## What is/are Cs Teachers?

Cs Teachers - This study aimed at identifying the reality of mathematics teachers’ practices in the secondary stages of electronic Mathematical communication skills and their attitude towards its use in teaching.^{[1]}The study results present the practice of cognitive assessment regularly carried out by online-based mathematics teachers in high-grade elementary schools to secondary schools.

^{[2]}This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the professional identity measure of the professional identity of Mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

^{[3]}Having utilized data from a series of task-based interviews, this study examined connections between empirical and structural reasoning as preservice mathematics teachers solved problems designed to engage them in constructing and generalizing mathematical ideas aided by digital tools.

^{[4]}This article presents an analysis of requests for authorization, conversion or recognition of courses that trained mathematics teachers in Brazil, between 1962 and 1979, from federal or private public institutions, published in Documenta Magazine.

^{[5]}This study critically examines the mathematics knowledge of pre-service post-primary mathematics teachers (N = 85) on commencing their Professional Master of Education (Level 9) initial teacher edu.

^{[6]}The purpose of the article is to determine the content and structure of future mathematics teachers’ preparedness to organize mobile learning for schoolchildren.

^{[7]}The COVID 19 pandemic promotes several new technological products to facilitate learning process However, there are still few studies on the integration of Augmented Reality (AR) technology into Blended Learning (BL), particularly on the education of prospective mathematics teachers This research examines the effect of using augmented reality blended learning during the COVID 19 epidemic on 3D geometry, as well as the learning motivation and attitudes 15 prospective teachers, including 4 males and 11 females, at one of Indonesia's private universities were engaged in to determine how 3D geometry is understood Data on learning motivation and attitudes were collected through questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired-samples t-test The results show that during the COVID-19 pandemic, augmented reality blended learning facilitates the comprehension of 3D geometry knowledge by prospective teacher applicants and promotes learning motivation and attitudes Therefore, the use of new technology is significant to prospective teachers' needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic, to facilitate their teaching practice in real classrooms © 2021 Karadeniz Technical University All rights reserved.

^{[8]}This research aims to identify science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their educational practice through applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).

^{[9]}Based on the results and conclusion, it is recommended that students secure different math apps since they can greatly help them improve their number intelligence; that Mathematics teachers showcase the apps and other related learning tools, and that the Department of Education strive more to address the needs of the students in this New Normal Education.

^{[10]}The results of the data analysis show that: the implementation of learning components and strategies using the quantum learning model in physics learning are grouped into sufficient categories, the use of e-books is that physics teachers have never used them, teacher only uses printed books or modules in learning.

^{[11]}The subjects of this research were 30 students of senor high school and 5 mathematics teachers.

^{[12]}Pedagogical experiments were carried out based on the elaboration, development and evaluation of interdisciplinary projects conducted with students in the final years of elementary school (11 14 years of age), with the participation of science, geography, Portuguese, and mathematics teachers.

^{[13]}Can mathematics education contribute to build a better world? The chapter reports on a participatory research conducted by a researcher in mathematics education together with 11 mathematics teachers.

^{[14]}25% and has been tested on physics teachers with an average score of 82.

^{[15]}The research instrument was a paper‐based questionnaire on a five‐point Likert scale administered face to face to randomly selected mathematics teachers from among 5 states in Nigeria, Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data and possible conclusions were drawn.

^{[16]}Secondly, this study also aimed to examine participating Turkish preservice mathematics teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching by using international results of TEDS-M Study.

^{[17]}Specific topics for the physics teachers are presented in the following section:" Mechanical movement "based on Lego;" Sound and sound waves.

^{[18]}This study was intended to investigate high school Mathematics teachers’ perception of the learning models associated with students’ critical thinking skills.

^{[19]}Article History: Purpose: Drawing on semi-structured and focusedgroup interviews performed with various pre-service mathematics teachers and in-service mathematics teachers, the present study benefits from the frame of teacher identity to make the meaning of heterogeneity among their experiences and perceptions of mathematics teaching anxiety.

^{[20]}To understand the root of problem in teaching multiplication, this study aims a t elaborating the abilities of prospective mathematics teachers in making sense the multiplication algorithm.

^{[21]}The ability to prove formal mathematics is an important ability that must be mastered by undergraduate prospective mathematics teachers.

^{[22]}The research analyses the existing developments of the issue about the use of blended learning while training would-be mathematics teachers.

^{[23]}This article is the result of research that aimed to study the perceptions of physics teachers in the city of Vilhena-RO about their needs for continuing education in digital technologies in education.

^{[24]}Mathematics teachers in SMP / MTs in Lengayang District, Pesisir Selatan Regency still have limitations in using computers as a tool for making learning media with the help of math software.

^{[25]}The purpose of the research is to examine the development of elementary mathematics teachers’ use of multiple representation and translations between representations throughout the implementations of hypothetical learning trajectories.

^{[26]}80, determined by the results of the teaching material assessment conducted by mathematics teachers at SMP Negeri 56 Palembang.

^{[27]}The product design stage produces a product that is then validated by the media and material by experts in their fields and practicality by mathematics teachers.

^{[28]}This paper reports the results of a survey of English secondary mathematics teachers’ use of ICT (n = 183).

^{[29]}This article tries to show the paths taken by mathematics teachers, still without experience in Mathematical Modeling, in the conduction of a task using this methodology.

^{[30]}The duo of artefacts is a simplified model of the complex systems of various manipulatives (either tangible or virtual) that mathematics teachers and their students use in classrooms.

^{[31]}This report deals with one of the presented problems in the initial training of mathematics teachers and aims to characterize the process of variation problems of linear algebra at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo.

^{[32]}An intervention program to address these concerns was designed and recommended for use by the mathematics teachers.

^{[33]}Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Mathematics teachers should adopt cooperative learning strategy as an effective learning strategy in order to improve senior secondary school students’ academic performance.

^{[34]}The problem of High School Physics teachers in West Aceh Regency is the limited facilities and infrastructure for the Physics laboratory.

^{[35]}The samples were 132 Science and Mathematics teachers during 2019 academic year in Thailand.

^{[36]}The feasibility test was carried out by material experts, media experts, design experts and Senior High School Physics Teachers.

^{[37]}The article discusses the issues of enhancing the learning process, increasing the efficiency of the lesson using innovative methods necessary in the future and professional activities of future physics teachers.

^{[38]}In this study, we analyzed White Christian prospective and practicing mathematics teachers’ discourses.

^{[39]}And There is a positive and significant influence of transformational leadership, compensation and work motivation on job satisfaction at mathematics Teachers.

^{[40]}The interplay between mathematics teachers’ beliefs and practices has been widely investigated and research has examined how teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, teaching and learning change when participating in continuing professional development (CPD).

^{[41]}Previous studies of prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ mathematics anxiety have documented that many prospective teachers often worry about managing their repeated experiences of anxiety while developing their pedagogical and content knowledge to teach mathematics.

^{[42]}Traditionally, mathematics teachers held the predominance of agency and authority in classrooms.

^{[43]}The study involved 10 physics teachers and 105 high school students in Lampung Province.

^{[44]}This study takes an in-depth look into what Japanese junior high mathematics teachers do during their daily kyouzaikenkyuu, and why they do it.

^{[45]}The results of this study are very important as information and input for educational providers in elementary schools, especially for mathematics teachers who directly interact with students in the learning process.

^{[46]}The subjects in the study were physics teachers and students at SMA Negeri 3 Palu and SMA Karunadipa Palu.

^{[47]}Based on the findings, Mathematics teachers were recommended to take control over the students and improve students’ perceived control and confidence value during Mathematics evaluation so that their emotional condition could be well-controlled.

^{[48]}Here, in addition to the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), later the State University of Amazonas (UEA), other private institutions made possible, in a certain way, the development of this area of knowledge in our state and the training of Mathematics teachers.

^{[49]}This study aims to analyze the skills of high school physics teachers in developing STEM-based learning in Curriculum K13.

^{[50]}

## junior high school

The instrument was an open questionnaire, and it was given to 26 mathematics teachers at junior high school in Padang Pariaman region.^{[1]}Hence, this study aimed to describe the knowledge competency among junior high school mathematics teachers on the research processes applied on the contents of the various sections of a quantitative research paper.

^{[2]}For suggestion, mathematics teachers in junior high schools can apply this study’s results to improve higher-order thinking skills and become more familiar with their culture.

^{[3]}Drawing on convergent mixed methods research design, this study examined Junior High School (JHS) mathematics teachers’ practice of differentiated instruction and its associated challenges in Tano South district, in the Ahafo Region of Ghana.

^{[4]}ABSTRACT This study sought to determine the Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ level of professional and personal characteristics in Maguindanao Division I.

^{[5]}The study involved three mathematics teachers and 90 students from three different junior high school regions in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia (city center, semi-urban, and suburban).

^{[6]}The purpose of this study: To analyse the role of junior high school mathematics teachers in developing 4C competencies.

^{[7]}The research subjects were junior high school Mathematics teachers.

^{[8]}Sources of data came from seven junior high school mathematics teachers (SMP) in Kudus and Tangerang who provided answers to questions in the google form.

^{[9]}The results of interviews with mathematics teachers in Junior High School 2 Jumapolo, it is known that students often experience difficulties in learning mathematics.

^{[10]}The subject of the research was 34 physics teachers in Junior High School, which is 13 of male teachers and 21 female teachers.

^{[11]}This research uses descriptive qualitative methods, conducted by interviewing 15 mathematics teachers and observations made to 10 junior high school students.

^{[12]}Participants of this research were 12 junior high school mathematics teachers from 12 high schools in the Special Region of Yogyakarta and Central Java.

^{[13]}

## pedagogical content knowledge

This paper presents an investigation of the development of mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through collaborative lesson design activities.^{[1]}Nøkkelord: matematiske undervisningsutfordringer, undervisningskunnskap, tallforståelse Mathematics teachers’ reflections about experienced tasks of teaching Teaching requires a special content knowledge as well as pedagogical content knowledge.

^{[2]}The current study, in particular, attempted to test whether prospective elementary mathematics teachers’ (PEMTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the domain of algebra improved through attendance in a structured elective course.

^{[3]}The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy of pre-service physics teachers on the competence of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge (WPACK), determine the relationship between the components of self-efficacy of pre-service physics teachers to these competencies, and map them out.

^{[4]}In this exploratory study, a sample of 244 secondary mathematics teachers was considered to analyze their perception of their readiness to ERT during the COVID-19 pandemic based on their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK), their previous training in digital teaching tools, their level of digital competence for teaching mathematics, and their adaptation to ERT.

^{[5]}This study reports mixed-methods research findings, which assesses the level of mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in selected secondary schools of Zanzibar.

^{[6]}This paper aims to discuss the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development by mathematics teachers (preservice and inservice) that participated in an online course for developing educational apps and puzzles with GeoGebra.

^{[7]}

## upper secondary school

In this paper, we describe a study with 71 upper secondary school students, 50 pre-service mathematics teachers, and 66 in-service mathematics teachers, based on an extended didactical framework regarding mathematical modelling as a creativity-demanding activity.^{[1]}A descriptive design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized whereby data were collected from 201 upper secondary school respondents comprising 171 students, 16 mathematics teachers, 7 department heads, and 7 school heads from seven randomly selected schools in the districts of Ba and Tavua.

^{[2]}This is done by giving upper secondary school mathematics teachers real working life examples connected to topics in their courses and developing a MOOC for students in which they can solve workrelated mathematical problems.

^{[3]}

## professional development course

Our group has carried out a collaboration project with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in a PLS (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche) professional development course promoted by the Department of Science and High Technology (DiSAT – Dipartimento Scienze e Alta Tecnologia) of Insubria University in Como, Italy.^{[1]}That is why a professional development course was developed in which five mathematics teachers of braille readers in special secondary education participated.

^{[2]}The design heuristic was implemented in both cycles in an online professional development course for secondary mathematics teachers.

^{[3]}

## cs teachers use

However, not much is known about how primary school mathematics teachers use oral questioning to assess student learning because previous studies have focused more on oral questioning in general in terms of its implementation in teaching.^{[1]}Embracing a multisemiotic approach, this case study addresses the ways in which prospective middle school mathematics teachers use linguistic signifiers idiosyncratic to the Turkish language to construe mathematical meaning of angles formed by two lines cut by a transversal.

^{[2]}Therefore, we try to answer the following research questions: (1) What elements/ materials/sources do high school physics teachers use to organize didactic activities based on experimentation? (2) What are the main aspects that characterize how high school physics teachers usually work experimentation in their classes? To collect information, we conducted interviews with seven high school physics teachers from schools belonging to the State Public Network of a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.

^{[3]}Hence, this paper aimed to investigate to what extend do Malaysian primary Mathematics teachers use textbooks in preparing their lesson plans and implement textbooks approach in teaching Mathematics.

^{[4]}

## cs teachers participated

There were 408 mathematics teachers participated in this program which resulted in 78 revised teaching materials.^{[1]}The case explores demographic information related to teacher preparation and the sample is drawn from eighth grade science and mathematics teachers participated in TIMSS 2007, 2011, and 2015 in Turkey.

^{[2]}Therefore, an experiment was conducted to explore whether game-based teaching can change students’ interest and improves achievement? For this, 108 female students and 10 elementary mathematics teachers participated in this study.

^{[3]}1719 students and 53 mathematics teachers participated in the study.

^{[4]}

## cs teachers must

Factors that can affect the understanding of Civics teachers, the existence of socialization with fellow Civics teachers, the existence of a two-way communication with MGMP members, the existence of shared perceptions in overcoming problematic students, the existence of collaboration when solving problems faced by students and cooperation can be carried out with teachers PAI, counseling teachers, Civics teachers must know or really understand the role and objectives of Civics learning, because Civics subjects have a role in education to develop character development through the role of Civics teachers.^{[1]}Mathematics teachers must actively create conditions in teaching, and guide students to discover and learn direct activity, thinking and representation.

^{[2]}Mathematics teachers must be able to engage in self-reflection and think constructively about their professional activities to instruct students effectively.

^{[3]}Pre-service mathematics teachers must have the ability to select and use measures of center.

^{[4]}

## cs teachers need

As CS is (re-)entering national school curricula throughout the world, qualified CS teachers need to be trained.^{[1]}Physics teachers need to mastery TPACK and teamwork skills because they were essential in work.

^{[2]}After assessing the quality of pupils' knowledge, we can judge for which mathematics topics teachers need methodic help in the self-directed learning process in primary school.

^{[3]}One of the competencies mathematics teachers need is the deepening of subject matter in mathematical concepts.

^{[4]}

## cs teachers working

This study is a qualitative research which was conducted in order to reveal the instructional explanations of class teachers and primary school mathematics teachers working in state schools about division.^{[1]}Suitable samples were chosen among the sample types and the sample of the research was formed by 11 volunteer Religious Culture and Ethics teachers working at secondary schools at the 2019-2020 academic year.

^{[2]}Research data were obtained by evaluating 36 concept cartoons created by mathematics teachers working in Sivas city center.

^{[3]}

## cs teachers regarding

This study aims to explore the beliefs of primary school mathematics teachers regarding mathematics assessment.^{[1]}This article aims to present the perceptions of a group of basic education mathematics teachers regarding the teaching strategy called application of models and highlight its relationship with mathematical modelling in the educational context.

^{[2]}This study was conducted to describe the types of feedback given by primary school mathematics teachers regarding the student response in the oral questioning process when teaching mathematics.

^{[3]}

## cs teachers solved

Having utilized data from a series of task-based interviews, this study examined connections between empirical and structural reasoning as preservice mathematics teachers solved problems designed to engage them in constructing and generalizing mathematical ideas aided by digital tools.^{[1]}, 2020) to characterize how 51 mathematics teachers solved a comparison proportional problem.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers identified

Latent profile analysis for 156 secondary-level mathematics teachers identified three motivational profiles which differed only in their performance goals: low performance goal-oriented (49%), high performance goal-oriented (38%), and high performance-avoidance goal-oriented (13%).^{[1]}The participants of the study were comprised of 13 middle school mathematics teachers identified via the maximum sampling technique.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers spread

The research data were obtained from unstructured interviews with 10 middle school mathematics teachers spread across 4 districts in West Sulawesi Province.^{[1]}Data were collected using a needs analysis questionnaire with 14 respondents of physics teachers spread across several regions in Indonesia and 36 respondents of class XI students in SMA Negeri 2 Sragen.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers acros

xvii), the ICMI Study “is posited on the experience of many mathematics teachers across the world that its history makes a difference : that having the history of mathematics as a resource for the teacher is beneficial.^{[1]}Specifically, it aimed to study the competence level of economics teachers across curriculum content, instructional design and implementation, and assessment and evaluation procedures.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers actively

In a face-to-face professional development workshop with 457 mathematics teachers actively participating using an online platform, we found that after a 10-min introduction they could successfully apply the algorithm and use it in a couple of models.^{[1]}In a face-to-face professional development workshop with 457 mathematics teachers actively participating using an online platform, we found that after a 10-minute introduction they could successfully apply the algorithm and use it in a couple of models.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers may

Accordingly, aside from assisting their more gifted students, mathematics teachers may want to consider ways to introduce Gaussian thinking to the benefit of all their students.^{[1]}Researchers recommend that Mathematics teachers may use PEDE Productive Failure as a modular learning approach in the new normal to develop creative thinking ability in Mathematics.

^{[2]}

## cs teachers toward

This study aims to determine the opinions and attitudes of secondary school mathematics teachers towards using technology in mathematics education.^{[1]}Searching for effective teaching methods that contribute to providing structured and influential experiences in learning mathematics and finding and employing methods Educational assistance assisting the teacher in fixing concepts, facts and generalizations in the learner’s long-term memory during the Corona pandemic and raising the level of students ’achievement in mathematics in light of studies that confirm the low level of achievement in this topic during the pandemic and a comparison between the achievement of male and female students in terms of the effectiveness of the teaching method (using the telephone Mobile) from distance and knowing the trends of mathematics teachers towards using the mobile phone as an educational method for distance learning.

^{[2]}