We consider the robots moving in the three-dimensional space and the two-dimensional space (3D and 2D space, respectively) and introduce the notion of symmetricity of a set of points that represents the set of rotation groups that the robots cannot resolve.
The sensor records event streams as a sequence of tuples [t, x, y, p], where t is the timestamp of the event, (x, y) is the pixel coordinates of the event in 2D space and p is the polarity of the event indicating the brightness change.
We believe this method overcomes critical barriers to clinical translation of iOCT and offers advantages over previous approaches by 1) reducing the instrument-tracking problem to 2D space, which is more efficient than 3D tracking or pose-estimation, and allows direct leveraging of the recent advances in computer-vision software and hardware; and 2) decoupling tracking speed and performance from OCT system and acquisition parameters.
We consider the fact that the individuals of prey and predator interact mostly along the perimeter (boundary) of the pack (herd) formed in a 2D space or along the total surface area of the herd in a 3D space.
Conventional time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques solve elevation correction and linear deformation rate by non-linear optimisation in 2D space, spatial baseline, and temporal baseline.
To discover principles by which robots can gain root-like capabilities, we constructed a planar, pneumatically driven soft-bodied robot, which grows from the tip like a plant root and can bend in 2D space by oscillating the inflation pressure of series pneumatic artificial muscles (sPAMs) arranged on its two sides.
To investigate whether dominant trends in such distributions occur, we consider the simulation elements in each dataset—per ensemble member and time step—as elements in the multi-dimensional parameter space, and use t-SNE to project these elements into 2D space.
The conversion method is derived by comparing the sound field created by a higher-order derivative of the free field Green’s function and the corresponding field expressed by circular harmonic expansion coefficients in 2D space.
Two forms of RbNbWO6 crystal stable at room temperature were found based on single crystal syntheses: a cubic form (Fd 3 ¯ m space group) with the modal disorder, and a tetragonal form (I 4 ¯ 2d space group).
The use of an active RFID system emulated environment with readers and tags deployed in a 2D space proved that RSSI based distance estimation is linear in short range and unstable in long range with distance variance of 1.
BIM is certainly useful, but it alone is not a satisfactory answer to the paradox: how does one design and visualize a 3D product in a 2D space? Augmented Reality (AR) is a disruptive technology that can help address this challenge.
Firstly, the gradient information of the depth image is obtained from the acquired depth apple image, the gradient vector is reflected from the 3D space to the 2D space, and then rotated 90 degrees clockwise, and the regular region forms the center of the vortex, which is the target fruit center to determine target fruit location.
These devices project the 3D subspace onto a 1D respectively 2D space, hence loosing accuracy and the depth of the SLN which is very important, especially in the head and neck area with many critical structures in close vicinity.
Firstly, cost map is constructed by computing terrain features under robot body and cost of selecting footholds at default positions, and then the trajectory of robot center in 2D space is searched using heuristic A algorithm.
Mirroring the 1-0 switch that underpins mammalian vision through selective geometric isomerisation in retinal, strategies to manipulate 2D space by both geometric and positional isomerisation of alkenes via chemical, thermal and light driven processes are being intensively pursued.
We propose and develop an EPIC framework to mine latent patterns from geoMobile data and provide meaningful interpretations: we first ‘E’xtract latent features from high dimensional geoMobile datasets via Laplacian Eigenmaps and perform clustering in this latent feature space; we then use a state-of-the-art visualization technique to ‘P’roject these latent features into 2D space; and finally we obtain meaningful ‘I’nterpretations by ‘C’ulling cluster-specific significant feature-set.
In order to enable the agent to effectively circum-navigate the target in more complex environments, we study a position estimator and an elliptical circumnavigation controller in 2D space by only employing bearing measurements without knowing the target’s velocity.
To be specific, given a group of workers and tasks that dynamically appear in a 2D space, the TOBM problem aims to find a matching with the maximum cardinality between workers and tasks satisfying the spatiotemporal constraints.
It is known that the fairly (most?) general class of 2D superintegrable systems defined on 2D spaces of constant curvature and separating in (geodesic) polar coordinates is specified by two types of radial potentials (oscillator or (generalized) Kepler ones) and by corresponding families of angular potentials.