# Introduction to 2d Space

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We consider the robots moving in the three-dimensional space and the two-dimensional space (3D and 2D space, respectively) and introduce the notion of symmetricity of a set of points that represents the set of rotation groups that the robots cannot resolve.

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A novel identity deformation algorithm is then proposed to transfer these deformations from 2D space to 3D facial identity directly, while preserving the facial expressions.

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Results Universal classification of landscape into pattern configuration types was achieved by transforming landscapes into a 2D space of weakly correlated information-theoretical metrics.

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UWB is finally determined as a method for positioning the absolute coordinate in indoor 2D space, based on comprehensive analysis and the characteristics of indoor independent space.

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The sensor records event streams as a sequence of tuples [t, x, y, p], where t is the timestamp of the event, (x, y) is the pixel coordinates of the event in 2D space and p is the polarity of the event indicating the brightness change.

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The image pixels were converted from 2D space coordinates to polar coordinate space.

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We have developed a novel system for applying local area stimulation to freely running/walking single ant on a 2D space.

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In 2D space we consider the case of above-threshold ionization of hydrogen atom and in 3D space the ionization of the atom in the zero-radius-potential approximation.

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Two structurally identical agents engage in embodied interaction such that one of them can find a distant target in 2D space that only the other could perceive.

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Numerical experiments are performed in both 3D (2D space and time) and 4D (3D space and time) and with pulsatile flow relevant for physiological flow in cerebral aneurysms.

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We believe this method overcomes critical barriers to clinical translation of iOCT and offers advantages over previous approaches by 1) reducing the instrument-tracking problem to 2D space, which is more efficient than 3D tracking or pose-estimation, and allows direct leveraging of the recent advances in computer-vision software and hardware; and 2) decoupling tracking speed and performance from OCT system and acquisition parameters.

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We consider the fact that the individuals of prey and predator interact mostly along the perimeter (boundary) of the pack (herd) formed in a 2D space or along the total surface area of the herd in a 3D space.

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The significant role of 2D heterointerfaces for energy storage and conversion is then discussed, involving charge transfer and redistribution, the 2D space-confined effect and the tunable 2D channel.

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The layout generator employs a novel co-embedding model to project images and the associated semantic keywords to the same 2D space.

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, from normal to abnormal) and her close associates are indeed placed closely to her when the profiles are visualized in the 2D space.

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Conventional time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques solve elevation correction and linear deformation rate by non-linear optimisation in 2D space, spatial baseline, and temporal baseline.

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They propose the ConvLSTM model for reading scene text from 2D space, by which attention mechanism and character center masks are further adopted for enhancing the recognition performance.

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On the other hand, there are three types such as plane space, 2D space, and 3D space as the expression way.

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To discover principles by which robots can gain root-like capabilities, we constructed a planar, pneumatically driven soft-bodied robot, which grows from the tip like a plant root and can bend in 2D space by oscillating the inflation pressure of series pneumatic artificial muscles (sPAMs) arranged on its two sides.

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To investigate whether dominant trends in such distributions occur, we consider the simulation elements in each dataset—per ensemble member and time step—as elements in the multi-dimensional parameter space, and use t-SNE to project these elements into 2D space.

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Since it is an intractable problem, the required computational time for an exhaustive search algorithm grows exponentially with the number of points in 2D space.

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The face images are dimensionality reduced and visualized via T-SNE as scatter points in 2D space.

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Observing the previous state-of-the-art algorithms, not only did we explore multimodal brain tumor segmentation in 2D space, 2.

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On this basis, the paper uses 2D histogram to expand the cross entropy to 2D space so as to obtain the optical segmentation threshold of ICM.

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An Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU) is used for measuring linear accelerations and angular velocities in 3D/2D space.

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The conversion method is derived by comparing the sound field created by a higher-order derivative of the free field Green’s function and the corresponding field expressed by circular harmonic expansion coefficients in 2D space.

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Two forms of RbNbWO6 crystal stable at room temperature were found based on single crystal syntheses: a cubic form (Fd 3 ¯ m space group) with the modal disorder, and a tetragonal form (I 4 ¯ 2d space group).

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The analysis of the shape is shown to allow for obtaining the magnitude of the small rate of jumps out of 1D and 2D spaces of fast migration in the cases quasi-1D and quasi-2D migration, respectively.

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The use of an active RFID system emulated environment with readers and tags deployed in a 2D space proved that RSSI based distance estimation is linear in short range and unstable in long range with distance variance of 1.

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In this method, we scan the object in one view and the point cloud is projected to the 2D space.

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To investigate the effects of these parameters, various samples were numerically analyzed in 2D space by the use of COMSOL software.

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Finally, a curve is generated based on Euclidean distances between consecutive points in the 2D space.

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BIM is certainly useful, but it alone is not a satisfactory answer to the paradox: how does one design and visualize a 3D product in a 2D space? Augmented Reality (AR) is a disruptive technology that can help address this challenge.

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We introduce a method of calculating and rendering shapes in a non-Euclidean 2D space in real-time using hyperbolic and spherical trigonometry.

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Phoenixmap is capable of overlaying multiple outlines and comparing them across categories of objects in a 2D space.

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Remapping the clusters from data to 2D space, our method enables a new kind of urban plan that displays gradients of urban similarity.

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The antenna can radiate nine beams pointing to different directions in 2D space.

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We begin by introducing the Plane of Interaction: a framework for characterizing interactive technologies in a 2D space informed by the Model-View-Controller design pattern.

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Conventional projection mapping was limited on 2D space, due to their narrow depth-of-field projection range.

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Firstly, the gradient information of the depth image is obtained from the acquired depth apple image, the gradient vector is reflected from the 3D space to the 2D space, and then rotated 90 degrees clockwise, and the regular region forms the center of the vortex, which is the target fruit center to determine target fruit location.

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Based on the starting and ending location of the fillet, we conceptualize a Lissajous pattern in 2D space.

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In order to accurately measure the FSE, a sensor capable of measuring the 2D space of the seabed is needed, such as FSS.

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A study is presented on diffusion-controlled growth of multi-nuclei systems in 2D space.

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These devices project the 3D subspace onto a 1D respectively 2D space, hence loosing accuracy and the depth of the SLN which is very important, especially in the head and neck area with many critical structures in close vicinity.

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Firstly, cost map is constructed by computing terrain features under robot body and cost of selecting footholds at default positions, and then the trajectory of robot center in 2D space is searched using heuristic A algorithm.

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Each area in the 2D space can also be programmed to specifically achieve different chemical processes.

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Mirroring the 1-0 switch that underpins mammalian vision through selective geometric isomerisation in retinal, strategies to manipulate 2D space by both geometric and positional isomerisation of alkenes via chemical, thermal and light driven processes are being intensively pursued.

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Here, we integrate distance signals surrounding a simulated robot flying in a 2D space into this active motor inference process.

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The strategy allows individual UAVs to route themselves in 2D space in order to avoid areas of high-density traffic.

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We propose and develop an EPIC framework to mine latent patterns from geoMobile data and provide meaningful interpretations: we first ‘E’xtract latent features from high dimensional geoMobile datasets via Laplacian Eigenmaps and perform clustering in this latent feature space; we then use a state-of-the-art visualization technique to ‘P’roject these latent features into 2D space; and finally we obtain meaningful ‘I’nterpretations by ‘C’ulling cluster-specific significant feature-set.

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Ultrasonic wavefield imaging (UWI) provides insightful spatial information about ultrasonic wave propagation in 2D space.

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The real 3D utricle membrane structure was simplified by considering its middle section and evaluating its elastic properties in 2D space.

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Universal classification of landscape into pattern configuration types was achieved by transforming landscapes into a 2D space of weakly correlated information-theoretical metrics.

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We present a new method for computing inverse projections from 2D spaces to arbitrary high-dimensional spaces.

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The proposed gesture-based interaction enables the user manipulate AR objects in the real 3D space instead of 2D space.

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Here we discuss generalising the patch scheme to the case of wave systems on staggered grids in 2D space.

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In order to enable the agent to effectively circum-navigate the target in more complex environments, we study a position estimator and an elliptical circumnavigation controller in 2D space by only employing bearing measurements without knowing the target’s velocity.

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In this paper, we propose a Fourier-based method that reconstructs a 3D shape from images in a 2D space by predicting slices in the frequency domain.

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The obtained feature space is mapped to the 2D space using the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding method.

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Grid-based DBSCAN is a well-developed algorithm whose complexity is improved to O(nlog n) in 2D space, while requiring Ω(n4/3) to solve when dimension ≥ 3.

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Thus, in this paper, by using feed forward neural networks, we propose a color transformation method, which maps RGB to a special 2D space.

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To be specific, given a group of workers and tasks that dynamically appear in a 2D space, the TOBM problem aims to find a matching with the maximum cardinality between workers and tasks satisfying the spatiotemporal constraints.

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We conduct numerical experiments in 1D and 2D space, confirming our theoretical results.

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Consequently, it is important to understand the impact of JPEG compression on the quality of feature detection in 2D space and the subsequent 3D reconstruction results.

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This paper presents a distributed, energy-aware method for the autonomous deployment and maintenance of battery-powered robots within a known or unknown region in 2D space.

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As the global minimum structure in the 2D space previously predicted, this superconducting BSi monolayer may be feasible experimentally.

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In this study, we analyze a previously collected dataset where a macaque controlled a 4 DOF virtual arm in 2D space.

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The reflection line is digitized and the 2D space is paved by digital perpendicular (to the reflection line) straight lines.

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Various scientific and engineering fields rely on measurements in 2D spaces to generate a map or locate the global optimum.

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Mapping of sway path features into 2D space revealed clear clusters among CA, PPV, AVS, HC and OT subjects.

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The application scenario we consider is the cooperative manipulation of a deformable object in 2D space.

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Finally, the clustering results are projected onto a 2D space and compared with the results of other 2D crack detection methods.

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Finally, we are able to obtain the detection result for the current frame by projecting the global target map into 2D space.

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The reflection line is digitized and the 2D space is paved by digital perpendicular (to the reflection line) straight lines.

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It is known that the fairly (most?) general class of 2D superintegrable systems defined on 2D spaces of constant curvature and separating in (geodesic) polar coordinates is specified by two types of radial potentials (oscillator or (generalized) Kepler ones) and by corresponding families of angular potentials.

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Secondly, 1D Müntz spectral method is extended to the 2D space-fractional convection-diffusion equation.

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All four cases have been investigated by using finite element method based software in 2D space dimension.