of all the composites (consist of LCMO and BFO phases).^{[1]}Ta chemical vapour deposition (CVD) coatings on standard carbon steel pipeline materials offer an economic solution with superior properties but have been demonstrated to exhibit a dual phase nature with a metastable, hard, and brittle beta (β) phase, and a ductile alpha (α) phase, and also detrimental interfacial characteristics.

^{[2]}

## dual phase membrane

Dual phase membranes with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity exhibit promising properties for applications in pure oxygen separation under harsh atmospheres.^{[1]}By this method, SSF perovskite particles was etched from both sides of SDC-SSF dual phase membrane, and a SDC/SDC-SSF/SDC three-layer membrane with sandwich structure could be obtained.

^{[2]}

## dual phase change

X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements proved that a gradual phase change from anatase to rutile occurred with increased annealing temperature.^{[1]}A precise integration boundary element method based on the effective heat capacity model is proposed to solve dual phase change problems in this paper.

^{[2]}

## dual phase shifter

In the DPS structure, dual phase shifters are combined into one beamforming weight.^{[1]}In the literature, many array calibration algorithms have been proposed for this purpose, which generally requires customized phase setting for individual phase shifters connected to array elements.

^{[2]}