## What is/are Cs Teacher?

Cs Teacher - This study aimed at identifying the reality of mathematics teachers’ practices in the secondary stages of electronic Mathematical communication skills and their attitude towards its use in teaching.^{[1]}The study results present the practice of cognitive assessment regularly carried out by online-based mathematics teachers in high-grade elementary schools to secondary schools.

^{[2]}This study investigates whether graduate courses for in-service physics teacher professional development that combine the conceptual history of physics, physics content, and physics education research readings will result in the teachers using the history of science for their own classroom instruction.

^{[3]}This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the professional identity measure of the professional identity of Mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

^{[4]}Having utilized data from a series of task-based interviews, this study examined connections between empirical and structural reasoning as preservice mathematics teachers solved problems designed to engage them in constructing and generalizing mathematical ideas aided by digital tools.

^{[5]}The article is aimed to the theme of formation of the future economics teacher’s methodological culture.

^{[6]}Keywords: Reference epistemological model (REM), Anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD), Mathematics teacher education, Probability and statistics.

^{[7]}This article presents an analysis of requests for authorization, conversion or recognition of courses that trained mathematics teachers in Brazil, between 1962 and 1979, from federal or private public institutions, published in Documenta Magazine.

^{[8]}This study critically examines the mathematics knowledge of pre-service post-primary mathematics teachers (N = 85) on commencing their Professional Master of Education (Level 9) initial teacher edu.

^{[9]}The purpose of the article is to determine the content and structure of future mathematics teachers’ preparedness to organize mobile learning for schoolchildren.

^{[10]}The COVID 19 pandemic promotes several new technological products to facilitate learning process However, there are still few studies on the integration of Augmented Reality (AR) technology into Blended Learning (BL), particularly on the education of prospective mathematics teachers This research examines the effect of using augmented reality blended learning during the COVID 19 epidemic on 3D geometry, as well as the learning motivation and attitudes 15 prospective teachers, including 4 males and 11 females, at one of Indonesia's private universities were engaged in to determine how 3D geometry is understood Data on learning motivation and attitudes were collected through questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired-samples t-test The results show that during the COVID-19 pandemic, augmented reality blended learning facilitates the comprehension of 3D geometry knowledge by prospective teacher applicants and promotes learning motivation and attitudes Therefore, the use of new technology is significant to prospective teachers' needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic, to facilitate their teaching practice in real classrooms © 2021 Karadeniz Technical University All rights reserved.

^{[11]}The author introduces the social competences of a modern mathematics teacher and provides in-depth insights into their specificity.

^{[12]}This research aims to identify science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their educational practice through applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).

^{[13]}Based on the results and conclusion, it is recommended that students secure different math apps since they can greatly help them improve their number intelligence; that Mathematics teachers showcase the apps and other related learning tools, and that the Department of Education strive more to address the needs of the students in this New Normal Education.

^{[14]}The results of the data analysis show that: the implementation of learning components and strategies using the quantum learning model in physics learning are grouped into sufficient categories, the use of e-books is that physics teachers have never used them, teacher only uses printed books or modules in learning.

^{[15]}The subjects of this research were 30 students of senor high school and 5 mathematics teachers.

^{[16]}Pedagogical experiments were carried out based on the elaboration, development and evaluation of interdisciplinary projects conducted with students in the final years of elementary school (11 14 years of age), with the participation of science, geography, Portuguese, and mathematics teachers.

^{[17]}The information provided may be useful for high school mathematics teacher because we reveal some biases in the meanings of the derivative privileged by the curriculum that could be avoided to improve the teaching of the derivative.

^{[18]}Can mathematics education contribute to build a better world? The chapter reports on a participatory research conducted by a researcher in mathematics education together with 11 mathematics teachers.

^{[19]}25% and has been tested on physics teachers with an average score of 82.

^{[20]}The research instrument was a paper‐based questionnaire on a five‐point Likert scale administered face to face to randomly selected mathematics teachers from among 5 states in Nigeria, Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data and possible conclusions were drawn.

^{[21]}This paper is a part of a broader study which aims to investigate mathematics teacher candidates' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) by using the Turkish translated versions of TEDS-M (Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics) Primary and Secondary Released Items.

^{[22]}Specific topics for the physics teachers are presented in the following section:" Mechanical movement "based on Lego;" Sound and sound waves.

^{[23]}This study was intended to investigate high school Mathematics teachers’ perception of the learning models associated with students’ critical thinking skills.

^{[24]}Esta pesquisa visa compreender o conhecimento especializado que um professor de matemática possui em relação à subtração, em cujo processo de ensino utiliza algoritmos abertos baseados em números (método ABN), utilizando o modelo Mathematics Teacher Specialized Knowledge (MTSK) para sua análise.

^{[25]}Article History: Purpose: Drawing on semi-structured and focusedgroup interviews performed with various pre-service mathematics teachers and in-service mathematics teachers, the present study benefits from the frame of teacher identity to make the meaning of heterogeneity among their experiences and perceptions of mathematics teaching anxiety.

^{[26]}To understand the root of problem in teaching multiplication, this study aims a t elaborating the abilities of prospective mathematics teachers in making sense the multiplication algorithm.

^{[27]}As data sources the websites of Ministry of Education, OECD, National Center on Education and Economy and articles on primary Mathematics teacher education systems and teacher education systems in general were used.

^{[28]}The ability to prove formal mathematics is an important ability that must be mastered by undergraduate prospective mathematics teachers.

^{[29]}The research analyses the existing developments of the issue about the use of blended learning while training would-be mathematics teachers.

^{[30]}This article is the result of research that aimed to study the perceptions of physics teachers in the city of Vilhena-RO about their needs for continuing education in digital technologies in education.

^{[31]}Mathematics teachers in SMP / MTs in Lengayang District, Pesisir Selatan Regency still have limitations in using computers as a tool for making learning media with the help of math software.

^{[32]}The purpose of the research is to examine the development of elementary mathematics teachers’ use of multiple representation and translations between representations throughout the implementations of hypothetical learning trajectories.

^{[33]}80, determined by the results of the teaching material assessment conducted by mathematics teachers at SMP Negeri 56 Palembang.

^{[34]}The product design stage produces a product that is then validated by the media and material by experts in their fields and practicality by mathematics teachers.

^{[35]}This paper reports the results of a survey of English secondary mathematics teachers’ use of ICT (n = 183).

^{[36]}This article tries to show the paths taken by mathematics teachers, still without experience in Mathematical Modeling, in the conduction of a task using this methodology.

^{[37]}The duo of artefacts is a simplified model of the complex systems of various manipulatives (either tangible or virtual) that mathematics teachers and their students use in classrooms.

^{[38]}This report deals with one of the presented problems in the initial training of mathematics teachers and aims to characterize the process of variation problems of linear algebra at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo.

^{[39]}The use of animated drawings effectively replenishes the arsenal of teaching aids for a practicing mathematics teacher.

^{[40]}A constructive description of each module of the program is done, actions and a strategy are described, communication between participants and tutors through the platform Higher School Mathematics Teacher is arranged in this research.

^{[41]}An intervention program to address these concerns was designed and recommended for use by the mathematics teachers.

^{[42]}Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Mathematics teachers should adopt cooperative learning strategy as an effective learning strategy in order to improve senior secondary school students’ academic performance.

^{[43]}The problem of High School Physics teachers in West Aceh Regency is the limited facilities and infrastructure for the Physics laboratory.

^{[44]}The samples were 132 Science and Mathematics teachers during 2019 academic year in Thailand.

^{[45]}The feasibility test was carried out by material experts, media experts, design experts and Senior High School Physics Teachers.

^{[46]}The article discusses the issues of enhancing the learning process, increasing the efficiency of the lesson using innovative methods necessary in the future and professional activities of future physics teachers.

^{[47]}In this study, we analyzed White Christian prospective and practicing mathematics teachers’ discourses.

^{[48]}And There is a positive and significant influence of transformational leadership, compensation and work motivation on job satisfaction at mathematics Teachers.

^{[49]}The interplay between mathematics teachers’ beliefs and practices has been widely investigated and research has examined how teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, teaching and learning change when participating in continuing professional development (CPD).

^{[50]}

## junior high school

The instrument was an open questionnaire, and it was given to 26 mathematics teachers at junior high school in Padang Pariaman region.^{[1]}Hence, this study aimed to describe the knowledge competency among junior high school mathematics teachers on the research processes applied on the contents of the various sections of a quantitative research paper.

^{[2]}For suggestion, mathematics teachers in junior high schools can apply this study’s results to improve higher-order thinking skills and become more familiar with their culture.

^{[3]}Drawing on convergent mixed methods research design, this study examined Junior High School (JHS) mathematics teachers’ practice of differentiated instruction and its associated challenges in Tano South district, in the Ahafo Region of Ghana.

^{[4]}ABSTRACT This study sought to determine the Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ level of professional and personal characteristics in Maguindanao Division I.

^{[5]}The purpose of this study: To analyse the role of junior high school mathematics teachers in developing 4C competencies.

^{[6]}The research subjects were junior high school Mathematics teachers.

^{[7]}The sources of the data and information in this research is an expert in deaf education, a media expert, a mathematics teacher and a seventh-grader deaf student at a Junior High School of inclusion in Bandung.

^{[8]}Sources of data came from seven junior high school mathematics teachers (SMP) in Kudus and Tangerang who provided answers to questions in the google form.

^{[9]}The sample of the research was the whole junior high school mathematics teacher in Langsa Kota and the object of the research is the effectiveness of the worksheets which use Google Form.

^{[10]}The validation results of two mathematics education lecturers and one junior high school mathematics teacher showed that the student worksheet satisfied the ’good’ criteria.

^{[11]}The results of interviews with mathematics teachers in Junior High School 2 Jumapolo, it is known that students often experience difficulties in learning mathematics.

^{[12]}The subject of the research was 34 physics teachers in Junior High School, which is 13 of male teachers and 21 female teachers.

^{[13]}This research uses descriptive qualitative methods, conducted by interviewing 15 mathematics teachers and observations made to 10 junior high school students.

^{[14]}Participants of this research were 12 junior high school mathematics teachers from 12 high schools in the Special Region of Yogyakarta and Central Java.

^{[15]}

## semi structured interview

A mixed-method research, adopting pre-post test, semi-structured interview, and classroom observation, was conducted with 32 primary school students and one dedicated robotics teacher in a robotics summer camp.^{[1]}Then five low achievers and respective three mathematics teachers were selected and interviewed with the help of semi-structured interview guidelines to explore what difficulties had they experienced and encountered in learning trigonometry.

^{[2]}The Covid-19-induced closure of schools forced many instructors throughout the world to develop ways to deliver instruction online Video-conferencing applications became one prominent tool for instructors to continue instruction We report the perceptions of undergraduate mathematics students and preservice mathematics teachers who interacted in online “workshops ” In the online workshops, students worked on mathematics problems in small groups while preservice teachers supported their work Two rounds of semi-structured interviews with both groups were conducted, wherein participants compared and contrasted their experiences with in-person and online group work Analyses revealed three challenges with respect to online communication: (a) limited access to one another’s written mathematical work, (b) limited ability to have one-on-one conversations, and (c) the tendency for students to leave their cameras turned off during the workshops In particular, we emphasize that the multimodal nature of mathematics requires extra attention to strategies for sharing symbolic, diagrammatic, gestural, and other non-verbal ways of communicating mathematics © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

^{[3]}From a teacher cognition perspective and drawing on semi-structured interviews with chemistry, mathematics and physics teachers at a university in the Middle East, we sought to gain insights into the extent to which language is seen as interfering with content learning and how this issue is being addressed.

^{[4]}The data for this discussion were produced through semi-structured interviews with eight physics teachers in the initial training process who used learning diaries during an academic semester and linked to a curricular component.

^{[5]}Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with seven CS teachers and analyzed qualitatively.

^{[6]}It involves a qualitative study in which a semi-structured interview was conducted with mathematics teachers.

^{[7]}

## pedagogical content knowledge

This paper presents an investigation of the development of mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through collaborative lesson design activities.^{[1]}Nøkkelord: matematiske undervisningsutfordringer, undervisningskunnskap, tallforståelse Mathematics teachers’ reflections about experienced tasks of teaching Teaching requires a special content knowledge as well as pedagogical content knowledge.

^{[2]}The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy of pre-service physics teachers on the competence of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge (WPACK), determine the relationship between the components of self-efficacy of pre-service physics teachers to these competencies, and map them out.

^{[3]}Relationship between pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics teacher and learning achievement of junior high school students Teachers’ competence, especially their knowledge, helps them organize effective classrooms to facilitate students’ success.

^{[4]}In this exploratory study, a sample of 244 secondary mathematics teachers was considered to analyze their perception of their readiness to ERT during the COVID-19 pandemic based on their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK), their previous training in digital teaching tools, their level of digital competence for teaching mathematics, and their adaptation to ERT.

^{[5]}This study reports mixed-methods research findings, which assesses the level of mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in selected secondary schools of Zanzibar.

^{[6]}This paper aims to discuss the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development by mathematics teachers (preservice and inservice) that participated in an online course for developing educational apps and puzzles with GeoGebra.

^{[7]}

## pre service science

In-depth interviews with six pre-service mathematics teachers and ten pre-service sciences teachers from Lampang Rajabhat University were employed.^{[1]}We asked first and final-year pre-service science teachers and in-service physics teachers to describe the knowledge and skills needed to be a good science/physics teacher.

^{[2]}The pilot data of the study were obtained with the participation of 56 pre-service teachers in the mathematics teacher program and 252 pre-service science teachers participate to get the main data.

^{[3]}71 pre-service science and 59 pre-service mathematics teachers were participated this phenomenological study.

^{[4]}

## teacher education program

Namibian preservice high school mathematics teachers’ (N=4) and teacher educators’ (N=3) beliefs about mathematics learning difficulties (MLD) were investigated to document the beliefs developed at the end of the teacher education program, the views and practices that might be emphasized in the program, and possible changes in these beliefs during the first year teaching.^{[1]}The volume begins with an overview of the teachHOUSTON STEM teacher education program in Chapter 2 and is followed by an account of the collaboration that took place between a Physics professor and a teachHOUSTON Physics teacher educator and its impact on STEM teacher preparation in Chapters 3-4.

^{[2]}To better understand prospective mathematics teachers’ identity during teacher education, this study investigates how two participants negotiate their identity within the different ideologies they experience during their teacher education program.

^{[3]}The major objective of this study was to examine the effect of Ethiopian pre-service primary school teacher education program to mathematics teacher’s knowledge and assess teacher educator’s awareness about Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching.

^{[4]}

## higher order thinking

This study aims to develop the instrument and measure the higher-order thinking skills pre-service physics teacher UIN Walisongo Semarang with science literacy-based learning using the High Order Thinking Skills instrument.^{[1]}The topics discussed include: analysis of engineering students' understanding in differentiate derivative and integral;analysis of engineering students' understanding in differentiate derivative and integral;reflective practice of pre-service mathematics teacher on online learning;promoting Prezi-PowerPoint presentation in mathematics learning: the development of interactive multimedia by using ADDIE model;enhancing students' level of thinking skills through integrative multi-modal strategy in teaching mathematics;applying Mamdani's method to categorize mathematical literacy of public middle school students in Kupang;the design of mathematics learning using didactical engineering to develop the mathematical comprehension ability and self-confidence of elementary students;and students' higher-order thinking skills in discrete mathematics during covid-19 pandemic.

^{[2]}The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of prospective mathematics teacher students to undertake the stages of developing a learning outcome test for the Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) category.

^{[3]}The purpose of this study was to determine the higher order thinking skills of prospective physics teacher students at the Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University through direct learning models.

^{[4]}

## upper secondary school

In this paper, we describe a study with 71 upper secondary school students, 50 pre-service mathematics teachers, and 66 in-service mathematics teachers, based on an extended didactical framework regarding mathematical modelling as a creativity-demanding activity.^{[1]}A descriptive design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized whereby data were collected from 201 upper secondary school respondents comprising 171 students, 16 mathematics teachers, 7 department heads, and 7 school heads from seven randomly selected schools in the districts of Ba and Tavua.

^{[2]}This is done by giving upper secondary school mathematics teachers real working life examples connected to topics in their courses and developing a MOOC for students in which they can solve workrelated mathematical problems.

^{[3]}

## pre service secondary

This phenomenological longitudinal qualitative case study contributes to addressing this issue by illustrating how a pre-service secondary mathematics teacher’s teacher self-efficacy is affected by the way she sees herself.^{[1]}In this document, we will present the results of an investigation carried out in initial teacher education for pre-service secondary school Physics and Mathematics teachers in Chile.

^{[2]}This paper aimed to analyze the competencies of pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers when transforming the representations of a function.

^{[3]}

## quasi experimental study

This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the effectiveness of soft skills training and the practice of lesson study on improving mathematics teacher self-efficacy and describe the impact of teacher self-efficacy on the freedom of students' mathematical thinking.^{[1]}Four classes of prospective secondary mathematics teachers (N=125), aged 18 to 19 years, participated in this quasi-experimental study.

^{[2]}A pretest-posttest comparison-group quasi-experimental study was endeavoured to unravel the effects of the two forms of Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS), the Active MLS and the Passive MLS, on the critical thinking of aspiring physics teachers.

^{[3]}

## professional development course

Our group has carried out a collaboration project with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in a PLS (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche) professional development course promoted by the Department of Science and High Technology (DiSAT – Dipartimento Scienze e Alta Tecnologia) of Insubria University in Como, Italy.^{[1]}That is why a professional development course was developed in which five mathematics teachers of braille readers in special secondary education participated.

^{[2]}The design heuristic was implemented in both cycles in an online professional development course for secondary mathematics teachers.

^{[3]}

## cs teacher education

Keywords: Reference epistemological model (REM), Anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD), Mathematics teacher education, Probability and statistics.^{[1]}As data sources the websites of Ministry of Education, OECD, National Center on Education and Economy and articles on primary Mathematics teacher education systems and teacher education systems in general were used.

^{[2]}This study explores the culture of physics departments in Sweden in relation to physics teacher education.

^{[3]}The aim of the paper is to show whether the systems of mathematics teacher education in two countries whose historical development may seem quite similar (the Czech Republic and Hungary were parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, and they were part of the Eastern European communist block) are also very similar, or whether each country follows its own, unique path.

^{[4]}Lesson transcript data from an introductory class on probability in one teacher education multilingual classroom are used to illustrate how these two theories can be used to examine the choice and use of examples in mathematics teacher education multilingual classrooms.

^{[5]}(2) The factors that influence the performance of teachers in schools at SMP Negeri 20 Padang was qualification for Civics teacher education standards, the leadership factor of the school principal, the training factor, and the teacher competency factor.

^{[6]}The paper is congruous with mathematics teaching standards used across six continents and illustrated by reflective comments of the author’s students regarding their mathematics teacher education experiences.

^{[7]}In mathematics teacher education, one important principle is that the content of the subject must, somehow, be fused with the pedagogy in what has become known as mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT).

^{[8]}My focus in this reflection is on the role of mathematics teacher education in the preparation of culturally relevant teachers for urban schools.

^{[9]}In this context, we focus on Real Analysis coursesof the mathematics teacher education at undergraduate level.

^{[10]}In this study, to explore their STEM conception, an open-ended survey collecting both textual and visual responses was given to 100 in-service teachers from 10 schools in Can Tho city and 185 pre-service teachers of the Physics teacher education program, Can Tho University, Vietnam.

^{[11]}As a form of reflection, we discuss the program development process and lessons learned by the collaborative that might be informative to other institutes of higher education involved in CS teacher education program design and implementation.

^{[12]}We discuss the importance of LTs, then TRIAD’s use of LTs as the core of the approach to PD, and end with the empirical evidence supporting the efficacy and equity of this approach in mathematics teacher education.

^{[13]}Nevertheless, the difficulties in articulating environmental topics within some areas of knowledge compromise their integration in certain subject-specific courses, as is the case for initial physics teacher education courses.

^{[14]}From the perspective of mathematics teacher education, courses related to mathematics teaching have come to the forefront in recent years.

^{[15]}Some goals of mathematics teacher education include ensuring that pre-service teachers (PSTs) have strong content knowledge, the skill to anticipate and interpret student thinking, the ability to plan how to respond, and the ability to critically select resources for instruction.

^{[16]}Keywords: mathematical modelling; real-world problems; images, critical mathematics education; mathematics and social media; virtual reality; Facebook; mathematics in society; mathematics teaching; mathematics teacher education.

^{[17]}In the Brazilian context, CS teacher education programs could be a key to solve this puzzle, as both faculty and student teachers are dealing with CS Education and CT.

^{[18]}The present study was aimed at observing and analyzing some of the characteristics of three courses of an undergraduate Physics teacher education program at a public university in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), and to compare them in terms of their potential contributions to the development or argumentation skills of its students.

^{[19]}The episode reported is part of an undergraduate final project of a Mathematics Teacher Education course from a public University, whose main objective was to characterize Mathematics class in which students were involved in situations of investigation, exploration and discoveries.

^{[20]}First evaluation findings of our physics teacher education program revealed year two students’ deficits in the conceptual understanding of introductory mechanics.

^{[21]}The pre-graduate physics teacher education faces new requirements from the learning school environment.

^{[22]}In mathematics teacher education, several studies have explored the use of video as a supporting tool for teacher noticing.

^{[23]}Despite compelling arguments for the importance of revisiting school mathematics in pre-service mathematics teacher education, there is little indication of how such revisiting might be done, particularly at secondary level.

^{[24]}First results indicate a need for a concise definition, especially for its use in physics teacher education.

^{[25]}

## cs teacher educator

Our research focuses on Mathematics Teacher Educator specialized knowledge.^{[1]}This paper focuses, empirically, on the developments seen in a group of South African early grades’ mathematics teacher educators in the course of a university-provincial education department partnership project.

^{[2]}This chapter focuses on a group of mathematics teacher educators across the state of Texas that utilized collaboration before and during a global pandemic in order to examine and apply equity issues in their own instruction and delivery of their mathematics methods courses.

^{[3]}The transformative stories reported here contribute needed insights into how mathematics teacher educators’ identities relate to their practices as supervisors of preservice teachers, an area that has received scant attention in the mathematics teacher education literature.

^{[4]}Forty-nine, peer-reviewed articles were selected based on specific criteria and analyzed using a defined approach to better understand the variations in the prompts mathematics teacher educators used as they supported teacher noticing.

^{[5]}This study aims to document and examine mathematics teacher educators’ (MTEs) knowledge sources in teacher education practices.

^{[6]}The survey results demonstrate that the majority of these institutions are not meeting the recommendations of the Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences (2012) and the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators (2017) for prospective elementary teachers to take at least 12 semester-hour credits of mathematics content designed specifically for them.

^{[7]}Although the knowledge required by mathematics teacher educators is a relatively recent area of research, there has been significant progress in the field over the last few years.

^{[8]}As such, this study investigated the pedagogical approaches which mathematics teacher educators employed in the development of democratic citizens in South African universities.

^{[9]}We hope that this will bring visibility to the invisible ways our identities as mothers inform our work as mathematics teacher educators and researchers.

^{[10]}The chapter focuses on the attempts of a group of mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) to support teachers in exploiting workplace situations in their mathematics teaching.

^{[11]}The volume begins with an overview of the teachHOUSTON STEM teacher education program in Chapter 2 and is followed by an account of the collaboration that took place between a Physics professor and a teachHOUSTON Physics teacher educator and its impact on STEM teacher preparation in Chapters 3-4.

^{[12]}In this article, we examine the mathematical practices middle grades pre-service teachers (grades 4-9 licensure) and mathematics teacher educators identified as playing a role in attempts to make sense of and work toward solutions to mathematics problems.

^{[13]}The purpose of the study was to characterize mathematics teacher educators’ noticing and their ability to interpret students’ thinking and connect interpretations to evidence.

^{[14]}The pervasiveness of digital technology creates an imperative for mathematics teacher educators to prepare preservice teachers (PSTs) to select technology to support students’ mathematical development.

^{[15]}Two mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) discuss the mathematical contexts generated by prospective teachers (PTs) when pushed to look for relevant mathematics in their lives and communities.

^{[16]}The purpose of this paper is to support mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) to prepare their graduate students in becoming MTEs by creating a learning environment to develop epistemological stances.

^{[17]}This framework focuses on the mathematics teacher educator (MTE) view from which they are using their technological content knowledge (TCK) to develop their PSTs' own technological knowledge (TK), content knowledge (CK), and TCK when in an online mathematics classroom setting.

^{[18]}

## cs teacher student

Learning communities have a positive impact on the development of the pedagogical competence of prospective mathematics teacher students.^{[1]}So that prospective physics teacher students must have good problem-solving skills to educate and guide students to solve physics problems according to appropriate problem-solving procedures.

^{[2]}The purpose of this study was to analyze the needs of the GeoGebra application in mathematics learning, especially the learning of analytic geometry for prospective mathematics teacher students.

^{[3]}Research aimed to obtain an overview of improving prospective mathematics teacher students’ problem-solving skills by implementing GeoGebra in spatial geometry lectures.

^{[4]}Therefore, prospective physics teacher students must master scientific literacy to solve various problems from the real world as individuals and must interact in society and the environment as social beings.

^{[5]}Each of the N = 104 physics teacher students, whose second subject was mathematics, answered two tests assessing their content knowledge in (1) mathematics and (2) physics.

^{[6]}This study aims to examine the creative thinking skills of pre-service physics teacher students in radioactivity case.

^{[7]}This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of the basic physics practicum trial for determining Earth's gravity based on a virtual mobile observatory, and to measure the ICT literacy skills of prospective physics teacher students.

^{[8]}The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of prospective mathematics teacher students to undertake the stages of developing a learning outcome test for the Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) category.

^{[9]}Virtual microteaching based on Search-Analysis-Practicing-Reflection (SAPR) activities may serve as an alternative in developing teaching skills of prospective science-physics teacher students.

^{[10]}Problem-solving is one of the most important abilities possessed by prospective mathematics teacher students.

^{[11]}This study aims to look at the profile or category of prospective mathematics teacher students in terms of their mathematical ability.

^{[12]}This study aims to see the learning outcomes of prospective mathematics teacher students on problem-posing abilities.

^{[13]}This study aims to (1) analyze the number sense ability of prospective mathematics teacher students, (2) determine the mathematics learning achievement of prospective mathematics teacher students, and (3) analyze whether there is a relationship between number sense ability and mathematics learning achievement of prospective mathematics teacher students.

^{[14]}This qualitative descriptive study involved two subjects taken from 42 pre-service mathematics teacher students.

^{[15]}This study aimed to identify the type of reasoning and the level of prospective physics teacher students’ logical thinking ability.

^{[16]}The purpose of this study was to determine the higher order thinking skills of prospective physics teacher students at the Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University through direct learning models.

^{[17]}

## cs teacher candidate

This paper is a part of a broader study which aims to investigate mathematics teacher candidates' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) by using the Turkish translated versions of TEDS-M (Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics) Primary and Secondary Released Items.^{[1]}Given this, in this paper we describe some lessons learned creating videos for online video-based instructional modules for secondary mathematics teacher candidates, as a part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) IUSE program (Award No.

^{[2]}The sample of this study was 98 economics teacher candidates at Sebelas Maret University Surakarta, Indonesia.

^{[3]}A total of 25 pre-service physics teacher candidates at a university in the Mataram City were involved in this study.

^{[4]}The Research and development (R&D) of LMS Google Classroom of Geometry course for mathematics teacher candidates aims to know and describe the process, result, and quality of the LMS Google Classroom in geometry course for the blended learning model which is appropriate for mathematics teacher candidates’ needs.

^{[5]}The purpose of this study was to develop a didactic design in microteaching learning for lesson study-based mathematics teacher candidates.

^{[6]}Chemical literacy levels of science and mathematics teacher candidates.

^{[7]}The sample of this study was physics teacher candidates who were at the first level.

^{[8]}Chemical Literacy Levels of Science And Mathematics Teacher Candidates.

^{[9]}The five themes “truth-seeking”, “open-minded”, “analytic”, “systematic” and “self-confidence” were found in the schematic presentation of mathematics teacher candidates’ critical thinking dispositions.

^{[10]}The aim of this research is to examine how mathematics teacher candidates' expressions about what they noticed in videos changed with video-clubs.

^{[11]}The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool that measures mathematical visualization perceptions for mathematics teacher candidates.

^{[12]}

## cs teacher training

(1) To identify the variables of teaching practices, ratios, and mathematics teacher training indicators that could influence the choice of different study models or methodologies.^{[1]}To stimulate student curiosity, the availability of facilities and infrastructure, the capacity of school residents, and the capacity of stakeholders, a numeracy literacy work program twice a week before learning hours takes place, a mathematics and non-mathematics teacher training for thematic learning based on numeracy literacy is held, and fostering love reading to students and learning experiences that are fun while stimulating the imagination.

^{[2]}We report on one training model, developed, and delivered by a team of academics, addressing issues specific to an English context, but contributing internationally relevant insights into phonics teacher training.

^{[3]}This work provides an overview of the main activities developed for an Information Technology course at Physics Teacher Training College-an 80 minutes per week, two semesters long course in a four-year physics teachers program-which incorporates the modelling process as a core topic.

^{[4]}Palabras clave: Actividades de laboratorio, formacion docente en fisica, transferencia de calor Laboratory experiences on heat with a home appliance in Physics teacher training : In this work, a teaching sequence with experimental activities developed in a subject on laboratory activities of the University Professorship in Physics at the National University of General Sarmiento (UNGS) is presented.

^{[5]}

## cs teacher professional

This study investigates whether graduate courses for in-service physics teacher professional development that combine the conceptual history of physics, physics content, and physics education research readings will result in the teachers using the history of science for their own classroom instruction.^{[1]}This paper discusses a model of a mathematics teacher professional development implemented in Italy and Hungary with in-service and pre-service mathematics teachers.

^{[2]}

## cs teacher must

Mathematics teacher must have a good basic mathematics comprehension such as number sense and spatial reasoning before teach it to the students.^{[1]}A would-be informatics teacher must have knowledge of it, master the methods of numerical modeling, and be able to teach it to schoolchildren, broadening their knowledge about the possible spheres of using a computer.

^{[2]}

## cs teacher noticing

We specifically aim to (1) develop a sociopolitical framework for conceptualizing mathematics teacher noticing and (2) conceptualize and illustrate the enactment of noticing that challenges deficit discourses about these students and their communities—anti-deficit noticing—through the lens of our framework.^{[1]}Most studies of mathematics teacher noticing employ information-processing-based models of noticing.

^{[2]}

## cs teacher pd

Given that assessment for learning is closely tied to teacher pedagogical con- tent knowledge, formative assessment literacy needs to also be a topic of CS teacher PD.^{[1]}Findings offer implications for mathematics teacher PD and for facilitating ELs’ learning in mathematics.

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## cs teacher program

The purpose of the study was to examine whether a significant correlation exists between burnout, test anxiety, test attitude, and test motivation of prospective mathematics teachers studying at mathematics teacher program in an education faculty of a state university in Turkey.^{[1]}The pilot data of the study were obtained with the participation of 56 pre-service teachers in the mathematics teacher program and 252 pre-service science teachers participate to get the main data.

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## cs teacher self

This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the effectiveness of soft skills training and the practice of lesson study on improving mathematics teacher self-efficacy and describe the impact of teacher self-efficacy on the freedom of students' mathematical thinking.^{[1]}We extend previous research on teacher motivation by examining the relations linking mathematics teacher self-efficacy and interest with several relevant dimensions of teaching quality as perceived by teachers and students.

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## cs teacher knowledge

In general, items or tasks to assess mathematics teacher knowledge in the previous studies were dominated by subject matter knowledge problems.^{[1]}His main lines of research are mathematics teacher knowledge and functional thinking.

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