## What is/are Crossover Frequency?

Crossover Frequency - To illustratethe proposed procedure, two conventional PID controllers are given, to achieve phase margin and crossover frequency for a nominal model of a buck converter.^{[1]}The systems with nonstandard rheological behavior obey the Maxwell model only in a restricted domain below the crossover frequency; they can be analyzed in the framework of an augmented version of the Maxwell model.

^{[2]}The design specifications are given in frequency domain, which are gain crossover frequency, phase margin, and robustness against gain variation.

^{[3]}The crossover frequency ω c and energy loss of the TixZr1−xNy ternary nitride films are lower than those of the binary TiNy and ZrNy.

^{[4]}With the first-order linear active disturbance rejection controller generated by the approach, the control system can have almost same gain crossover frequency and phase margin to with the PI controller, while have better performance on rejecting measurement noise and attenuating overshoot when phase margin is not enough.

^{[5]}This configuration enabled two different directions of motion by obtaining a new crossover frequency called adjustment frequency (fadj) within the value between the crossover frequency (fxo) of targeted and untargeted particles.

^{[6]}While the crossover frequency in DEP has been studied in-depth and exploited in applications using AC fields, less attention has been given when a DC field is present.

^{[7]}This paper proposes an adaptive variable-frequency peak current mode control with constant crossover frequency to mitigate the tradeoff between stability and transient response while possessing the variable frequency characteristic to improve light load efficiency.

^{[8]}Crossover frequency varies along chromosomes and crossover interference limits the coincidence of closely spaced crossovers.

^{[9]}The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the crossover frequency shows a different kind of behaviour in contradiction to that observed in other ion conducting glasses.

^{[10]}The stress and frequency sweep tests demonstrated a unique result in that the crossover frequency shifted to a higher value when the CQSG solution concentration increased.

^{[11]}The crossover frequency $f_0$ is represented the time constant $\tau_{_0}$ of this equation.

^{[12]}The solution maximises the loop gain crossover frequency for a given phase margin while respecting frequency robustness and resonant gain restrictions, set a priori.

^{[13]}Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we show that the distance between sequence polymorphisms across homologous chromosomes has a strong impact on recombination, not only locally as intragenic events, but also on crossover frequency.

^{[14]}This is one of the first demonstrations of increasing crossover frequency in interspecific hybrids by manipulating genes in crossover intermediate resolution pathways and the first to do so by directed mutagenesis.

^{[15]}In addition, the DSR test results were analysed to determine the evolution of the black diagrams, crossover frequency and crossover modulus with ageing.

^{[16]}We determine experimentally the “dilution exponent” α for entangled polymers from the scaling of terminal crossover frequency with entanglement density from the linear rheology of three 1,4-polybutadiene star polymers that are blended with low-molecular-weight, unentangled linear 1,4-polybutadiene at various star volume fractions, ϕs.

^{[17]}This ac-DEP system provides a method to characterize the crossover frequency of the specific cells and manipulate the targeted cells.

^{[18]}An approximately linear relation was established between the log crossover frequency and the inverse of log crossover modulus.

^{[19]}Phase margin and gain crossover frequency specifications are commonly used in the design of PR controllers.

^{[20]}We identify quantitative trait loci for altered gene conversion and crossover frequency and confirm functionality for a novel RecQ helicase gene that belongs to an ancient clade that is missing in some plant lineages including Arabidopsis.

^{[21]}Based on the open loop transfer function, the compensator design is carried out to yield the open loop frequency response with a desired gain, crossover frequency, and phase margin.

^{[22]}This arrest can be incomplete, resulting in low numbers of spermatids, and often occurs in association with reduced crossover frequency.

^{[23]}Geometrical parameters of the top and bottom arrays are tuned such that the phase differences of the TE and TM transmissions at the lower (f1) and upper (f2) crossover frequency points are −90° and +90°, respectively.

^{[24]}The gain crossover frequency and phase isodamping conditions are employed to select appropriate controller parameters among the mentioned region.

^{[25]}The frequency where Δε = 0 occurs is called crossover frequency (fc).

^{[26]}We have identified QTL for altered gene conversion and crossover frequency and confirm functionality for a novel RecQ helicase gene that belongs to an ancient clade that is missing in some plant lineages including Arabidopsis.

^{[27]}The ac- and dc-sides are modeled separately and the crossover frequency of ac-side control loop is kept high to avoid clashes with the dc-side.

^{[28]}In this paper, weathering aging effects on rheological and chemical evolutions of thermochromic asphalt binder were evaluated by complex modulus (G*) master curve, crossover frequency (ωc), non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr), zero shear viscosity (ZSV), DSR Function value (DSRFn) and carbonyl and sulfoxide indexes.

^{[29]}The introduced zeros and poles extend the bandwidth of the loop as they are placed before crossover frequency.

^{[30]}Important high-frequency features such as the behavior of the elastic modulus, G′, the moduli crossover frequency fc related to β-relaxation, and the associated limiting in-phase (with strain-rate), dynamic viscosity η∞′, are captured.

^{[31]}The proposed approach allows attaining improved periodic signals rejection capability while significantly sacrificing neither the dc gain nor the crossover frequency.

^{[32]}At low Peclet number, a crossover frequency between elastic and viscous moduli is detected, representing the relaxation time associated with shear-induced particles escape from their frustration (localization) under flow.

^{[33]}These results suggest that the effects of phenotypic selection on the introgressed wild relative9s alleles at the early generations of population development are strongly influenced by the distribution of crossover frequency across genome, consistent with the Hill-Robertson effect.

^{[34]}Classical fractional order controller tuning techniques usually establish the parameters of the controller by solving a system of nonlinear equations resulted from the frequency domain specifications like phase margin, gain crossover frequency, iso-damping property, robustness to uncertainty, etc.

^{[35]}Crossover frequency varies along chromosomes and crossover interference limits the coincidence of closely spaced crossovers.

^{[36]}The crossover frequency $f_0$ is a parameter in this operational amplifier master equation.

^{[37]}We found that CD133+ and CD133- cell display a significantly different crossover frequency.

^{[38]}It also allows for direct visualization of meiotic crossover frequency and sites in these conceptions, providing insight into their biology.

^{[39]}One of the most popular tuning procedures for the development of fractional order controllers is by imposing frequency domain constraints such as gain crossover frequency, phase margin and iso-damping properties.

^{[40]}The frequency characteristics of the transfer function of the buck converter using the proposed method has higher phase margin and crossover frequency than conventional, and the usefulness of the predicted control was verified.

^{[41]}It is proven that AS-PWM suffers from three defects: further increase of switching frequency is restricted by the available control period and the total cell number; long modulator delay exists and may bring the control system into instability if high crossover frequency is chosen; and spectrum aliasing toward the digital modulating waves may occur and makes the ac input current distorted.

^{[42]}This method ensures the maximum phase margin at a minimum required value at the desired gain crossover frequency with a compromise between system’s peak overshoot, rise time and settling time.

^{[43]}These geometric figures are computed by considering a prescribed but arbitrary gain crossover frequency and prescribed but arbitrary phase margin for the closed-loop system with the given plant.

^{[44]}We found that the effect of the disorder on the system is stronger above a crossover frequency fc than below it.

^{[45]}The calculation suggests that the lower crossover frequency can be from 0 to 127 kHz and that the upper crossover frequency can be from 45 to 108 MHz, in the unlikely case when uncertainties in the cell parameters all add up.

^{[46]}The present study introduces an up/down quantile estimation algorithm that adaptively steers filter cutoff frequencies toward the crossover frequency.

^{[47]}Besides, the open-loop phase-frequency characteristic of the system is flat around the gain crossover frequency, namely, the system is robust to loop gain variation.

^{[48]}In this approach, a perturbation is injected into a specific digital control loop of the converter and after measuring the loop gain, its crossover frequency and phase margin are continuously evaluated and monitored.

^{[49]}Moreover, our results demonstrate that SIRT1 is required for regulating crossover frequency and its absence results in higher crossover events.

^{[50]}

## Gain Crossover Frequency

The design specifications are given in frequency domain, which are gain crossover frequency, phase margin, and robustness against gain variation.^{[1]}With the first-order linear active disturbance rejection controller generated by the approach, the control system can have almost same gain crossover frequency and phase margin to with the PI controller, while have better performance on rejecting measurement noise and attenuating overshoot when phase margin is not enough.

^{[2]}The solution maximises the loop gain crossover frequency for a given phase margin while respecting frequency robustness and resonant gain restrictions, set a priori.

^{[3]}Phase margin and gain crossover frequency specifications are commonly used in the design of PR controllers.

^{[4]}The gain crossover frequency and phase isodamping conditions are employed to select appropriate controller parameters among the mentioned region.

^{[5]}Classical fractional order controller tuning techniques usually establish the parameters of the controller by solving a system of nonlinear equations resulted from the frequency domain specifications like phase margin, gain crossover frequency, iso-damping property, robustness to uncertainty, etc.

^{[6]}One of the most popular tuning procedures for the development of fractional order controllers is by imposing frequency domain constraints such as gain crossover frequency, phase margin and iso-damping properties.

^{[7]}This method ensures the maximum phase margin at a minimum required value at the desired gain crossover frequency with a compromise between system’s peak overshoot, rise time and settling time.

^{[8]}These geometric figures are computed by considering a prescribed but arbitrary gain crossover frequency and prescribed but arbitrary phase margin for the closed-loop system with the given plant.

^{[9]}Besides, the open-loop phase-frequency characteristic of the system is flat around the gain crossover frequency, namely, the system is robust to loop gain variation.

^{[10]}For delayed fractional order processes, fractional order controllers of the form $PI^{\alpha }$ are designed to fulfil an iso-phase margin constraint and two design frequency specifications: gain crossover frequency and phase margin.

^{[11]}The developed characterization clearly shows that non-ideal effects influence the PLL's dynamic behavior like pull-out range, gain crossover frequency and phase noise behavior.

^{[12]}By using this tuning method, not only the phase margin and gain crossover frequency are adjustable, but also robustness to variations in the plant time-constant is guaranteed.

^{[13]}The second order noise filter time constant is designed based on an iterative approach, which is a function of loop gain crossover frequency (ωgc {\omega _{gc}}) and a design parameter β \,\left( {{\beta }} \right).

^{[14]}Unlike the conventional fractional-order PID controller which demands five tuning parameters, the proposed scheme has only two tuning parameters which can be obtained on the basis of desired gain crossover frequency and phase margin.

^{[15]}Moreover, with the proposed method the region of frequency within which the harmonic compensation is effective can be extended beyond the gain crossover frequency.

^{[16]}, the phase margin and the corresponding gain crossover frequency, is derived.

^{[17]}The majority of the tuning techniques for these fractional order proportional integral/fractional order proportional derivative controllers are based on three frequency-domain specifications, such as the open-loop gain crossover frequency, phase margin and the iso-damping property.

^{[18]}The bode diagrams of control to output transfer function, uncompensated as well as compensated loop gain are plotted and verified to achieve required gain crossover frequency and phase margin with high loop gain at low frequencies leading to zero steady state error.

^{[19]}

## Meiotic Crossover Frequency

It also allows for direct visualization of meiotic crossover frequency and sites in these conceptions, providing insight into their biology.^{[1]}Meiotic crossover frequency varies within genomes, which influences genetic diversity and adaptation.

^{[2]}

## crossover frequency vary

Crossover frequency varies along chromosomes and crossover interference limits the coincidence of closely spaced crossovers.^{[1]}Crossover frequency varies along chromosomes and crossover interference limits the coincidence of closely spaced crossovers.

^{[2]}Meiotic crossover frequency varies within genomes, which influences genetic diversity and adaptation.

^{[3]}

## crossover frequency ω

The crossover frequency ω c and energy loss of the TixZr1−xNy ternary nitride films are lower than those of the binary TiNy and ZrNy.^{[1]}The shear-induced fluidization of the initially glassy suspension is more clearly evidenced by the appearance of a crossover frequency ω c in ODFS, which steadily increases, reflecting a faster structural relaxation under shear.

^{[2]}

## crossover frequency fc

Important high-frequency features such as the behavior of the elastic modulus, G′, the moduli crossover frequency fc related to β-relaxation, and the associated limiting in-phase (with strain-rate), dynamic viscosity η∞′, are captured.^{[1]}We found that the effect of the disorder on the system is stronger above a crossover frequency fc than below it.

^{[2]}